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Full text of "The druggist's general receipt book : comprising a copious veterinary formulary, numerous recipes in patent and proprietary medicines, druggists' nostrums, etc. : perfumery and cosmetics, beverages, dietetic articles, and condiments, trade chemicals, scientific processes and an appendix of useful tables"

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druggists' nostrums, etc. 



Trade Chemicals, Scientific Processes 



fiigljt^ febitton 





It was the aim of the original compiler of ' The 
Druggists' G-eneral Receipt Book ' to collect 
from various aud widely scattered sources, and to 
condense into a volume of small size and conve- 
nient arrangement, a considerable amount of 
information that might be useful to Chemists and 

In the present volume the endeavour has been 
made to adhere to this design, and to keep the 
work abreast with the requirements of the 
Chemist and Druggist, by the addition of such 
new forms, receipts, and processes as have sprung 
into existence since the publication of the last 

The Veterinary Materia Medica has been care- 
fully revised and enlarged ; whilst in the photo- 
graphic division, obsolete matter has been sup- 
planted by the latest and most approved formula?. 

London; July, 1878. 



Veterinary Materia Medica 


Veterinary Formulary 


Medicines for Horses 


Balls aud Ball Masses . 


Electuaries, Confections, &c. 


Powders ..... 

. 63 

Liquid Medicines — Drenches 

. 67 

Tinctures, Solutions, &e. 


Clysters ..... 


External Applications — Liniments 


Embrocations, various 


• Lotions, or Washes . 


Caustics .... 




Eye Waters .... 


Sundry Solutions 


Poultices .... 


Ointments .... 


Charges . . . . . 


Powders (for outward use) . 


Medicines for Cattle . . , . 


Drenches, &c. .... 


for the Foot-and-MoutU Disease 


for the Cattle Phiirue 





Drenclies for Calves .... 127 

External Applications — Lotions . . 129 
Eye Waters . . . • .131 

Embrocations and Liniments . . 131 

Ointments, &e. .... 132 

Medicines for Sheep and Lambs . . . 136 

Drenches, &c. ..... 136 

External Applications — Eye Waters . . 141 

Washes . . . • .141 

Powders and Ointments . . • 142 

Medicines for Swine .... 146 

Medicines for Dogs .... 148 

External Applications .... 156 

Medicines for Poultry and Rabbits . . 101 
Patent and Peopeietaet Medicines, DEuaaiSTs' 

NOSTEUMS, &c. ..... 164 

Eactitious Mineral Waters, and Salts for pro- 
ducing them ..... 201 

Peeffmeey ...••• 211 
Distilled Waters . . . • .211 

Spirituous Waters, Eaux, Esprits . . 212 

Tinctures used in Perfumery . . . 218 

Extraits, Essences .... 219 

Common French Essences, Spirits and Waters . 222 

Ammoniated Perfumes .... 223 

Acetic Perfumes ..... 224 

Pot Pourri, Scented Powders, &c. . . 226 

Pastiles ...••- 228 

Cosmetics ....•• 231 

Skin Cosmetics — Lotions .... 231 

Pastes, Pomades, Cold Cream, &c. . . 232 

Face Paints . . . • • 236 
Toilet Soaps . . • • .238 

Shaving Compounds .... 240 



Hair Cosmetics 

Compounds to promote the Growth of the Hair 
Liquid ditto 

Poinatums, Lotions, for embellishing the Hair, &e 
Huiles Antiques . 
Washes for Cleansing the Hair . 
Compounds for Stiffening the Hair 
Hair Dyes 

Depilatories ... 

Teeth and Mouth Cosmetics 
Tooth Povvders 
Tooth Pastes 

Astringent Tinctures — Mouth washes 
Tinctures, &c., for Toothache 
Pastes for Toothache 
Cements for Stopping Teeth, &c. 
Beveeages, Dietetic Articles, and Condiments 
Beverages, and Powders for preparing them 
Dietetic Articles — Directions for using 
Preparations of Cod-liver 
Condiments, &c. . 

Curry Powders, Mixed Spices, &c. 
Culinary Essences, Tinctures, &c. 
Culinary Vinegars, Sauces, &c. 
Pickles .... 
Trade Chemicals ; Miscellaneous Preparations, Pro- 
cesses and Compounds used in the Arts, in Domestic 
Economy, Chemical Research and Recreation, &c. . 

Tables of Weights and Measures 

Comparison of Tliermometric Scales 

Effects of Temperature 

Specific Gravities 

Table of Chemical Equivalents 






Table of Composition, Equivalent numbers, nnd 
Formulas of some of the more important Com- 
pounds employed in Pharmacy and the Arts 477 

Table of Neutralizing Proportions, &c. . . 481 

Table of the Relations between the principal 
Areometers for liquids lighter than water . 482 

Specific Gravities corresponding with the de- 
grees of Baume's Areometer for liquids 
lieavier than water .... 483 
Index 435 


Table of the Properties and Doses of the Principal Medi- 
cinal Substances used in Veterinary Practice. 

N.B. — Where the doses are given without mentioning the 
animal intended, it must always be understood to refer to 
the Horse. 

Acacia. See Gum Arabic. 

Acetate of Ammonia Solution. Spirit of Mindererus. 
Diaphoretic and diuretic. It is also regarded as antiseptic. 
Dose, for horses and cattle, from 5 to 10 oz. For smaller 
animals, from 5 to 10 dr. Externally, in strains, ophthal- 
mia, &c. 

Acetate of Copper. See Verdigris and Copper. 

Acetate of Lead. Astringent and sedative ; in doses of 30 
to 40 grains with opium, in internal hemorrhage, chronic 
diabetes, and diarrhoea ; but chiefly used externally, in 
cooling lotions, eye-waters, ointments, &c. (For Diacetate 
of Lead, see Goulard's Extract.) As antidotes for an 
overdose, give Epsom or Glauber's Salts, with opiates if 

Acetate of Potasii. Diuretic and cooling ; dose for horses 
and cattle, 2 oz. In much larger doses it is a laxative, 
but not to be depended on. 

Acetate of Soda. Similar in properties and uses to Ace- 
tate of Potash. 

Acetic Acid. Strong acetic (or pyroligneous) acid acts as 
a rubefacient and caustic, but is rarely employed for thia 



purpose. Ill the weaker forms of coimnon or distilled 
Aiiiefrar, or diluted wood vinegar, it is frequently used. 
See Vinegar. 

Acids. See Miu-iatic Acid, Nitric Acid, Prussic Acid, Sul- 
phuric Acid, &c. 

AcFPrNCTrEATio:^. Used in some spasmodic and paralytic 

iEGYPTiAcrir. A preparation of verdigris and honey. A 
mild caustic, used as a local application to ulcers of the 
mouth, running tlu-ush, grease, &c. Internally poisonous. 

.SJtheb. See Ether. 

Alcohol. Poisonous to all animals — 2 drachms will kill a 
dog. See Spirits, Ai-dent. 

Allspice. Pimento. A useful stimulant and carminative ; 
used in cordial baUs and di-inks, and to correct the action 
of purgatives. Dose for horses, 2 to 4 dr. ; cattle, J oz. to 
1 oz. Dose of the Tincture, 4 ounces, in gripes. 

Aloes. Tlie most valuable pm-gative for the horse, but not 
to bo depended on for cattle and sheep. A horse recpures 
from 4 to 8 dr. of Barbadoes aloes, from 5 to 9 dr. of 
Socotrine, and from 6 to 10 of Cape. ilr. Youatt says 3 
dr. of Barbadoes are equal to 4 of Cape aloes. Mr. Mortoj^' 
considers a mixture of equal parfs of Cape and Barbadoes 
aloes to be quite as eificacious as the latter alone. But the 
fine gourd Barbadoes aloes are the most certain in their 
operation. If the animal be prepared by previous mashes, 
5 dr. are generally, and 6 dr. almost always, sufRcieiit. 
Mr. Blaine recommends 2 dr. every 6 houi-s till 8 dr. 
have been taken, as a nauseant and purgative ; but Mr. 
Youatt strong disapproves of tliis plaiC particularly in 
inflammation of tlie lungs. Aloes require from 18 to 36 
hours to produce their effect, during which time the horse 
should not lie ridden far or fast. Though not to be de- 
pended on for cattle, 4 to 6 dr. are sometimes added to the 
purgative salts. Large doses (in some cases sufficient to 
destroy life) have been given to sheep without purging. 
Small dogs require from 15 to 30 gr. ; medium-sized ones, 
a dr. ; some larger ones require 2 dr., or more. Hogs can 
bear but a few grains. Externally, in the form of tinc- 
ture, aloes is used as a stimulating application to wounds. 
Mr. FiXLAY Drx says : " Tlie administration of aloes should 


be avoided in cases of irritation or inflammation of any part 
of the alimentary canal, and in piles or liajniorrliage from the 
rectum. In bronchitis and other inflammatory affections of 
the mucous membranes, and in inflammation of the kidneys, 
it must be used with great caution, and in very small doses, 
for in such cases the intestinal mucous membrane is 
usually irritable, and superpurgation and inflammation are 
readily mduced. Dm-ing pregnancy, both in the mare and 
the bitch, the violent operation of aloes must be carefully 
avoided. Some practitioners give it both to foals and 
calves, but for young animals, linseed oil or castor oil is 
more suitable.'' 

Alum. Astringent and styptic. Given in doses of 2 to 4 
dr. to horses in diabetes and diarrhoea; but Bouegelat 
says that its too frequent use induces a phthisical condi- 
tion. A dose of alum whey, consisthig of 2 dr. of the 
powder in a pint of hot milk, may be given after excessive 
purging. Cattle require from 2 to 6 or 8 di'aehms in 
diabetes and red water ; and from 2 to 4 oz. are given to 
cows to dry their milk. To calves and lambs it is given 
in dr. doses, in warm milk, for diarrhoea, &c. Dogs, 10 to 
15 gr. Externally it is aj^plied to cracked and greasy 
heels, joint wounds, sore mouths, inflammation of the eye, 
chronic discharges from the nostrils, and to arrest bleeding 
from wounds. Burnt alum is more powerful, and is used 
as a mild caustic, mixed with honey, to fungoiis growths, 
sore mouths, &c. 

Alteeatites. Medicines which, without producing any 
considerable or immediate sensible operation, and without 
interfermg with food or work, effect a slow change in the 
diseased action of certain parts, so as gradually to restore 
a healthy state. 

Ammoxia, Caebonate oe SESQriCAEBOXATE OF. Volatile 
Salts. Stimulant and antacid. Dose 1 dr. to 2 dr. 
[MoiEorD says from 2 to 8 dr.] to horses in tympanitis, 
and the last stage of pneumonia. To cattle, in hoven 
(distension from the fermentation of green food), 1 to 4 
dr. [MoiEOUD says to 12 dr.]. The solution of carbonate 
of ammonia has the same properties as the spirit of harts- 
horn, which see. 


Ammonia, Aeojiatic Spieit of. Properties as the last. 

Dose i oz. to 1 oz. ; or to cattle in liovcn, 2 to 4 oz. 
Ammonia, Liquid. NV^ater of ammonia is more pungent 
and stimulant than the carhonate, and is used for the 
same purposes, particularly in tympanitis and hoven, 
largely diluted with water or some aromatic infusion ; but 
it is ciiiefly used extenially in stimulating liniments ; also 
both internally and outwardly as an antidote to the bite of 
vipers. The dose of common water of ammonia may be 
from 2 to 6 dr. ; or for cattle to 2 omices diluted. For 
small animals from i <lr- to li dr. diluted. The vapour from 
the liquid ammonia (applied by holding an open bottle con- 
taining it, to the eye) is used for the relief of amaurosis 
and other chronic affections of the eye. 
Ammonia, Acetate of. See Acetate of Ammonia. 
Ammonia, Mueiate of. See Muriate of Ammonia. 
Ammoniacum, Gum. In properties this gum resin is very 
similar to Assafcetida, but not quite so active. It is occa- 
sionally used for the same purposes, and as a constituent 
of various charges and plasters. Dose, for a horse, 2 to 4 
dr. Cattle, 2 to 4 dr. Sheep, 4 to 1| di-. Pig, i to 1^ 
di-. Dog, 10 to 20 grains. 
Anaxeptics. Medicines or food which restore exhausted 

Angeiica. The root in powder or infusion, is a warm 

tonic. Dose, I oz. to 2 oz. 
Aniseed. This warm seed is used as a cordial, carminative, 
and pectoral. Dose, for the horse, ^ oz. to 1 oz. ; or i dr. 
of the essential oil. The latter is often added to pur- 
gatives to prevent griping. Cattle take 1 to 2 oz. of the 
powdered seeds. The oil is said to be poisonous to pigeons. 
Anodynes. Medicines which alleviate pain. Opium is 

chiefly employed for this purpose. 
Antimoxials. Tlie preparations of antimony (besides their 
effect in pioduciug vomiting in carnivorous animals) are 
considered to have a special action on the skin and lungs. 
They are also termed resolvent, and purifiers of the blood, 
and are supposed to be useful in visceral and glandular 
obstructions, farcy, &c. Mr. Blaine says "they lessen 
arterial action without operating very sensibly eitlier in 
nauseating the stomach or greatly rela.\ing the skin." 


Some \\Titers attribute diuretic efPects to them. They are 
also said to promote condition. Pigs are supposed to fat- 
ten under their use. The principal antimonial preparations 
employed in veterinary practice are mentioned below. 

Antimont, CRrcE. Black (or sesqui-) Sulphuret of Anti- 
mony. Sulphide of Antimony. Diai^horetic and altera- 
tive. The levigated (prepared antimony) is to be preferred. 
Given to horses in doses of from 2 to 6 dr., with nitre and 
sulphur, in surfeit, hide-bound, and other skin diseases; 
and to improve the coat. Mr. YorATT says the dose 
should not exceed 4 dr. For cattle, the dose is sometimes 
increased to 2 or 3 oz. Dogs take from 10 to 30 grams. 
Hogs, a drachm or more, daily. 

Antimony, Liver of. Separ Antimonii and Crocus of 
Antimony {Crocus Metallorum) are occasionally nsed in 
veterinary practice ; but are micortain in their composition 
and action. Dose, 1 to 2 dr. Mr. Claek says these com- 
pounds, and the glass of antimony, derange the stomach, 
but that it is doubtful if they have any other effect. 

Antimony, Calx of. Diaphoretic. Dose, 2 to 4 dr. 

Antimoniax Powdee. Similar to James's powder. Dia- 
phoretic. In colds, fevers, inflammations, &c. Dose, for 
horses or cattle, 1 to 2 di-. ; sN^ine, 6 grains ; dogs, from 
2 to 5 grains. Less efiicient than Emetic Tartar. 

Antimony, Precipitated SrLPnrRET of. OxysxilpTiiiret of 
Antimony. Dose, \ dr. to 2 dr. in obstinate skin diseases. 

Antimony, Taetaeised. 'Emetic Tartar, Tartrated An- 
timony. Diaphoretic, expectorant, and reduces arterial 
action. It is also regarded as diuretic and febrifuge. 
Dose, 4 dr. to 1^ dr. in gruel, 3 times a day, in fevers, in 
inflammation of the lungs, and catarrhal affections. To 
destroy worms, 2 dr. may be given with powdered tin, or 
some other mechanical vermifuge, fasting, and followed by 
aloes ; or 1 dr. for 6 mornings, followed on the 7th by a 
dose of physic. Mr. White says he has not seen any 
good effect from it as a vermifuge. Cattle require from 
i di\ to 1 dr. Sheep from 10 to 20 gr. To swine and 
dogs it is emetic : the former require from 2 to 5 gr. ; the 
latter, from 1 to 3 gr. Externally it produces an emption 
on the skin. Formed into an ointment with lard, it has 


been rubbed ou externally in chest affections, but is dan- 
gerously irritant. 

Antimony, Butter of. Chloride, or Perchloride of Anti- 
mony. Used externally only, as a caustic in canker, &c. 

Antiperiodics. Eemedies against those diseases which 
return at regular intervals, as agues. 

Antiseptics. Remedies which counteract putrefaction. 

Antispasmodics. Medicines which relieve spasm, as opium, 
ether, camphor, ammonia, ardent spirits, &c. 

Areca Seeds. Areea Nut. Betel Nut. The seeds, or 
kernels of the fruit of the catechu or betel-nut palm. 
Astringent ; given for worms, especially in dogs. For 
horses, 4 to 6 <\x\ ; cattle, 4 to 8 dr. ; dogs, 30 gr. to 2 
dr. Should be made into a bolus. More effectual in 
coarse than in flue powder. 

Arnica. Nervine, sedative and diaphoretic. 40 to 60 gr. 
of the powdered plant (the flowers in preference) have 
been given twice a day for paralysis, amaurosis, rheuma- 
tism, blows, or falls, &c. A decoction may be used out- 
wardly as a fomentation to bruises, wounds, &c. 

Aristolochia. See Birthwort. 

Arsenic. White Arsenic, or Arsenious Acid. Very poi- 
sonous to all animals. In small doses, tonic and alterative, 
— but its operation requires to be carefully watched. It 
has been given, in doses of 2 gr., gradually increased to 
20, in farcy and glanders. Externally, is a caustic, but 
dangerous and unmanageable. Used in solution to destroy 
vermin in cattle and sheep; but it is not free from danger, 
Mr. Youatt remarks — " We have better and safer tonics, 
and better and safer caustics." The best antidotes are, 
moist hydi'ated oxide of iron, and calcined magnesia, in 
very large quantities, or a mixture of lime water and 
linseed oil. 

Assafcetida. Stimulant, antispasmodic, and expectorant. 
It is prescribed in nervous affections and chronic coughs ; 
also in farcy and worms ; and to increase the appetite and 
digestion. The dose is ^ dr. to 2 dr. ; but, according to 
MoiROUD, may be carried to 2 oz. for the horse, and 2 or 
3 oz. for horned cattle. Externally, it is api)lied to indo- 
lent tumours, &c. 

AsTRlNaENis. Medicines which produce a more obvious 


and cleelded constriction of the niusciTlar fibres than the 
simple tonics. 

Ateopia. a crystallizable alkaloid obtained from Bella- 
donna root. A most potent poison. When taken inter- 
nally it excites the capillary circulation, and acts as a 
general anodyne, and also as a diuretic. The sulphate is 
the most convenient form for use. The dose, in bolus or 
solution, for horses or cattle is 1 to 2 gr. ; for sheep, abovit 
^\jth of n gr. ; for dogs, -gj^th. to 2\jth of a gr. One tenth 
of these ([uantities suffice when the medicine is used i?tib- 

Balsaais. Natural balsams appear to act on the mucous 
membrane generally ; but are chiefly given as diuretics 
and expectorants. See Balsam of Canada, Copaiva, Peru, &c. 

Balsam of Canada. Diuretic. Dose, | oz. to 1 oz. 

Balsam of Copaiya. As a diuretic to horses, i oz. to 1 oz. ; 
as an e.xpectorant in chronic coughs, 1 or 2 dr. For dogs, 
I di". to 1 dr. 

Balsam, Fkyae's. Comp. Tincture of Benzoin. It is some- 
times given in ^-oz. doses to horses, in chronic cough, 
mixed with yolk of cg^, gruel, or linseed tea. But more 
freqiiently applied to wounds, indolent ulcers, &c. 

Balsam of Locatelli. Dose, -3- oz. in old coughs. 

Balsam of Tolu, and of Pebit. 2 dr. in old coughs ; but 
too expensive. 

Balsam of Sulphur. A stimulating ex]iectorant in old 
coughs, in doses of | oz. to 1 oz. Sometimes used as an 
outward application. 

Baebadoes Tae. Stimulant, diuretic, and expectorant. 
Dose, 1 to 4 dr. or more [2 to 4 ounces — Moeton], in old 
coughs and chronic chest affections. Externally in skin 
diseases, wounds, grease, &c. 

Bark Peruvian. Tonic, astringent, antiseptic, and anti- 
periodic. Dose, for a horse, 6 or 8 dr. [to 2 or 3 oz. — 
Moieoud] in diabetes, general weakness, a tendency to 
gangrene, &c. To small animals, 1 or 2 dr. Applied also 
to indolent and foul ulcers. 

Baeley. The decoction (of Scotch or pearled barley in pre- 
ference) is given as an emollient, demulcent, or diluent 
drink in inflammatory diseases ; more freipiently as a 
vehicle for more active remedies. 


Baetta. All its compounds are poisonous. The follo-n4ng 
closes have been given in farcy and glanders : — Cliloride of 
Barium, 20 gr. gradually increased to 60; pure baryta, 
10 to 20 gr. ; carbonate 1 to 4 gr. A dog was killed by 
15 gr. 

Basilicon, Yellow and Black. Resin Cerate. See Vet. 
Formulary (Digestive Ointments). 

Bat Bekeies. Stomachic and carminative. An ingredient 
in diapente, but rarely given alone. Dose of the powdered 
ben-ies, h, oz., or of the oil of bays, ^ di'. to a dr. The 
leaves are iised in fomentations. 

Belladonna. Deadly Nightshade. Narcotic and sedative. 
Dose of the extract from 1 to 4 di-. in diseases where 
there is undue action of the nervous and vascular systems 
[Mayoe]. M. Moieoud directs from 6 to 8 dr. of the 
powder. For dogs, from 2 to 8 gr. of the powder. The 
extract is also applied to the eye, to dilate the pupil. 

Bennet, Heeb. Avens. Tonic and astringent. Dose, of 
the powdered root, \ oz. to 1 oz. or more. 

Benzoin. Stimulant and expectorant. Dose, 1 to 3 dr. 
But seldom used. Externally it is applied, in balsamic 
tinctures, to wounds, ulcers, &c. See Tinctm-e of Benzoin. 

BiETHTVOET. A gentle stimulant, supposed to act especially 
- on the uterine system. Dose, ^ oz. It is given to cows in 
cleansing drinks, but it is of doubtful utility. 

BiSTOET Root. Astringent. Dose, 4 to 8 dr. [or 2 oz., 
Moieotjd]. The decoction is used also as an astringent 
and cleansing lotion. 

BiTTEE-SwEET. Dulcamara. Diui'etic, narcotic, and alter- 
ative. Dose, 5 oz. in decoction. 

BiTTEE Apple. See Colocynth. 

Bleeding. The quantity of blood usually extracted from 
the horse is from 2 to 4, or, in some cases, 6 to 8 quarts ; 
or until faintness is prodiiced. From cattle, from 2 to 6 
quarts, or till faint. Sheep, 16 oz. Lambs, 4 oz. 
Dogs in the proportion of 1 oz. for every 3 ft weight. 
[Or 1 or 2 oz. from a very small dog ; 7 or 8 oz. from a 
larger one. — Mr. Youatt.] 

Blisteeing Fly. See Cantharides. Blisters are applied 
in the form of ointments, or liniments, to excite super- 
ficial inflammation, followed by vesication j and are in- 


tended to draw away inflammatory action from more 
deeply seated but not distant parts. Also to excite the 
action of the absorbents, and to promote suppuration. 
See Blistering Ointment, and Liquid Blister, in the For- 

Blue Vitbol. See Copper, Sulphate of. 

Bole, Armenian. Slightly astringent, and absorbent. 
Dose, I oz. to 2 oz. in diarrhoea, bloody urhie, &c. A 
common ingredient in drenches to dry the milk of cows. 
Dose, 1 to 3 oz. It is also used outwardly as an astringent 
and desiccative. 

Borage. A decoction of the plant is pectoral and de- 

Borax. Detergent. Applied to sore mouths, mixed with 
honey. It is supposed to be a iiterine stimulant, but is 
not often used in veterinary practice as an internal 
remedy. It is a useful antiseptic. 

Box Leaves. They are given, chopped with corn, as a 
vermifuge. They are also used as a preventive of hydro- 
phobia. " (See the Vet. Formulary, and " Hydrophobia " in 
the Index.) The rasped wood is considered sudorific, and 
prescribed in rheumatic and skin diseases, and even in farcy 
and glanders. 

Bran. Mucilaginous, and slightly laxative : given in 

Brandy. See Spirits, Ardent. 

Briont. White briony root is poisonous, f oz. killed a 

Bromine. Poisonous. 5 gr. killed a dog. Its medical use 
is not well ascertamed, Ijut aj^pears analogous to that of 

Broom. The Spanish broom, and particularly the seeds, 
are supposed to produce inflammation of the bladder in 
sheep and cattle. 

BucKBEAN. A bitter tonic and purgative. The powdered 
plant has been given to sheep for rot, in 1-dr. doses. — 
[Dr. Paris.] 

Buckwheat. Slightly laxative, but chiefly used to fatten 

Buckthorn. Purgative ; principally administered to dogs. 
Dose of the juice^ 2 or 3 dr. ; but it is usually given in 


the form of Syrup. (See Medicines for Dogs, No. 8.) The 
berries are more active, but seldom employed. 

Burdock. Dim-etic and sudorific. Used, but rarely, in 
rheumatism and skin diseases. 

BrEGUNDT Pitch. Similar to resin in its properties. It 
is chiefly used outwardly, in charges, &c. 

Butter of Antimony. Chloride, or FercMoride of Anti- 
mony. See Antimony, Butter of. 

Cabbage Tree Bakk. ' Vermifuge. Dose, for a horse, 2 to 
4 dr. But rarely used. 

Calamine, or Lapis Calamixaris. Native Carbonate of 
Zinc. SUghtly astringent, drying and healing. Sprinkled 
on excoriations and sores ; and used in ointments, lotions, 
eye waters, &c. The greater part of what is sold is facti- 
tious, and only calculated to do harm. 

Calamus Aromaticus. Sweet flag. A warm stomachic. 
Dose, from 1 oz. to 2 or 3 oz. in infusion. 

Calomel. Alterative, vermifuge, sialogogue, purgative ; it 
also increases the action of dim-etics and diaphoretics. 
" It is employed in almost all animals in reducing and con- 
trolling acute inflammations, and appears especially ser- 
viceable in those affecting the serous membranes, as in 
pleurisy, common and jnierperal peritonitis, iritis, and 
rheumatism." — Finlat Dun. Iu doses of 1 to 2 dr. [20 
to 60 grains, Youatt], combined with, or followed by 
aloes, it is given to horses for worms ; or from 10 to 20 
gr. as an alterative, in skin diseases, grease, farcy, consti- 
tutional affections, &c. If too often repeated, it salivates. 
It does not agree with cattle (see Mercvu-y), but is some- 
times given, in doses of from 10 to 20 gr., in inflammation 
of the liver, and jaundice. Some writers mention much 
larger doses. On dogs it acts as a purgative, and often as 
an emetic, and it is very apt to salivate. The same 
applies to swine. Dose for dogs, 1 to 2 gr. [Never 
exceeding 3. — Youatt.] Many dogs are destroyed by 
calomel. Hogs require 3 to 5 gr. Poultry should not 
have more than a grain, in di«ded doses, in the day. 

Calumba. Tonic. Dose of the powdered root, from 2 to 
4 dr. 

Camphor is reputed antispasmodic, narcotic and diuretic. 
It assists the action of diaphoretics ; is frequently added 


to fever medicines to allay irritation ; and is used as an 
antiseptic in malignant epidemics, &c. Mr. Spooler com- 
bines it with opium in cases of lock-jaw. Dose, 1 or 2 dr. 
MoiEOUD says 2 to 12 dr. ? Its use is questionable where 
active inflammation exists. Externally it is used as a 
discutieut and anodjme, in embrocations, eye-waters, &c. 
Its vapours are thought to act favorably on old coughs. 

Canella Baek. a warm tonic. Dose, for horses, 2 to 4 
di". ; for cattle, 2 to 6 dr. 

Canthaeides. Stimulant and diuretic. Mr. Vines says, 
" Of all medicines given for farcy and glanders none 
equal cantharides ;" but they should not be given too 
early, nor without due caution. [Mr. Blaine.] Dose, in 
debility, 3 to 5 gr. ; in dropsy, farcy, and glanders, 5 to 
8 gr. daily, gradually increasmg the dose to 15 grs. ; sus- 
pending their use for a time when their diuretic effect is 
manifest. Of the tmctm'e, 2 to 3 di*. in incontinence of 
urine ; and from ^ oz. to 2 oz. in red water. The practice 
of giving cantharides as a venereal stimulant is reprobated 
by the best authorities. Externally it is vised in blistering 
and stimulating ointments and liniments. It does not 
permanently blemish, but this effect is often produced 
by other ingredients combined with it in blistering oint- 

Capsicum:. Cayenne pepper. A hot stimulant. From 10 
to 20 grs. may be given in weakness of the stomach, and 
from 20 to 60 grs. in flatulent colic, or m severe colds. 
It is also used externally as a stimulant. 

Caebolic Acid. Internally, in excessive doses, it is an 
irritant poison. Occasionally it is administered in medi- 
cinal doses for worms ; also given to dogs to stop 
vomiting. JExternally. — Caustic, disinfectant, astringent, 
and styptic. Used in canker and thrush in the foot of the 
horse, and for foot-rot in sheep. Said to render inert the 
virus of cholera, cattle plague, and other contagious dis- 
eases. For horses, of the fluid acid 20 to 80 minims ; 
cattle, the same; sheep, 5 to 15 minims; pig, 5 to 15 
minims ; dog, 1 to 5 minims, dissolved in dilute spirit of 
wine, or made into a bolus with linseed meal or common 
mass, Wlieu used externally as a caustic, it is applied 


luidiluted ; for other purposes it may be used in the form 
of lotion, liniment, or ointment. 

Carbonate of Ammonia ; Carbonate of potash; and car- 
bonate of soda. See Ammonia, carbonate ; potash, carbo- 
nate ; soda, carbonate. 

Caraway Seeds. Carminative and stomachic. Dose, i 
oz. to 1 oz. ; or double that quantity to cattle. Used in 
cordial balls and drenches ; and often added to purgatives, 
to prevent griping. The essential oil is used for the 
same purposes, in doses of 10 to 30 drops. Mr. Youatt 
considers caraway and ginger the only cordials required 
for the horse. 

Cardamom Seeds. Carminative. Dose, 1 to 4 dr. 

Carminatives are stimulants which by their rapid impres- 
sion on the stomach, &c., occasion the expulsion of wind, 
and cause relief fi'om pain. 

Carrots. Eestorative and alterative. Given to liorses as 
food after severe ilhiesses ; and in coughs, grease, foul 
humours, &c. Externally in poultices. 

Cascarilla. a warm, bitter tonic. Dose, 2 or 3 di: 

Cassia. A warm stimulant. Dose, 1 to 2 dr. 

Castor. Antispasmodic, i oz. has been given in locked 
jaw. Earely used. 

Castor Oh. Laxative. It is uncertain as a purgative 
for the horse, and sometimes produces much irritation in 
large doses. ^ pint may be given, with watery solution 
of aloes, every six hours till it operates. Cattle require a 
pound, or pint ; calves, 2 to 4 oz. ; sheep and swine, I 
to 2 oz. ; dogs, 2 to 4 dr., with syrup of buckthorn. The 
seeds are more active ; from 2 to 6 are sometimes given 
to sw^ne and dogs, crushed and mixed with food ; but 
from their effects on man, their use would seem to require 
caution. They are much used by the native Indian far- 
riers for the cure of mange. 

Catechu. Terra Japonica. Astringent. Dose for a horse, 
in diabetes, diarrhosa, &c., 1 or 2 dr. [Yofatt], or to 
1 oz. [Blaine] ; cattle, 2 to 4 dr. in gruel. [It is usually 
combined with chalk, opium, and gum. — Youatt.] Dogs 
require from 10 to 40 gr. In India it is said to be given 
in doses of 2 oz., for the purpose of taming vicious horses. 
The tinctui'e is useful in promoting the healing of womids. 


Cathartics. Purgatives (wliich see). 

Caustics. Solid or liquid substances which burn or destroy 
the part to which they are applied. The actual cautery 
consists in burning with an iron heated to whiteness. 

Chalk. Antacid and astringent. Horses require from 
i oz. to 1 oz. ; cattle, 1 or 2 oz. ; sheep and swine, 1 dr. ; 
dogs, 10 to 20 gr. It is often combined with catechu. 
Externally it is sprinkled on sores. 

Chamohile. a mild tonic, stomacliic, and febrifuge. Dose, 
1 to 4 dr. of .the powdered flowers, or an infusion of i oz. 
of the flowers hi a quart of water, in debility of the 
stomach, flatulence, and in the last stage of fevers, and 
influenza. It is the first tonic that should be used in 
convalescence. Ginger, or some other aromatic, is usually 
joined with it. 

Charcoal. Antiseptic. Used as an application to foul 
ulcers, either sprinkled on them or mixed with poultices. 

Charges. Compositions of an adhesive nature, usually 
mixed with tow, which adhere to the part to which they 
are applied, for some time. See Yet. Formulary. 

Chloral Hydrate. Hydrate of Chloral. In excessive 
doses it acts as a narcotic poison. In medicinal doses it is 
sedative and antispasmodic. It is said to possess the good, 
but none of the objectional properties of opium. The dose 
for the horse is from i to ^ an ounce ; cattle, i to 1 ounce ; 
sheep, 1 to 2 drachms ; pig, 1 to 2 drachms ; Dog, 10 to 
30 grains. 
Chlorate of Potash. Mr. Mortok 'states that Mr. 
Symonds found it useful in hoven and tympanitis. Dose, 

1 to 2 dr. 

Chloride of Lime. Antiseptic and disinfectant. From 

2 to 4 dr. in a quart of water, given to horses in flatulent 
colic, and to cattle in hoven ; and in putrescent diseases. 
Externally, as a wash for mange, foul ulcers, &c., and as 
a disinfectant, i oz. to be well mixed with a pint of water, 
and after a time decanted or strained. Mixed ^ with 
linseed meal it is applied in the form of a poultice to 
unhealthy wounds and ulcers. 

Chloride of Potash. Eau de Javelle. Recommended by 
French authors, for the same purposes as the chlorides 
of lime and soda. Dose, for hoven or tympanitis, | oz. 


to 1 oz. ; for sheep, 5 oz., in water, with or without the 
addition of ether. 

Chloride of Soda. Labarraque's Disinfectant Solution. 
The properties and uses are the same as of cliloride of lime ; 
it is perliaps better adapted for internal use. Dose, 2 to 
4 cb'. of the solution, gradually increased to 1 oz. or more, 
largely diluted. It has been tried in glanders. As a 
lotion, about 1 oz. to a pint of water. 

Chloeine. Antiseptic. A strong watery solution of chlo- 
rine gas is antiseptic— in large doses poisonous. It is 
used for the same purposes as the chlorides of lime, 
potash, and soda, but the latter are preferable. 

Chloride of Antimony. See Antimony, Butter of. 

Chloride of Zinc. It is a powerful caustic. A diluted 
solution is iised as a disinfectant. 

Chloroform. Used to produce insensibility to pain in the 
same manner as ether ; and as a remedy for tetanus. 
Mixed \^'ith spirit it forms the spii'it of chloroform of the 
B.P., and as such is given as an antispasmodic. 

CiNCHOXA. See Bark, Peruvian. 

Cinnabar and Vermilion. Native, and factitious red sul- 
pJiuret or sulphide of mercury. Alterative and vermi- 
fuge ? Dose, ^ oz. daily to horses, in skin diseases and 
obstinate coughs. Formerly given in large doses, as a 
vermifuge. Cinnabar of Antimony, so called from the 
mode of preparation, does not differ from common ver- 
milion in its properties. Care must be taken to get pure 
vermilion, as tliis compound, being used as a pigment, is 
sometimes adulterated with red lead and other poisonous 

Cinnamon. Stimulant and carminative. Dose, 2 dr. 
Cassia is usually substituted for it. 

Cloves. A hot stimulant, cordial and carminative. Dose, 1 
to 3 drachms in powder ; or from 10 to 20 drops of the oil ; 
the latter is a frequent adjunct to purghig balls, to prevent 
griping. Cloves are also an ingredient in masticatories. 

Clysters. These are injected into the rectum by a proper 
syringe, or a bladder and a pipe, either to unload the 
bowels, abate inflammation and pain, or to act on the 
system generally, when medicines cannot be given by the 
mouth. See Yet. Formulary. 


COLCHICUM. Poisonous to most animals. A diuretic and 
drastic purgative, chiefly used in rheumatic affections. 
Dr. Lemanx found it useful in constitutional ophthalmia, 
and in pneumonia, in doses of a drachm, t-n-ice a day, with 
nitre. According to M. MoiEOrD, the dose for larger 
animals is from 1 to 2 dr. For smaller, 6 or 8 gr. 

CoLOCYNTH. Bitter apple. It has little effect on the horse. 
It is purgative to dogs, and in large doses poisonous. 

Confection of Opium. Anodyne and carminative. Dose, 
4 to 6 dr., in flatulent colic. 

Confection of Roses. Slightly astringent ; but only used 
to form astringent powders, &e., into balls. Masses formed 
with it retain their consistence well. 

CoPAiTA. See Balsam of Copaiva. 

COPPEE. All the compounds of this metal are poisonous. 
In small doses they are tonic. The antidotes are white of 
eggs, milk, iron filings, or hydrated sulphuret (sulphide) of 

CoPPEE, Acetate of. Crystallized (commonly called dis- 
tilled) verdiftris. Caiistic and cleansing. Stronger than 
common verdigris. 

CoppEE, DiACETATE OF. See Veedigeis. 

CopPEE, DiNiODiDE OF. Tonic, and promotes absorption. 
Dose, 1 or 2 dr. daily, in farcy, glanders, swelled legs, &c., 
and topically, to ill-conditioned ulcers. 

Copper, Nitrate of. Sometimes used as a caustic. 

Copper, Sulphate of. Blue Vitriol. Tonic and styptic. 
In doses of f dr. gi-adually increased to 2 dr. or more, 
daily, it is given in diabetes, farcy, &c. Small doses may 
be given in balls with gentian and ginger ; larger doses in 
gruel. It has been thought useful in glanders ; biit Mr. 
Youatt says it is only proper in nasal discharges with- 
out fever. Dose for cattle, 1 to 2 dr. Sheep 20"to 40 gr. 
Rabbits (in sniflies), 1 or 2 gr. twice a day. Externally 
the solution is used for the foot-rot of sheep : and as a 
cleansing wash for foul ulcers in horses and cattle. Used 
also in the solid state to destroy proud flesh. 

Copper, Ammonio-Sulphate^ of. Tonic and astrhigent. 
Dose, 1 to dr. twice or thrice a day. 

Cordials. Warm stimulating medicines, such as spices, 
and the aromatic seeds, fermented liquors and spirits, &c.. 


which temporarily restore exhausted strength, revive the 
spirits, and rouse tlie system generally. The best modern 
practitioners condemn their indiscriminate employment as 
the som-ce of much mischief. For cordial balls, &c., see 
Vet. Formulary. 
CoEiANDER Seeds. A mild aromatic stimulant and car- 
minative, used in cordial balls and drinks. Dose, 2 oz. to 

1 oz. 

COEEOSIVE SrsLiMATE. PercMoricle, or Bichloride of Mer- 
cury. One of the most Adndent of poisons. In small doses 
it is alterative and diuretic. It has been tried in doses of 

2 to 5 gr., gradually increased to 10 or 20, in farcy and 
glanders, but rarely with lasting benefit. Externally it is 
used as a powerful" caustic. A dilute solution is employed 
as a wash for scab and lice in sheep, but the practice is 
not free from danger. Applied to wounds in cattle it has 
proved as fatal a poison as when swallowed. The antidote 
for an overdose is white of egg, or milk, or the hydrated 
sulphuret (sulphide) of iron ; with demulcent di-inks. 

CoTTOX Wool. Applied to blistered sui-faces, and in burns 
and scalds ; also to wounds, to protect them from the 
irritating effects of the atmosphere. 

CowHAOE. Vermifuge ; but has little effect on the horse. 

Ceeaji of Taetae. Cooling, laxative, and diuretic. Sel- 
dom given alone; but combined with autimonials, mer- 
curials, or sulphur, as an alterative in skin diseases : and 
used as an adjimct to aloes in purging balls. Cattle re- 
quire 2 to 3 oz. ; when given in larger doses it should be 
given in plenty of warm water. Sheep require \ oz. to 1 
oz. Dogs, 5 to 20 grains. 

Ceeasote. Tonic, stimulant, and antiseptic. Dose, 20 to 
30 drops daily, in gruel or linseed tea, in glanders. Ex- 
ternally in lotions and ointments, to fistulous wounds, 
unhealthy ulcers, &c. 

Crocts of AxTiMOxr. See Antimony, Liver of. 

Ceotox Seeds axd Oil. Purgative. The oil produces 
great irritation in the horse. Dose, about 20 drops : 30 
drops have proved fatal. The powdered seeds and the 
meal or ground cake left after expressing the oil, arc also 
used ; 3 gr. of the former and 5 of the latter being con- 
sidered equivalent to 1 dr. of aloes. It operates with less 


certainty, and produces more debility, tlian aloes, but is 
sometimes preferred on account of its more speedy action. 
It is usually given in the form of a ball, 20 or 30 gr. 
being mixed with 1 oz. linseed meal. Mr. Norton gives 
from 12 to 24 grains of the seed. Mr. Youatt prescribes 
30 grains of the powdered seeds in a drink, in tetanus and 
brain fever, followed by smaller doses (10 gr.) every 6 
hours. It will purge rapidly when placed upon the 
tongue, but is then likely to inflame the mouth. From 
10 to 20 gr. are sometimes added to salts in purging 
di-enches for cattle, in extreme cases. One drop of the oil 
purges a dog freely. 

Cummin Seed. A warm carminative. Dose, from 1 to 4 
dr. of the powdered seeds ; or from 6 to 20 drops of the 

CusPAEiA, OR Angustttea Baek. An aromatic bitter tonic. 
Dose, 1 to 4 dr. in debility, diabetes, diarrhoea, &c. 

Cusso, Kousso. The flowering panicles of Brayera anthel- 
mintica. Given for worms, especially for tapeworm. 
The dose for a horse is from -\ to 1 pound. For a dog, 
from 2 to 6 drachms. 

Cyanide of Potassium. It possesses the same poisonous 
and medicinal properties as prussic acid. Mr. Lafore has 
given it with success in a case of idiopathic tetanus of the 
horse J but it failed to cm'e traumatic tetanus. Dose, 
4 gr. 

Daffy's Elixir. Sometimes given in colic or grijies. 

Daley's Carminative. Given to calves in diarrhoea. 
Dose, \ a bottle. 

Detergents or Detersives. Kemedies which cleanse foul 

Diapente. A compound powder, reputed cordial and sto- 
machic. Too much of what is sold in the shops is almost 
worthless. Dose, i oz. to 1 oz. 

Diaphoretics. Medicines which promote perspiration. 

Digestives. Mildly stimulating applications, which excite 
healthy action in indolent ulcers, wounds, &c. 

Digitalis. Fox-glove. Sedative and diuretic. It reduces 
the frequency of the pulse and diminishes irritability. 
It is poisonous to animals generally ; 6 gr. will kill a dog. 
It is asserted, however, that it produces no effect on 



poultry. The common dose of the powdered leaves for 
a horse, is from 10 to 30 gr. Mr. YorATT prescribes 
60 gr., with emetic tartar and nitre, in inflammation of 
the chest; but its effect on the pulse must be carefuUy 
watched. To cattle, i dr. to 1 ch-. Sheep, 5 to 15 gr. 
Dogs, 1 to 2 gr. An infusion of the leaves is applied to 
inflamed eyes. 
Diuretics. Medicines wliich increase the flow of urine. 
Some of them, juniper, capivi, squills, broom, &c., appear 
to carry off water only; while the alkaline salts remove 
solid matters also, and thus purify the blood. Diuretics 
are employed to lessen the quantity of the circulating fluid 
in fevers and inflammations. The legs of many horses 
cannot be kept fine, nor the grease be subdued ^\'ithout 
the use of diuretics. Plenty of water should be allowed 
with them. But their too frequent use is injurious. 
Doa-aEASs. It is emetic to dogs. 
Dover's Powder. Sudorific to cattle, in rheumatism. 

Dose, 1 dr. 
Eggs. Nutritive and demulcent. Sometimes given in 
diarrhoea. They constitute the best antidote to poisoning 
by corrosive sublimate. 
ELATEBirii. It has little effect on the horse. 
Elder. An infusion of the flowers is given in catarrhal 
complaints. The leaves boiled with lard form an emol- 
lient ointment, which is a common application to sore 
udders. The fresh leaves of the dwarf elder are given 
(according to Bouegelat and Moiroud) with some suc- 
cess as a deobstruent and aperient, in swelled legs, di-opsy, 
and farcy. 
Elecampane. The root is reputed stimulant, diaphoretic, 
diuretic, stomachic, and expectorant. Dose, 4 to 8 dr. in 
chronic catarrh, dropsical swellings, indigestion, &c. 
Emetic Tartar. See Antimony, Tartarized. 
Emetics. Medicines which excite vomiting. It is scarcely 

possible to produce this effect in herbivorous animals. 
Emollients. Medicines which soften and relax the tissues 

of the organs. 
Epsom Salt. A cooling laxative. It is not to be depended 
on as a purgative for the horse ; but in doses of 4 or 5 oz., 
in a large quantity of water, repeated three times a day, it 


IS useful as a laxative and diuretic in inflammatory diseases. 
Cattle require from 12 to 20 oz., with ginger or any of the 
warm seeds. It is sometimes rendered more active by 
aloes or gamboge. Calves require from 1 to 2 oz., accord- 
ing to their age and strength. Sheep, ^ oz. to 2 oz. Dogs, 
from 1 to 3 dr. wrapi^ed in tissue paper. A large eleiihant 
takes a pomid and a half, preceded by a dr. of calomel. — 


Eegot of Rye. Styptic in haemorrhages of the Imigs, 
kidneys, and other organs. It pi'omotes parturition. 
Dose for a mare, 2 or 3 di-. A cow, 2 dr. repeated at 
intervals of half an hour. An ewe, 20 to 40 gr. " Bitch, 
5 to 10 gr. [Mr. Spooner says from 2 to 4 gr.], or an 
infusion of a scruple given at three times, at intervals of 
half an hour. Larger doses than the above are indicated 
by M. MoiEOUD. 

Eeehines, Remedies which excite a discharge from the 

EscHAEOTics. Caustics. Substances which destroy the sm*- 
face to which they are applied. 

Ethee. A diffusible stimulant and antispasmodic ; used 
chiefly in coUc. Dose, i oz. to f oz. ; cattle, ioz. to 1 oz.; 
dogs, 7 to 14 drops. It is used outwardly in cooling- 
lotions and eye-waters. The vapour, inhaled by means 
of a proper apparatus, produces insensibility to pain ; but 
some of the experiments with this agent have proved most 
unfortunate. Chloroform has almost universally supplanted 
it as an anaesthetic. 

Ethiops Mineeal. The mildest of the mercurial com- 
pounds. Alterative and vermifuge. Dose, 2 to 4 dr. daily 
in farcy, glanders, grease, skin diseases, and worms ; given 
alone, or with cream of tartar. For cattle, 1 dr. ; swine, 3 to 
10 gr. ; dogs, 5 gr. in mange. With an equal weight of 
prepared antimony it forms Antimonial Ethiops — a more 
eflicient preparation. 
Euphoebium. Very acrid and poisonous. Used in blisters, 
chiefly to economise the more expensive flies ; but irritates 
extremely. It is applied in the form of tincture and oint- 
ment as a local stimulant. 
Excitants. Medicines which quicken the circulation, pro- 
duce warmth, and render the orgaiis more active. 


Fennel Seeds. A weak carminative and diuretic. Dose, 
i az. to 2 oz. 

Fern. Powdered male fern is given in doses of 6 dr., fol- 
lowed by a mercurial purgative, for expelling worms. M. 
MoiEOTJD carries the dose to 2 oz. ; or 5 or 6 di-. for smaller 

Fenugreek Seeds. Emollient, nutritive, and stomachic. 
Dose, 1 oz. daily, to promote condition in horses, and in 
diseases of the chest. It is also added to the food of swine 
to promote their fattening. Used also externally in 

Forge Water. The water of the blacksmith's shop is some- 
times given as a tonic, or applied as a wash to ulcerated 
and cankered mouth. 

Foxglove. See Digitalis. 

Galangal Root. A warm aromatic, similar in properties to 
ginger. Dose, 2 oz. of the powder, or 1 oz. in infusion. 

Galbanum. Stimulant, expectorant, and antispasmodic. 
Dose, 2 to 4 dr. But rarely used, Assafoetida being 
stronger and cheaper. 

Gall Nuts. Astringent ; in diarrhoea. Dose of the powder 
for horses and cattle, 2 to 4 dr. ; calves, 2 dr. to 1 dr. ; 
dogs, 4 to 8 gr. 

Gamboge. A drastic purgative. The dose for a horse is 
said to be from 2 to 6 dr., but its purgative effect cannot 
be depended on, and it gripes. 3 dr. have been known to 
cause great prostration, and the horse being killed, marks 
of intense inflammation were found in its stomach and 
bowels. It is a bad medicine for herbivorous animals. 
2 dr. are sometimes added to salts and other purgatives 
for cattle. Sheep have been killed by 2 dr. A few grains 
are given to dogs to destroy and expel worms. 

Garlic. A stimulating expectorant. Dose, 1 oz. in chronic 
coughs and asthmatic complaints, made into balls with 
liquorice powder ; or boiled in milk. It is a common 
remedy for coughs and chest affections in all domestic 
animals. It is also reputed vermifuge. For the roup in 
fowls it is given in doses of 5 gr. 

Gentian Root. Tonic and stomachic ; in debility, after 
severe illness, &c. Dose for a horse, 2, 3, or 4 dr. of the 
powder; or from | dr. to 1 dr. of the extr.ict. (See 


Vet. Formulary, Tonic Balls.) Cattle, 2 to 4 dr. or more. 
Sheep, 20 to 60 gr. Generally joined with ginger. An 
infusion is recommended as a wash to ulcers. 

Ginger. Stimulant and carminative; a general ingredient 
in cordial and tonic medicines. Dose, 1 to 3 dr., or in 
flatulent colic 2 to 6 dr. Cattle, 2 to 6 dr. Calves, 20 to 
30 gr. Sheep, 30 to 60 gr. Tlie smaller of the above doses 
may be added to all aperient medicines. It is also used 
as a masticatory. Dose of the tincture, ^ oz. to 2 oz. 

Glass, Powdered. Used to destroy worms in dogs. Mr. 
Blaine recommends as much as will lie on a sixpence 
with butter. It must be in very fine powder. 

Glauber's Salt. Sulphate of Soda. Aperient and diuretic. 
Seldom given to horses as a purgative (Mr. Claeke says 
1 lb produces scarcely any effect) ; but is said to be useful 
in doses of 6 oz. 3 times a day, in epidemic catarrh. To 
cattle the usual dose is 16 oz., or from 12 to 20 oz., with 
ginger or caraway. It is considered more diuretic than 
Epsom salts. 

Glycerin. Externally its prmcipal employment is as an 
emollient in skin affections, accompanied by dryness and 
irritation, to excoriations, cracked heels, burns, scalds, and 
freshly blistered surfaces. When mixed with an equal bulk 
of solution of subacetate of lead, it is very serviceable in 
allaying irritability. Often added to masses to prevent 
their hardening. 

Goulard's Extract oy Lead. Solution of Subacetate of 
Lead. Solution of Diacetate of Lead. Cooling and 
astringent. Used externally only, in lotions, &c., in the 
same cases as sugar of lead. (See Lead, Acetate of.) For 
mflamed eyes, 1 dr. or 1^ to a pint of distilled or boiled 
water ; for other purposes it is made stronger. 

Grains of Paradise. A warm stimulant ; cliiefly used in 
cattle medicines. Dose, 3 to 6 dr. 

Gruel. A decoction of oatmeal. Nutritive and demulcent. 

GuAiACUM [Gum]. Sudorific and expectorant. It has been 
given to horses, in doses of 4 dr., in chest affections, farcy, 
rheumatism, &c. ; and to cattle in doses of 4 or 6 dr. But 
its utility is doubted. The guaiacum wood is given to 
the amomit of 4 oz., iu decoction, repeated 2 or 3 times in 
24 hours. 


Gum Aeabic. Emollient and demulcent. Used in inflamma- 
tory affections of the bowels, or of the respiratory or 
m-inary organs. Dose, for horses and cattle, 1 to 4 oz., 
dissolved in water. For smaller animals, from 3 oz. to 1 oz. 
It is also used to suspend in water insoluble powders and 
oils. Gum Senegal and gum tragacanth are used for the 
same purposes. The latter will thicken twenty times as 
much water as Gum Arabic. [For Gum Ammoniac, Ben- 
zoin, &c., see Ammoniacum, Benzoin, &c.] 

Haetshorx, Spirit of. See Ammonia. It is chiefly used 
as an ingredient in stimulating liniments, and for the bites 
and stings of venomous reptiles and insects. For salt of 
hartshorn, see Ammonia, Carbonate of. 

Hellebore, White. Poisonous to all classes of animals. 
In small doses, it has been strongly recommended as a 
nauseant and diaphoretic, in inflammatory diseases; but 
it requires to be very carefully watched, otherwise a fatal 
collapse may be induced. The usual dose is 20 gr. every 
foiu" or six hoTU's till nausea is produced, or the pidse 
affected. Mr. Youatt says it cannot safely be given in 
doses of a drachm, but that it is given with advantage in 
ounce doses in chronic grease. Externally, it is used in 
ointments and washes for the mange; but even in this way 
its use requires caution. It is also blown into the nostrils 
as a sternutatory. 

Hellebore, Black. The root is used as an irritating seton 
for cattle, and introduced into fistulous sores of the 

Hemlock, Spotted. A narcotic poison. In doses of a 
drachm of the powdered leaves, or of the extract, gradually 
increased, it is sometimes given to quiet obstinate coughs. 
It is also an ingredient in some old remedies for farcy, 
scirrhous tumours, and cancer. For dogs, from 1 to 4 gr., 
in coughs and cancerous diseases. A decoction of the 
herb is used as a fomentation to painful tumours. Water 
hemlock is a more virulent poison, and often destroys 
cattle. 31. MoiROUD says that ruminants bear hemlock 
better than other animals. Mr. Youatt considers both 
common and water hemlock harmless to the horse, though 
he admits that cows have been poisoned by the latter. 

Henbaxe. Narcotic and sedative. Dose, ' 15 to 20 ixv. of 


the powder [1 to 2 dr. of the extract, Moeton] twice or 
three times a day, to allay arterial action. On dogs it 
acts as on man : dose 3 to 5 gr. German horsedealers are 
said to give a plump appearance to diseased horses by 
mixing henbane seeds with their corn. 
Honey. Demiilccnt, emollient, and slightly laxative. Used 
in cough medicines, and to make up balls. Horses are 
fond of it. Externally, it is detergent, and is, perhaps, 
useful in defending ulcers from the air. 
Hops. Tonic and slightly anodyne, but chiefly used in 

HoREHOTTND. Sonictimcs given in coughs ; a quart of the 

decoction, or 1 oz. of the powder. 
HoRSE-EADiSH. Stimulant and diuretic. Said to be useful 
in dropsical complaints, and in recent epidemics attended 
with chronic inflammation. The fresh root is rasped and 
mixed with barley meal. 
Iodide of Iron. Tonic and alterative, promoting the action 

of the absorbents. Dose, i dr. to 1 dr. 
Iodide op Potassium, or Htdriodate of Potash. It 
possesses the same properties as iodine, but irritates less. 
It is often combined with iodine, which it renders soluble 
in water. The dose, by itself, is rather larger than of 
iodine — from 15 to 30 gr. twice a day ; to cattle, 5 to 10 
Iodide of StriiPHTTE. Used externally in scabies and other 
skin diseases ; also applied to farcy ulcers, and indolent 
Iodine. Alterative, and promotes absorption. Used ex- 
ternally and internally to reduce glandular swellings, and 
scirrhous and other tumours. 5 gr. of iodine, or 1-|- to 2 dr. 
of the compound tincture, may be given twice a day in 
farcy. Cattle take from 5 to' 10 gr., and from 1 to 2 dr. 
of the compound tincture. Dogs, j to 1 gr. twice_ daily. 
The compound iodine ointment is used to disperse 
glandular enlargements. It is rapidly superseding can- 
Ipecacuanha. Little used in veterinary practice, except as 
a sudorific, in combination wth opium (Dover's powder). 
A drachm or two may be given to horses in asthmatic 
affections. It purges sheep, purges or produces vomiting 


in the pig and dog. Dose for the latter, 4 to 20 gr. [Prom 
2 to 30 gr. — MoiEOUD.] 3 oz. killed a horse [Mr. B. 

Iron. The preparations of this metal are tonic ; some of them 
(as the snlphate and perchloride) astringent and styptic. 
The usual doses for a horse are, 2 oz. of iron filings, once 
or twice a day, with corn, or in a mash ; 1 to 3 or 4 dr. 
of the sulphate ; 2 to 6 dr. of the peroxide or carbonate, 
or of rust of iron, or of the powdered scales ; 1 to 3 dr. of 
tartarized iron ; and ^ to Ij dr. of the iodide, as an altera- 
tive, astringent, and tonic. Cattle, 2 to 4 dr. of the 
sulphate in chronic diarrhoea. For sheep, a sixth or eighth 
of the above doses. [M. Moiroud prescribes much larger 
doses than the above.] The tincture of perchloride of iron 
is prescribed in doses of 2 or 3 dr. for incontinence of 
lirine. The sulphate is sometimes used externally in 
astringent lotions. 

Jalap. Purgative, but has little or no such effect on the 
horse or other herbivorous animals. It is sometimes 
added to other purgatives, but probably without any benefit. 
Dose for swine, ^ dr. to 2 dr. Dogs, 1-5 to 40 gr. Cats, 
10 to 20 gr. ; but it is rather uncertain. 

Jamaica Pepper. See Allspice. 

James's Powder. Similar to antimouial powder, but con- 
sidei'ed more certain and uniform in its operation. Dose, 
20 to 30 gr. in fever and inflammatory complaints. It is 
also given to dogs as a remedy for distemper, 4 gr. twice a 

Kamala. Minute glands adhering to the capsules of 
Rottlera tlnctoria ; imported from India. Purgative, and 
anthelmintic for tapeworm. For horses, 1 to 2 oz. Dog, 
1 to 3 dr. Given in the form of bolus. 

Jatropha Seeds. The seeds of the physic nut {J. ciircas) 
are given as croton seeds, doubling the dose. 

Jfniper Berries. Diuretic and slightly stimulant. Dose 
for a horse, 1 to 2 oz., or 1 to 2 dr. of the essential oil ; 
for cows, 2 or 3 oz. ; sheep, i to I oz. An extract from 
the berries (prepared by evaporating a clear decoction, or 
rather a cold infusion of the berries, to the consistence of 
treacle) is much used on the Continent as a vehicle for 
various remedies. 


Kermes Mineral. A preparation of antimony, similar to 
the precipitated sulphuret (sulphide), not much used in 
this country but highly esteemed in France. Dose for 
horses, 1, 2, or 3 dr. For cattle, 4 dr. or more. For a 
good-sized dog, li- gr. gradually increased. 

Lard. Half a pound, ^\'ith warm water, is laxative and 
emollient. It is also used to make up balls, and is thought 
to prevent griping, as well as to preserve the consistence of 
the balls. It forms a common basis for ointments. 

LATJDANrM. Tincture of Opium. See Opium. 

Lavender. The compound spirit is carminative and cordial. 
Dose, 5 oz. in peppermint water. 

Lead. The preparations of this metal are poisonous. See 
Acetate of Lead, and Goulard's Extract of Lead. 

Lead, White and Red. Common ingredients in ointments 
and plasters. Also sprinkled on sores as desiccatives. 
They are likewise vised for dusting sheej) for the fly. 

Lime. Quicklime is sometimes used as a caustic ; the pow- 
der is dusted over foul ulcers, greasy heels, &c. 

Lime Water. Antacid and tonic. Sometimes given in 
diabetes, from 2 to 4 cpiarts. Used also as a wash for 
sores, and as an injection into the nostrils for glanders and 
chronic discharges. Mixed with linseed oil, it forms a 
liniment for bums. 

Lime, Chloride of. See Chloride of Lime. 

Linseed. Demulcent and pectoral. A decoction of the 
seed is very mucilaginous, and is used in colds, sore 
throats, and internal inflammations ; also to counteract 
the effects of corrosive and irritant poisons, and as a 
A'ehicle for more active medicines. Linseed meal is used 
for iMultices. Linseed oil is laxative. Dose for a horse, 
a pint, or a pint and a half ; for cattle, 1 or 2 pints ; 
sheep, 2 or 3 oz. 

Liquorice. Demulcent and pectoral, in coughs, &e. Dose, 
I oz. to 2 oz. of the powdered root ; or \ oz. of the foreign 
extract (Spanish or Italian juice). 

Liver of Sulphfr. See Sulphuret of Potassium. 

Lobelia inflata. It is poisonous to horses, and produces 
salivation in cattle ; but its remedial powers have not been 

LoawooD. Astringent. 2 or 3 di'. of the extract, or a 


decoction of 3 or 4 oz. of the wood, may be given in diar- 
rhoea, &c. 

Lotions. Washes. Liquid applications, wath which external 
parts are bathed. 

Madder. Formerly supposed to be used in glanders and 
farcy, and as a preventive of the effects of the bites of 
venomous reptiles ; but it is nearly discarded from modern 
jjractice. It is sometimes given to pigs, but with what 
specific intention it is difficult to say. It colours the bones 
of animals fed with it. 

Magnesia. Antacid and laxative. From ^ oz. to 3 oz. to 
horses and cattle, with some warm carminative, in flatulent 
distension. To calves in diarrhoea, ^ oz. Either the com- 
mon or the calcified magnesia may be used. 

Magnesia, Sulphate of. See Epsom Salt. 

Mallow. Demulcent. A handful of the leaves is boiled in 
a quart of water. More frequently used as a lavement. 
The root of the marslimalloiv is preferred; a decoction of 
2 or 4 ounces is given as a drink in both coughs and in- 
ternal inflammations, and used as a clyster, and as a 

Malt. Nutritive, pectoral, and alterative. It is given, in 
the form of mashes, in chest affections, when no inflam- 
mation is present, and in grease, farcy, and mange. 

Manna. Slightly laxative and pectoral. Dose, 2 oz. with 
honey, or dissolved in water, in inflammatory diseases and 
chronic coughs. 

Mashes. See Bran Mash, &c., in Vet. Formulary. 

Meecurt, or QriCKSiLTEE. The preparations of this metal 
are alterative, most of them purgative, and all apt to pro- 
duce sahvation. Dogs may be easily salivated, but grami- 
nivorous animals with greater difficulty. The editor of 
' Clatcr's Cattle Doctor ' says, " Mercury does not seem to 
agree with herbivorous animals, in any form or in any 
disease." The preparations in use are indicated below. 

Meecueial Lotion, Yellow. \ Stimulant to vmhealthy sores 

MEEcrRiAL Lotion, Black. ) and ulcers. 

Mercurial Ointment. Applied to callous swellings, en- 
larged joints, mange, scab in the sheep, &c. The weaker 
ointment is generally sufficiently strong. 


Mercury with Chalk. AlTcalized mercury. A mikl pre- 
paration. Dose, 1 to 3 dr., in farcy, glanders, &c. 

Mercurt, Subchloride of. See Calomel. 

Merctjrt, Bichloride (Perchloride, B.P.). See Corrosive 

Mercttry with Sulphur. Black Stdplmret, or Sulphide 
of Mercury. See Etliiops Mineral. 

Mercury, Red Sulphuret, or Sulphide of. See Cinnabar. 

Mercury, Nitric Oxide. See Red Precipitate. 

Mercury, Black Oxide. Dose, 1 to 2 dr. [Morton]. 

Mercury, Ammonio-Chloride. See Precij)itate, White. 

Mercury, Nitrated Ointment of. See Ointment, Citrine, 
in Vet. Formulary. 

Mercury, Acid Nitrate of. Used as a caustic. See 
CaiTstics, Vet. Formulary. 

Milk. Sometimes given in quantities of 1 to 3 quarts, in 
acute inflammation, coughs, and all internal irritations, 
especially those occasioned by acrid and corrosive poisons. 
It is a convenient vehicle for administering medicines to 
the dog or cat. 

Mindererus Spirit. See Acetate of Ammonia. 

Mint, and Peppermint. Carminative, cordial, and sudo- 
rific. A strong infusion of the plant, or the distilled 
water, may be given in flatulent colics. Dose, 1 or 2 
pints ; used chiefly as vehicles for more active remedies. 
Dose of the oil of peppermint, 20 to 30 drops, or to 60 
drops of oil of spearmint. A few drops of the oil are 
added to purgative medicines, to prevent griping. The 
other mints have similar properties. 

Mithridate. Cordial and anodyne, i oz. to 1 oz. may be 
given in flatulent colic, but woiild be injurious in inflam- 

Mullein. An infusion of the flowers is given as a demul- 
cent for the same piu'pose as linseed tea. A decoction of 
the leaves is used in emollient fomentations and cataplasms. 

Muriatic (or Hydrochloric) Acid. Spirit of Salt. Tonic 
and antiseptic ; but principally used to dissolve calcareous 
concretions in the bladder. It has been used in the 
pestilent epidemics of cattle. Dose for a horse, Ij to 2 
or 3 dr., in plenty of water, twice a day. Externally as a 
caustic, strongly recommended by Youatt. 


Muriate of Ammonia. Chloride of Ammonium, Sal Am- 
moniac, Kydrochlorate of Ammonia. Formerly used in 
influenza or epidemic catarrh. It is said also to have 
proved useful in farcy, and perhaps deserves trial in other 
chronic diseases. It renders the hlood more fluid. Its 
use requires caution. 2 oz. produced inflammation of the 
mucous membrane of a horse ; 2 dr. killed a dog, and 4 
dr. a rabbit. M. MoiROUD states the dose to be from 2 to 
8 dr. for horses and cattle, and for sjuall animals from a 
scruple to a drachm, largely diluted. Externally it is a 
frequent ingredient in discutient lotions to splints, old 
strains, bruises, indolent tumours, &c., in horses and cattle. 
It is also employed as an embrocation to sore teats. 

Muriate of Antimoxt. Chloride, Perchloride. See Anti- 
mony, Butter of. 

Muriate of Barttes. Muriate of Banjta, Chloride of 
Barium. Poisonous ; in small doses, alterative. It has 
been tried in glanders and farcy, with the usual ill success. 
Dose, \ dr. in milk. 

Muriate OF Copper. Chloride of Copper. Used externally 
only, as a mild caustic. 

Muriate of Lime. Chloride of Calcium. Alterative and 
resolvent, in glandular diseases ; but rarely used in vete- 
rinary practice. It has been proposed in glanders and 
farcy. In an overdose it is poisonous. We have not met 
with any specific statement of doses. 3i di'achms killed a 

Muriate of Soda. Chloride of Sodium. See Salt, common. 

Mustard. Stimulant ; but little used as an internal remedy. 
Flour of mustard, with or without vinegar, is applied ex- 
ternally as a rubefacient, to relieve internal inflannnation. 

Mylabris. Chinese Blistering Fly. Its vesicant proper- 
ties are due to the presence of cantharadin. Physiologi- 
cal effects the same as cantharides, except that it is said 
not to affect the kidneys when topically applied. 

Myrrh. Tonic, expectorant, antiseptic, and balsamic. From 
1 to 3 dr. to a horse, in chronic cough. To cattle, 2 to 4 dr., 
or more. The tincture is used for ulcers of the mouth in 
all animals, and to indolent sores. 

Naphtha. Kectified wood naphtha is used instead of spirit 
of \\ine, for making tincture of myrrh and aloes. This 


spirit may be given also in 2-oz. doses internally, forming 
an admirable stimulant and diaphoretic. 

Naphthalin. a stimulating exi^ectorant. It possesses 
many of the properties of camphor, and a solution of it in 
spirit may be substituted for camphorated spirit. With 
oils and lard it may be used in the form of liniment and 
ointment. The ointment is substituted for tar ointment. 

Narcotics. Medicines which induce stupor or sleep, and 
ease pain. 

Nauseants. Medicines which produce nausea, diminish 
arterial action, and thus abate inflammation. 

Nettle Seed. It is said when given with the horse's corn, 
to produce a smooth coat, and to impart an appearance of 
condition and liveliness. 

NiTEE. Nitrate of Potash. Cooling and diuretic. In colds, 
fevers, and inflammatory complaints of the horse, from 2 
to 4 dr. may be given daily, in plenty of water, or linseed 
tea, till the desired effect is produced. An ounce is often 
given, but smaller doses repeated are better. Cattle, 2 to 
4 dr. [1 oz. in 21' hours for some days. — Moieoud.] 
Swme and sheep, 30 to 40 gr. ; dogs, 4 to 10 gr. A 
strong solution is applied to gangrenous wounds. 

NiTEic Acid, Niteous Acid, or Aqua fortis. Used extern- 
ally only, as a strong caustic ; or largely diluted (2 dr. to 
a pint of water) as an antiseptic wash to foul ulcers. 

Nitrate oe Silver. Lunar Caustic. Tonic ; but rarely 
given to annuals, except to dogs in chorea, in doses of 
^ to i of a gr. Externally cavistic. It is the best ■caustic 
that can be apjilied to the bites of rabid animals. A weak 
solution (10 gr. to 1 oz. rain-water) is used to excite 
sluggish wounds, and to remove opacity from the cornea 
of the eye. 

NxTX Vomica. Poisonous to all animals. Given in doses of 
8 to 10 gr., gradually increased to 30 gr., in paralysis of 
the horse ; but its effect requires to be carefully watched. 
It has been tried in glanders and farcy, but without much 
success. In small doses it invigorates the digestive func- 
tions. The French veterinarians are stated to have some- 
times given Nux Vomica with good effect in amaurosis 
and stringhalt in horses, and chorea in dogs, particularly 
•when accompanied by debility. A few grains will 


destroy a dog. A drachm has killed a horse. See 

NuTGALLS. See (jall-uuts. 

Nutmegs. Stimulant, and perhaps narcotic. Sometimes 
given in coUc, but not much in use. 

Oak Baek. Astringent and tonic. Dose, ^ oz. to 2 oz., in 
powder, or boiled in water, for diarrhoea, diabetes, and 
debility in horses. To cattle, in dysentery, and in red- 
water (after purgatives), i oz. to 1 oz. The powdered 
bark and the decoction are applied to unhealthy wounds, 
&c. In France, a mixture of oak-bark, gentian, and 
chamomile, is used as a substitute for Peruvian bark. 

Oil, Fish. Common whale oil is a good preventive of the 
fly, and does not injure the wool. 

Oil of Spike. As sold for veterinary pm-poses, it consists 
of tm'pentine, colom-ed, and merely scented with foreigii 
oil of lavender. It is used in warm Imiments. 

Oil of Tcepentine. See Turpentine. 

Oil of Tah. See Tar. 

Oils, Expressed. Olive, almond, and linseed oils are laxa- 
tive, demulcent, and emollient. Dose, 3 to 16 oz., or a 
pint. In the latter dose they are given (especially linseed 
oil) as a substitute for castor oil : they are harmless, but 
rather uncertain in their operation. (See Castor Oil.) 
They are useful in poisoning by acrid and corrosive 
poisons. Olive oil is used, both inwardly and outwardly, 
as a remedy for the bites of reptiles and stings of insects. 
Externally the expressed oils are used in liniments and 
ointments. Oil of bays is gently stimulant and anti- 
spasmodic, but chiefly used outwardly. 

Oils, Essential or Volatile. The essential oils of pep- 
permint, cloves, aniseed, caraway, &c., possesses in a con- 
centrated state the warm carminative properties of the 
drugs from which they are distilled. They are frequently 
added to purgative medicines to prevent griping. Oil of 
juniper is diuretic, in doses of 1 to 3 dr. Oil of origanum 
is almost exclusively used outwardly in stimulating lini- 
ments. Oil of bitter almonds is poisonous. 

Oils, Empteeumatic. Oil of amber and other empyreu- 
matic oils are antispasmodic ; but mostly used in outward 
applications. The fetid oil, called Dippel's Animal Oil 


(or oil of hartshorn), is sometimes given as a warm medi- 
cine, in doses of 1 oz. (sometimes increased to 2 oz.) to 
horses, or a drachm to small animals. As an outward 
appUcation, it is sometimes added to powders against the 
fly in sheep; but injm-es the wool. Oils of paper or rag 
are empyreumatic fluids obtained by burning these sub- 
stances. Mixed with water, they are used in inflammation 
of the eyes, mouth, &c. 

Oils, Compound, See Oils and Liniments in the Veteruiary 

Ointments. See Vet. Formulary, 

Olive Oil. See Oils, Expressed. 

Onions. Stimulant and diuretic. They are said to be 
useful in colic and gripes. Externally used in poultices 
to promote suppuration. 

Opium. Anodyne, antispasmodic, sedative, indirectly astrin- 
gent, and in large doses narcotic and stupefactive, and 
capable of destroying life. In combination with ipecacu- 
anha and tartarized antimony it is sudorific. The dose 
for horses in ordinary cases is from ^ dr. to 1 dr. But in 
locked-jaw, spasmodic colic, and other urgent cases, it may 
safely be given in doses of 2 dr., and even (according 
to Moieoud) to 4 dr. Yottatt states the dose as 1 dr. to 
3 dr. In inflammation of the bowels, after bleeding, it is 
recommended to give 2 dr. at once, and 1 dr. every hour 
afterwards until it takes effect. To cattle, the dose is from 
10 to 40 gr. ; or in locked-jaw, &c., 1 dr. Calves, 10 gr. 
Sheep, 2 to 4 gr. Much larger doses have been given 
with impunity. Dogs require from ^ gr. to 2 gr., accord- 
ing to size and case. M. Moieoud says the dose for dogs 
should not exceed that prescribed for man. Mr. Blaine 
thinks they are much less affected by it than men. The 
dose of tincture of opium is (for horses) from 1 to 2 oz. ; 
of the extract 20 to 30 gr. Externally, opium is used in 
anodyne hniments, and is useful in inflammation of the 
eye. See Eye-waters, Liniments, &c., in Vet. Formulary. 

Opodeldoc. Soap liniment. Used externally only in sti- 
n^ulating liniments. 

Oeiganum. Wild Marjoriim. Stimulant. The essential 
oil is hot and pungent, and a frequent ingredient in lini- 
ments for old strains, and in blisters. 


Okpiment. Yellow Arsenic. Poisonous. Used, mixed 
with lard, for fistulous sores, warts, &c., l)ut is not free 
from danger. 

OxTMEL. Cooling and pectoral. "Used in catan-hal affec- 
tions. Dose, 3 to 4 oz. 

OxYMEL OF Squills. A stimulating expectorant. Seldom 
used in veterinary practice. 

Palm Oil. Emollient. Used in compounding ointments 
and liniments ; and of late much commended as a basis of 
aloetic and other balls. It has also been given as a laxa- 
tive ; dose, 12 oz. or more. 

Peppermint. Carminative. The distilled water and the 
essential oil are chiefly used. See Mint. 

Peppeh, Black, White, and Long. Warm stimulant, 
cordial ; the latter kind is cliiefly used in veterinary 
practice. It must be carefully avoided in inflammatory 
complaints. Dose for horses and cattle, 2 to 4 dr. For 
Jamaica Peppei-, see Allspice. 

Pepper, Cayenne. The ground pods of some species of 
capsicum. See Capsicum. 

Periwinkle. The i^lant, in decoction or chopped up in a 
mash, is said to relieve quinsy. Pulverized and mixed 
■\\-ith Etldops Mineral, it has been vaiinted as a remedy 
for glanders. 

Peruvian Bark. See Bark, Peruvian. 

Petroleum. See Barbadoes Tar. 

Pewter. The scrapings are given to dogs for worms. Dose, 
2 dr. to 1 dr. Tin fiUngs are safer. See Tin. 

Phellandrium. The seeds of water-fennel {Ph. aquaticum) 
are used in Germany in chronic catarrhal affections. Dose, 
i oz. to 1 oz. 

Physic. In veterinary practice this term is applied to pur- 
gatives. See Physic or Purging Balls, Vet. Formulary. 

Pimento. See Allspice. 

Pitch. Stimidant, balsamic, probably diuretic; but rarely 
given internally. It is more frequently used externally 
in charges and warm plasters. For liquid pitch, see Tar. 

Pitch, Burgundy. Stimulant. Used in charges, and warm 
and strengthening plasters. 

Pomegranate. The rind of the fruit is given (in decoction 
or powder) as an astringent to cattle in diarrhoea. Dose, 


from i oz. to 1 oz. Tlio bark of the root is used to de- 
stroy worms. MoiROUD directs 5 or 6 oz. to be boiled iu 
water for some hours, and tlie decoction given in divided 

Poppy Heads. Anodyne ; but princiiDally used in fomen- 
tations. (See also Syrup of Poppies.) An extract pre- 
pared by evaporating the expressed juice of the ripe cap- 
sules and tops, is said to be nearly half the strength of 
oiiium. Of the ordinary extract (from the decoction) 5 
gr. are said to equal 2 of opium. — Lebas. 

Potash Caustic. Fused Hydrate of Potash, A powerful 

Potash, Carbonate. Salt of Tartar or Prepared Kali. 
Antacid and diuretic. Dose for a horse, from 2 to 4 dr. 
or more. It is seldom given alone, but sometimes joined 
with tonics, stomachics, purgatives, and with other diu- 
retics. The bicarbonate is milder, and may be given in 
larger doses. 

Potash, Permanganate of. 4 gr. dissolved in 1 oz. of dis- 
tilled water, forms a useful cleansing wash for diseased 

Poultices. Ai-e useful in relieving inflammation and pain. 
See Vet. Formulary. 

Precipitate, Red. A mild caustic, and detergent to in- 
indolent and foul ulcers. 

Precipitate, White. Principally used to destroy vermin 
in the horse and other animals. 

Prussiate op Potash. Ferro-cyanide of potassium may 
probably be found useful in veterinary practice j but its 
properties and uses are not yet p-operly ascertained. It 
must not be confounded with cyanide of potassium, which 
is an energetic poison. See Cyanide of Potassium. 

Prussic Acid. Hydrocyanic Acid. The diluted acid of the 
B. P. (Medicinal.) A strong poison to all animals. 
Rarely used in veterinary practice. May be given by 
enema in tetanus. In medicinal doses, sedative, anti- 
spasmodic, and anodyne. Used in chronic cough, chorea, 
epilepsy, chronic vomiting, palpitation of the heart, and 
rheumatism. Professor Tuson jirescribcs from 20 to 30 
minims for horses. Antidotes. — Fresh air, affusions of 
cold water ; inhalation of ammonia ; iiioist peroxide of iron 



mixed with an alkaline carbonate. The dose Mr. Mobton 
states to be from J dr. to 1 dr. Mr. Yotjatt recommends 
a lotion composed of a di-achm of the medicinal acid in a 
pint of water, to allay cuticular irritation in dogs. 

Pulse. The following table, from Vatel, is inserted as a 
useful remembrancer to the practitioner : 
Table of the Number of Pulsations in a Minute in various 

Animals. — In the horse, 32 to 38 [36 to 40 — White] ; ox 

or cow, 35 to 42 [42 to 45 — Clatee ; 50 to 55 — Spoonee] ; 

ass, 48 to 54 ; sheep, 70 to 79 ; goat, 72 to 76 ; dog, 90 to 

100; cat, 110 to 120; rabbit, 120; guinea-pig, 140; duck, 

136 ; hen, 140 ; heron, 200. 

Ptjegatives. Cathartics or Laxatives. Medicines which 
more or less strictly promote evacuations from the bowels. 
Aloes is almost the only i^urgative for the horse, that is at 
once certain and safe. For cattle, Epsom or Glauber's 
salt is the most preferable. Aloes, gamboge, or linseed or 
castor oil, is sometimes combined vAt\\ them. Sulphur is 
used when a very strong purgative is not required ; yet 
this demands some caution. Refer to these various articles. 

Quassia. A tonic bitter. Dose, 1 or 2 dr., with a little 
ginger, in debility of the stomach. Its poisonous efEects 
on insects and small animals suggest caution in its use. 

QuiCKSiLVEE. See Mercury. 

Quinine, Sulphate of. Tonic. Dose, i dr. to 1 dr. 
recommended liy Mr. Moeton in the prostration which 
follows influenza. But too expensive for general use. It 
is given to dogs in chorea, in doses of 2 to 5 gr. 

Ragwoet. The herb is said to produce a kind of lethargy 
or staggers in horses and cattle. Externally it is used as 
a poultice in quinsy. 

Raking. Remo\'ing hardened fseces from the lower- bowel 
by the hand. 

Ranunculus eepens. Acrid stimulant. It is poisonous to 

Reed. The great reed (Arundo donas), and the Bankside 
reed (Arundo jihragmitis), are reputed diuretic. The 
former is supjiosed to have the property of diminishing the 
secretion of the milk. 

Refeigeeants. Cooling Medicines. See Temperants. 

Resin ok Rosin. Diiu-etic. i oz. to 1 oz. may be given 


daily to horses in tlieir corn, for swelled legs. The yeUow 
or amber resin is preferable. Externally it is adhesive 
and gently stimulatuig ; and is a common ingredient in 
digestive ointments, and in plasters and charges. 

Rhododendron. Supposed to be laseful in the rheumatism 
of cattle. Dose, i oz. to 1 oz., boiled in water. 

Ehubakb. Tonic and stomacliic. Scarcely laxative to 
large animals. From i to 1 oz. is given in jaundice, 
to horses and cattle. On dogs it acts as a pm-gative, but 
an micertam one, in doses of i dr. to 1 di*. 

ROSEJIAEY. A mild stimulant and carminative. The essen- 
tial oil is chiefly used in wann liniments and ointments ; 
but is sometunes given in doses of i dr. to 1 or 2 di-. in 

Efe. Stimulant, uterine, antispasmodic, and vermifuge. 
It is also supposed to resist contagion and poisons. A 
- decoction or infusion of 2 to 4 oz. of the fresh herb in 
water or beer is given for worms ; as an antidote to the 
bite of vipers ; with diiu-etics in farcy ; with box leaves as 
a preventive of hydrophobia ; and with camphor and opium 
in locked-jaw. The bruised leaves are put into horses' 
ears for the staggers. It is given to poultry for the cure 
of roup. Externally, rue is used in fomentations as a 
stimulant, antiseptic, and discutieut. 

Saffeon. Cordial, antispasmodic, and uterine; but too 
weak and expensive for veterinary use. 

Sage. Stimulant and tonic. In habitual relaxation of the 
bowels. The powder may be given in a ball, or the herb 
infused. The infusion is used as a mouth'wash. 

Sago. Nutritive and demulcent. Used ui the form of 

St. John's Woet. Vuhierary. The flowers were formerly 
an ingredient in Feyae'b Balsam, and other similar com- 
pounds. An infused oil of the plant is sometimes used in 

Sal Ammoniac. See Muriate of Ammonia. 

Sal Peunella. Fused Nitre. Its uses and doses are the 
same as nitre. 

Salicin. Tonic. Dose, 10 to 30 gr. 

Salt, Common, or Culinaet. In small doses it is to.iic, 
digestive, and alterative ; in large doses purgative and 


vermifuge. As a digestive, 1 oz. may be sprinkled on the 
horse's corn. As a purgative, or to expel worms, the dose 
may be from 4 to 6 oz. It is also a common ingi'edieut in 
laxative clysters. For cattle, an omice or more may he 
sprinkled on the hay, to assist digestion ; as a purgative 
4 to 8 oz. may be given, but it is not suitable in inflam- 
matory or febrile diseases. Sheep require 2 oz. as a pur- 
gative ; or smaller doses daily as a preventive of the rot. 
To dogs, a teaspoonf ul or one and a half teaspoonfuls will 
act as an emetic; smaller doses as a vermifuge. Half a 
teaspoonful of a solution of salt, as strong as it can be 
made, is given to poultry as an emetic in roup. Exter- 
nally, salt dissolved in water is used as a discutient, as a 
stimulant to old strains, and as a coUyrium in chronic 

Salts, Epsom and Glaubee's. See Epsom Salts, and 
Glauber's Salts. 

Saesaparilla, and China Eoot, are diaphoretic and altera- 
tive ; but seldom used in veterinary practice. 

Saa'IN. An acrid stimulant. The powder is given in doses 
of 1 to 2 dr. (with, or followed by aloes) for worms, but its 
efficacy is doubtful. Long-continued use of savin is re- 
ported to have occasioned the hair to fall off. Externally 
it is applied, ur powder or ointment, to warts. 

ScAMMONY. An uncertain as well as expensive piu'gative, 
far inferior to aloes. 

ScrTELLAEiA. ShuU-cap. Mr. Yoxtatt and others regard 
this plant as a preventive of hydrophobia. Dose, 40 gr. 
daily, gi'adually increased. 

Sea Watee. Laxative. Dose, 2 or 3 pints. 

Sedatives. Medicines which produce quiet, and relieve 

Senna. Purgative ; but rarely used in veterinary practice. 
5 or 6 oz. are required to purge a horse. 

Seepentaet. Stimulant, tonic, diaphoretic, and antiseptic. 
It is also supposed to coiuiteract the effects of the bites of 
sei-pents, &c. Dose, from | oz. to 1 oz. or more; but rarely 

Setons. These consist of cord, tape, or a mixture of horse- 
hair and hemj) twisted together ; they are inserted through 
a portion of the skin to excite irritation and discharge. 


Mr. MoBTON uses cotton cord soaked in a cantliaridal 
liquid. See No. 15, Blistering Liniments, Vet. F. 

SiMARXTBA. Tonic and stomachic, for the same jrarposes as 
gentian. Seldom used. 

Soap. Antacid and diuretic. Dose, 5 oz. to 2 oz. 

Soda. Prepared natron, carhonate, or suhcarbonate of soda. 
The common washing soda is generally sufficiently pure. 
Antacid and diuretic. Dose, 2 to 4 dr. It is sometimes 
added to aloes as a corrective of acidity, and to tonics in 
weakness of the stomach. The bicarbonate of soda is 
milder, and may be given in larger doses. 

Soda, Chloride of. See Chloride of Soda. 

Soda, Hyposulphite of. Action, uses and doses, as Sul- 
phite of Soda. 

Soda, Sulphate of. See Glauber's Salt. 

Soda, Sulphite of. Sodium Sidpliite. Internally : — anti- 
septic, dishifectant, and alterative. Given in indigestion, 
tympanitis, and in so-called blood diseases. Externally : — 
antiseptic, deodorising, and disinfectant. Employed in 
ulcerated sore-throat, and phage<;l£enic wounds and ulcers. 
Dose for the horse, 1 to ^ oz. Cattle, 2 to 4 oz. Sheep, 2 to 
6 dr. Pig, 2 to 6 dr. Dog, 20 to 60 gr. Frequently repeated. 

Sodium, Chloride of. The modern name of common salt. 
See Salt, Common. 

Soot. Some French veterinarians prescribe from 2 to 3 oz. 
of soot as a vermifuge. Also used externally in mange, 
&c. We presume wood-soot is intended. 

Spermaceti. Demulcent and pectoral. Dose, i oz. to 
horses in cough ; and to cows, after calving. Externally 
emollient, in ointments. 

Spider's Web. Externally, styptic. Internally, has been 
given to dogs in convulsive fits, in ^-gr. doses. 

Spirit of Hartshorn. This ammoniacal liquor is stimu- 
lant, antacid and antispasmodic. Dose, i oz. But more 
frequently used in stimulating liniments, and as an appli- 
cation to the bites and stings of venomous reptiles and 
insects. A diluted solution of Caustic Ammonia is mostly 
used as a substntute. 

Spirit of Sal Volatile. This also owes its pungency to 
ammonia. Dose, ^ oz. 

Spirits, Ardent, Brandy, gin, and rum are given as stimu- 


lants and antispasmodics, especially in colic. Dose, 
from 2 to 4 or 5 oz. -n-ith warm water. Eectified spirit of 
wine may be given in the same way, in smaller doses (1 to 
2 oz.) ; but is more commonly employed for making tinc- 
tures; and externally in lotions. 

Spirit of MiNDEEEErs. See Acetate of Ammonia Solution. 

Spieit of NiTiiE, Sweet. Sinrit of Nitroiis TltTier. Diu- 
retic, diaphoretic, and antispasmodic. Dose for horses, in 
fever, \ oz., 3 times a day. In colic, from \ oz. to 2 oz. 
Cattle, \ oz. to 1 oz. in low fevers. Sheep, 1 cb'. Dog, 
from 10 to 20 drops. 

Squill. A stimulating expectorant. Dose for a horse, 
1 dr. ; for cattle, 1^ to 2 dr. It is also applied in frictions 
to the abdomen. MorROUD has seen it remove ascites. 

Starch. Demulcent. Chiefly used in clysters, but some- 
times also in drinks. Dose, 1 to 2 oz., rubbed smooth 
with a little cold water, and then boiled in 3 or 4 pints of 
water. It is occasionally used in fomentations. 

Stavesacre Seeds. Poisonous. 2 dr. will destroy a horse. 
Only used outwardly to destroy vermin, either powdered 
and mixed vA'Cix grease, or infused in vinegar. 

Steel, Salt of. See Iron, Sulphate of. For the other 
preparations (so called) of steel, see Iron. 

Stimulants. See Excitants. Diffusible stimulants are 
those which produce a sudden and temporary excitement 
of the circulation and of the nervous system. 

Stomachics. Medicines which invigorate the stomach and 
l^romote digestion. 

Stoppings. Compositions employed to keep the feet moist 
and supple. The term is also applied to mechanical plugs 
for the feet when they are dry and diseased, as cow-dung, 
clay, tar, &c. 

Storax. Balsamic and expectorant. Dose, \ oz. Rarely used. 

Strychnia. The active principle of nux vomica : chiefly 
used in paralysis. Dose, 1 to 3 grains ; to be very cau- 
tiously increased if necessary : 15 grains have proved fatal. 
Dose for the dog, l-16th to "l-8th of a grain. 

Styptics, Astringent applications employed locally to stop 

StTBLiMATE, CoEEOSlTE. Perchloride of Mercury. Sec Cor- 
rosive Sublimate. 


Sfgae, Steup, and Teeacie. These are used to sweeten 
drinks ; and to give form to balls and other compounds. 

SuGAE OF Lead. See Lead, Acetate of. 

Sulphate of Coppee. Blue Stone. See Copper, Sul- 
jihate of. 

Sulphate of Ieon. See Iron, Sulphate of. 

Sulphate of Magnesia. See Epsom Salts. 

Sulphate of Potash. Purgative ; but seldom used. Dose, 
2 to 4 ounces, in colic, &c. 

Sulphate of Quinine. Tonic. Dose, | dr. to 1 dr. 

Sulphate of Soda. See Glauber's Salt. 

Sulphate of Zinc. White Vitriol. See Zinc, Sidphate of. 

SuLPHUE, OE Brimstone. It is in 3 forms — roU brimstone, 
flowers of sulphiu', and black brimstone or sulphur vivum. 
The flowers arc generally used. The black is very impure, 
and sometimes contains arsenic. Sulphur is laxative, 
alterative, and pectoral. Dose, to horses, as an alterative 
in skin diseases, grease, want of condition, &c., 1 oz. As 
a laxative, 4 or 5 oz., biit it is rai'cly employed with this 
view, and very large doses are not always safe. To cattle, 
as a laxative, 6 or 8 oz. Sheep, 2 or 3 oz. Dogs, 1 dr. 
in milk. Swdne, 2 dr. It is used outwardly iu ointments, 
for mange in all animals. As an alterative it is usually 
combined with autimonials and nitre. 

Sulphueet of Ieon. Sulphide of Iron. It has been used 
in ha?morrhage, dysentery, and worms. The hydrated 
persulphnret (see Ferri persialphuretum hydratum, Pocket 
Formulary) is strongly recommended by Bouchaedat as 
an antidote for metallic poisons ; also as a remedy for 
incipient farcy. Dose, 1| oz. to 8 oz. 

Sulphueet of Mercuet. Sulphide of Mercury. See 
Ethiops Mineral, and Cinnabar. 

Sulphueet of Potash. Potassii Sulphidum. Sulphuret 
of Potassium. Mr. Blaine prescribes 2 dr. with astrin- 
gents, in diabetes. In large doses it is poisonous. 

SuLPHUEic Acid. Poisonous. The strong acid {oil of vitriol) 
is used as a powerful caustic. It is also used in ointments, 
or mixed with tar to form an external application. In 
small doses, about 1 to 2 dr., iilentifuUy diluted ; it is 
rarely given as a tonic. The diluted acid (1 oz. to a pint) 
is used as a lotion in grease, foul ulcers, &c. 


SuPEETAETRATE (Bitabteate) OF PoTASH. See Cream of 

SYEtrp OF BrcKTHOEN. Purgative. Seldom given to horses, 
except when used in forming powders into balls. Dose 
for cattle 2 oz. to 4 oz. -with castor oil. A common physic 
for dogs ; dose, 2 to 4 dr. 

Syeup of Poppies. A mild anodyne and sedative. Dose 
for dogs, 1 dr. Seldom given to large animals. 

Tannin (ob Tannic Acid). The astringent principle of 
nutgalls. A powerful astringent in diarrhoea, &c. Dose, 
5 to 10 gr. Catechu is more generally used. 

Tansy. Tonic and vermifuge. Externally in fomenta- 

Tar. Internally in old coughs, from 2 to 4 dr. Externally 
it is cleansing and gently stimulating. It is particularly 
useful in thrushes and all diseases and wounds of the feet, 
both of horse and cattle, to punctured wounds, and for the 
cure of mange and other skin diseases. Mixed with fish 
oil, it is applied with a brush to hard, brittle feet. Tar 
water (see Pocket Formulary) is also given in chronic 
coughs. Oil or spirit of tar is used in mange ointments, 
and as a dressing for sheep. The latter requires some 
caution, sheep having been killed by it. 

Tar, Baebadoes. A black liquid bitumen exuding from the 
earth. Its properties for the most part resemble those of 

Taetae Emetic. See Antimony, Tartarized. 

Tea. " Tonic, in simple indigestion, or when connected with 
staggers" (Delafond). Dose, 4 to 6 dr. infused in 3 or 
4 pints of water. 

Temperants. Medicines which moderate the circulation, 
and reduce animal heat. 

Tin. Vermifuge. A di'achm of the filings daily to dogs. 
A horse requires from 1 to 3 oz. 

Tobacco. An acro-narcotic poison. In small doses, diuretic 
and emetic. Principally used as a wash for the mange, 
and to destroy lice and fly in sheep. But it is not 
altogether safe, as it is apt to be absorbed. It vomits the 
dog, pig, and cat ; but there are safer emetics. Herbi- 
vorous animals are less readily affected by it, but instances 
of its having proved fatal to them are recorded. In some 


parts of France, jockeys are said to stupefy vicious horses 
for sale, by tobacco infused in spirits. 

Tonics. Medicines wliich give tone to the fibres, and 
invigorate the system when relaxed and debilitated. The 
principal tonics used in veterinary medicines are gentian, 
Peruvian bark, chamomile and other vegetable bitters and 
astringents ; and the preparations of iron, copper, arsenic, 
zinc, &c. The over free use of them, particularly when 
fever and inflammation are present is a frequent source of 

TORMENTIL Root. Astringent. Dose, 1 oz. to 1^ oz. Its 
presence in pastures is supposed to prevent the rot in sheep. 

TuEBiTH, Mineral. Suhsulphate of Mercury. An irritating 
purgative, and in large doses poisonous. Dose, ^ dr. in 
farcy. Given to dogs as an emetic ; dose, 1 gr. to 3 gr. 

Turmeric. A weak aromatic stimulant. Supposed to be 
useful in jaundice or yellows. Dose, 1 oz. 

Turpentines. They are all stimulant, diuretic, and expec- 
torant ; and in larger doses, vermifuge and purgative. 
Dose of common turpentine, 4 oz. to 1 oz. They are used 
in digestive ointments. Oil or spirit or turpentine is a 
more stimulating diuretic, in doses of 2 to 4 dr. ; it is also 
considered efficacious as an antispasmodic in colic (gripes), 
and as a remedy for worms. Dose for the latter purposes 
from 2 oz. to 4 oz., or sometimes still larger doses. 
To cattle (in hooze, from worms in the bronchial passages), 
about 2 oz. To sheep, in rot, 1 dr. It is not a safe medi- 
cine for dogs ; but is sometimes given in doses of 2 dr. 
with olive oil. Externally it is used in stimulating lini- 
ments, embrocations, ointments, &c. It is very irritating 
to the skin of the horse, and also of the dog, instantly 
producing great excitement. Like the common and 
Venice turpentine, it enters into the composition of some 
digestive ointments. 

UvA Ursi. Bearlerry. Astringent. Dose, 4 to 6 dr. m 
diabetes. Girarde says it inflames the stomach. 

Valerian. A stimulant acting chiefly on the nervous 
system. Dose, for horses and cattle 1 to 4 oz. in powder. 
2 oz. twice a day have been given to a horse without any 
observable effect. In dogs it is said to act as a vermifuge. 
Pose, 1 to 4 dr. 


Y'EEDIGEIS. Suhacetate [or Biacetate) of Copper. Tonic, 
caustic, poisouoiis. It lias been given in doses of 1 dr. 
to 2 dr. daily, in farcy and glanders. Externally deter- 
gent and caustic, in ointment, and in tlie form of ^gyp- 
tiacum. The crystallized acetate of copper is more 
powerful in its action. 

VEEJnCE. Properties and uses the same as of vinegar ; but 
preferred by some for outward use. 

Veemilion. See Cimiabar. 

YiXEGAE. Diaphoretic, cooling, and antiseptic. In com- 
bination with honey, it is used in coughs. In large 
quantities, it irritates the stomach ; a pint is said to have 
destroyed a horse. It should always be plentifully diluted. 
Vinegar which contains much sulphuric acid should be 
avoided. It is chiefly used as an external application, as 
a lotion for strains, bruises, sprains, and inflammations ; and 
hot as a revulsive. The vapours are thought to possess dis- 
infecting properties, but are less effectual than chlorine. 

ViTEiOLATED Zixc. White Vitriol. See Zinc, Sulphate of. 

ViTEiOL, Blue. See Sulphate of Copper. 

Walxxtt. The green shells are astringent, and sometimes 
applied, bruised, as a cataplasm, or in a decoction as a 

Water. Besides its use as a drink, and as a vehicle for 
medicine, water is used remedially, on the hydropathic 
system. Bags wetted with cold water, and well covered 
with dry ones, are used to produce perspii'ation, their opera- 
tion being assisted by copious draughts of cold water, adding 
4 oz. of sweet spirit of nitre to each pailful. This treat- 
ment is said to have succeeded in epidemics of pleuro- 

Wax. Chiefly used in making cerates, plasters, charges, &c. 

Whet. A cooling and nutritive drink in inflammatory dis- 
eases, and (luring convalescence from them. 

Willow Baek. Possesses in some degree the same pro- 
perties as Peruvian bark. Dose, in powder or decoction, 
1 to 4 oz. 

Wine. Stimulant. In wine countries it is frequently given 
as a restorative. Port -wine has been given as an astrin- 
gent in obstinate diarrhoeas. Dose for horses and cattle, 
i pint to a bottle. 


Winter Baek. A warm tonic and stomachic. Doee, 2 to 
6 dr. 

WOLFS-BANE. Aconite, MonJcsliOod. A ^•irulent poison. 

WoEM-wooB. A bitter tonic and vermifuge. An infusion of 
from 2 to 4 oz. of the dry, or twice as much as the fresh 
herb, may be given in dropsy, and diseases of general 
debility ; or from 2 to 4 dr. of the powder may be given 
in a ball. A few drops of the essential oil are often added 
to aloes, &c. for worms. 

WoET. See Malt. 

Yew. It is not used medicinally. The leaves are poisonous 
to horses and cattle, producing symptoms which resemble 
those of appoplexy. To counteract its efPect, it is recom- 
mended to give 10 gr. of croton meal, and afterwards 
drenches of "gruel and vinegar. The croton to bo re- 
peated in 6 hours if it has not operated. 

Zedoaet. a weak aromatic stimulant, formerly prescribed 
in jaundice, but now rarely employed. It is weaker than 

Zixc Carboxate. Applied externally as a desslcant, stimu- 
lant and astringent. 

Zinc, Chloride of. In solution this constitutes Sir W. 
Burnett's disinfecting fluid. Much diluted it is applied 
as a detergent lotion to foul ulcers. The dry salt is a 
powerful caustic. 

Zinc, Oxide of. Floiuers of Zinc. A mild astringent and 
tonic ; dose i^ oz. ; but chiefly used in dusting ulcers and 
excoriations, to promote skinning. 

Zinc, Sttlphate of. White Vitrol. Tonic. Dose, for the 
horse, 1 to 4 dr., frequently combined with cantharides, 
Externally, astringent, detersive, styjitic, and healing; 
in lotions and ointments, to indolent ulcers, grease, &c.. 
It is a frequent ingredient in eye-waters, — about 3 gr. to 
an ounce of water. A saturated solution is used as an 
injection for quitters. 


glcMcints for fors^s 


The roots, seeds, and other dry substances are to be reduced 
to powder; and it is of importance that the aromatic 
seeds, especially, should have been recently powdered. 
The drugs should be of good quality. It is hoped that 
the trash sold as horse-powders will not much longer be 
known in establishments which have any pretensions 
to respectability. After this general notice, it will be 
unnecessary to occupy space by repeating the words 
" powdered," " freshly powdered," " genuine," &c. Balls 
should not be too hard, but merely stifB enough to retain 
their form, and should be wrapped in soft paper. 

[J/ofZe of Administering Balls. — The horse should be backed 
into the stall, the tongue drawn gently out with the left 
hand on the off side of the mouth, and then fixed by 
pressing the fingers against the side of the lower jaw. 
The ball, being now taken between the tips of the fingers 
of the right hand, must be passed rapidly np the mouth, 
as near the palate as possible, until it reaches the root of 
the tongue ; it must then be delivered with a slight jerk, 
so, that, the hand being immediately withdrawn, and the 
tongue liberated, the ball may be forced through the 
pharynx into the oesophagus. A slight tap under the chin 
may then be given, or a draught of water to assist in 
carrying it down.] 


COMMON MASS, as a basis for balls in general. Mix with 
the hand equal weights of linseed meal and treacle, and 
add a little palm oil. — Cheery. 

ALTERATIVE BALLS. The term alterative is applied to 
medicines which, -nithout any sensible operation, or with 
a laxative or diuretic operation so gradual as not to inter- 
fere with the usual work or diet, produce a favorable 
change in the system, and, in common language, " purify 
the blood." Alterative balls are given in skin diseases, 
swelled legs, grease, foul humours, &c. ; usually 1 daily 
or every other day. 

Diuretic Alterative Balls. 1. Di'ied common soda 1 oz., 
Castile soap 6 dr., resin 2 oz., liquorice powder i oz., Bar- 
badoes tar to form 6 balls ; 1 daily. — White. 

2. Acetate of potash \ oz., resin |- oz., fenugreek 1 oz., 
treacle enough to form a mass for 2 balls ; 1 daily. 

Laxative Alterative Balls. 1. Aloes 4 oz., soft soap 4 oz., 
common mass 24 oz. ; mix ; dose, 1 oz. — V. C. 

2. Socotrine aloes 8 oz., soft soap 8 oz., common mass 
16 oz. ; mix ; dose, 1 oz. — V. C. 

3. Aloes 10 dr., soap 12 dr., caraways 12 dr., ginger 
4 dr., treacle q. s. for 4 balls ; 1 daily. — White. 

4. Aloes 1 dr., diuretic mass (see balls, No. 1 or 3) 9 

9. Antlmonial powder 1 dr., aloes 1 or 2 dr., diuretic 
mass (see balls. No. 1 or 3) 1 oz. 
Antimonial or Diaphoretic Alterative Balls. 1. Levigated 
antimony 2 or 4 dr., caraway seeds 4 dr., treacle q. s. to 
form a ball. — White. 

2. Prepared antimony 2 dr., nitre 3 dr., sulphur 2 dr., 
linseed meal 2 dr., palm oil to form a mass ; one every 
night, in megrims. — Clatee. 

3. Tartarizcd antimony 2 dr., elecampane 2 oz., guaia- 
cum 6 dr., sulpluu- 1 oz., treacle and flour to form 6 balls ; 
one daily. 

4. Tai-tarized antimony 3 dr., ginger a scruple, soap 
1 oz. For 3 balls,- one every other mornuig.— Vines. 

5. Emetic tartar, 5 oz., ginger 3 oz., opium 1 oz., and 
syrup to make 16 balls. 

Mercurial Alterative Balls. 1. Ethiops mineral 4 oz., 


sulijhur, prepared antimony, cream of tartar, cimiabar, of 
each 5 oz., honey to form a mass for 12 balls ; 1 every 
morning for a month in farcy. — TapliN. 

2. Calomel i dr., aloes 1 dr., Castile soap 2 dr., oil of 
jmiiper 30 drops, syrup to form a ball. — White. 

3. Blue pill 1 dr., black antimony 2 dr., diui'etic mass 4 
cli'., aloes 1 di\ ; for a ball daily. 

4. In grease : prepared antimony, sulphm", nitre, Ethiops 
mineral, of each 3 oz., Castile soap 10 oz., oil of juniper 
3 dr., syrup of honey q. s. for 12 balls ; 1 every morning 
for 2 or 3 weeks. — Taplut. 

5. Quicksilver 2 parts, peroxide of iron 1 part, confec- 
tion of roses 3 parts. Rub together till the quicksilver 
disappears. Dose, 3ss to 5ij, with common or other mass 
q. s. — Dr. Collier's Blvie Pill. 

6. Strong mercimal ointment i lb, powdered ginger 
3 oz., liquorice powder 10 oz., treacle to mix for 12 balls. 
— Feakcis. 

Alterative Tonic Balls. See Tonic Balls. 

ASTRINGENT BALLS. These are given in diarrhoea, 
diabetes, &c. 

1. (V. C. Asti-ingent Mass.) Catechu 1 oz., ciiiuamon 
1 oz., common mass 6 oz. ; mix ; dose, 1 oz. 

2. Peruvian bark 12 oz., grains of paradise 2 oz., gen- 
tian 3 oz., honey q. s. for 16 balls ; 1 every morning ; for 
diabetes. — Rtdixg. 

3. Catechu J oz., alum 3 dr., cascarilla 2 di'., flom* 2 dr., 
treacle q. s. — White. 

4. Catechu 2 dr., opium ^ di'., linseed meal 2 dr., treacle 
to form a ball. For profuse staling, 1 night and morning ; 
if they confine the bowels, add 1 dr. of aloes. — Clatee. 

5. Peinivian bark li oz., alum | oz., treacle q. s. For 
the same pm-pose. — Laweence. 

6. Oak bark 1 oz. (or Peru^'ian bark | oz.), opiiun 1 dr., 
ginger 2 dr., syrup to form a ballj for diai*rhcea. — 

7. Opium ^ dr., prepared chalk 6 dr., cassia Ij di'., 
tartarized antimony 2 di"., syrup to form a ball; for the 
same. — White. 

8. Nut-galls 2 dr., cassia I dr., conserve of roses to form 
a ball. 


9. Burnt rhubarb 1 dr., coinpomicl powder of chalk 
3 dr., common mass 6 dr. ; for diarrhoea. 

10. Tormentil or bistort 1^ dr., mashmallow root i oz., 
chalk 2 dr., syrup to form a ball. 

11. For bloody urine. Acetate of lead 10 gr., sulphate 
of zinc 40 gr., catechu 4 dr., conserve of roses to form a 
ball; once daily. — Blaine. 

12. Powdered opium i dr., soda 1 dr. powdered cassia 
or ginger 1^ dr., Horn- and syrup to form a ball. 

13. For diabetes. Catechu i oz., alum ^ dr., sugar of 
lead 10 gr., \\'ith conserve of roses to form a ball. See 
also Tonic PiUs. 

COUGH BALLS; Expectorant Balls. The foUowing for- 
mula; are chiefly intended for chronic coughs and thick- 
ness of \\'ind. The bowels should be kept open by mashes 
and an occasional laxative. Coughs occasioned by worms 
require a different treatment. Li coughs comiected -with 
inflammation of the chest, and epidemic catarrh, see Balls 
for Inflammation of the Lungs. 

1. Aloes 2 oz., digitalis (powdered) 1 oz., common mass 
13 oz. ; dose, 1 oz., twice a day. — Morton. 

2. Emetic tartar i dr., digitalis i dr., nitre I2 dr., tar 
enough to form a ball ; every night. — Yoxjatt. 

3. Powdered squill 1 dr., gum ammoniac 3 dr., opium 
i dr., syrup to form a ball. — White. 

4. Ipecacuanha 1 dr., camphor 2 dr., liquoi'ice powder 
1 dr., honey to form a ball ; to be given every morning. — 

5. Sulphur i oz., assafoetida 1 oz., liquorice powder 
1 oz., Venice turpentine 1 oz., for 4 balls ; one every night 
for 4 times. — Hinds. 

6. Calomel 26 gr., gum ammoniacum 2 dr., balsam of 
Peru 1 dr., p. squill 1 dx\, honey to form a ball ; one every 
morning. — Blaine. 

7. P. Marshmallov,' root and liquorice, of each 1 di-., 
elecampane, sulphur, and Kermes mineral, of each t dr., 
honey to form a ball ; t^^'ice a day. — Lebas. 

8. Squill 2 dr., gum ammoniac 4 dr., ipecacuanha 4 dr., 
opium 4 dr., pimento 1 oz., balsam of sulphur 4 oz., Cas- 
tile soap 2 oz., treacle to form a mass for 6 balls ; one 
twice a day. — HiNDS. 


9. Spermaceti 1 oz., balsam of copaiva 1 oz., benzoin 2 
dr., sulphm- 2 oz., elecampane 2 oz., p. squill 4 dr., emetic 
tartar 2 dr., syrup of poppies to form a mass for 8 balls. — 
B. Claeke. 

10. Liquorice powder i oz., liuseed or barley meal 1 oz., 
tar 1 dr., honey to form a ball. 

11. Castile soap, aniseed, liquorice, of each 5 oz., Bar- 
badoes tar 6 oz., ammoniacum 3 oz., balsam of Tolu 1 oz., 
honey q. s. to make a mass for 12 balls; one every morn- 
ing for a fortnight. — Tapiin. 

12. Digitalis 1 dr., nitre 2 dr., liquorice 4 di-., tar enough 
to form a ball. — Clatee. 

13. Digitalis i dr., camphor 1 dr., emetic tartar 1 dr., 
nitre 3 di-.. Unseed meal 1 dr., make up with Barbadoes 
tar, and give one daily.— Spoonee. See also Mixed Balls 
(Pectoral Cordial). 

14. Ex. belladonna J to 1 dr., aloes Barbadoes in powder 
1 dr., nitre 2 dr. Common mass to form into a bolus. 
For chronic cough. — TusON. 


1. Antimonial powder 2 di-., digitalis 3 di-., nitre 3 dr., 
cream of tartar 3 dr., honey to form a ball ; 1 every 4, 6, 
or 8 hours, in inflammation of the lungs. — Blaine. 

2. Digitalis 1 dr., emetic tartar li dr., nitre 3 dr., 
honey q. s. ; when the pulse intermits, reduce the dose to 

half. — YOTJATT. 

3. Nitre 6 dr., emetic tartar 2 dr., flour and syrup to 
form a ball ; twice a day. — White. 

4. Digitalis 1 dr., emetic tartar 1 dr., nitre 3 dr., sul- 
phur 1 dr., linseed meal 2 dr. ; beat together with palm 
oil.— Clatee. 

5. Epidemic catarrh.. To the last add 2 drachms of the 
Physic Mass (No. 10) : repeat this twice. 

6. For pneumonia. White Hellel)ore J- dr. (or extract 
of belladonna 2 dr., or digitalis 1 dr., or calomel 1 dr., 
with opium i dr.), emetic tartar 3j, nitre and linseed meal 
each 2 dr. ; one twice a day. — Spooner. 

7. In the advanced stage, when suiipuration has taken 


place. Carbonate of ammonia IJ dr., opium 1 dr., aniseed 
i oz., syrup to form a ball. — Spoonee. 

8. Cough Ball. Digitalis \ dr., camplior and emetic 
tartar each 1 dr., nitre 3 dr., and linseed meal 1 dr., to be 
made up with Barbadoes tar. 

CORDIAL BALLS. For exhaustion from over-e.\ertion 
and as a stimulant to weak stomachs. Their frequent and 
umiecessary use is hurtful. 

1. Ginger and gentian equal parts, treacle to form a 
mass ; dose, 1 oz. to IJ oz. — V. C. 

2. Can-away, bruised raisins, of each 4 parts, ginger and 
palm oil, of each two parts. — Youatt. 

3. Aniseed, carraway, cardamom, each 1 oz., saffron 2 dr., 
sugar candy 4 oz., liquorice powder IJ oz., Spanish juice 
(softened with water) 2 oz., oil of aniseed i oz., wheat 
flour q. s. ,• dose, 1 oz. to 1| oz. — Beacken. 

4. Aniseed, caraway, sweet fennel, liquorice, of each 
4 oz. ; of ginger and cassia, each 1 J ozs. ; honey to form a 
mass. — White. 

5. Ginger, caraway, each 4 lbs., gentian 1 ft, palm oil 
4^ fts., beat together ; dose, 1 oz. to 1| oz. — Clatee. 

6. Gentian 8 oz., ginger 4 oz., coriander 8 oz., caraway 
8 oz., oil of aniseed J oz., treacle q. s. ; dose, 1^ oz. — Blaine. 

7. Aniseed, caraway, ginger, each 8 oz., gentian, grains 
of pai'adise, cumin, and turmeric, each 4 oz., cassia 2 oz., 
oil of caraway 2 dr., treacle to form a mass; dose, 1^ oz. 
To keep it moist, add 2 oz. of acetate of potash. 

8. Cumin, aniseed, caraway, each 4 oz., ginger 2 oz., 
treacle q. s. ; dose, 1^ oz. to 2 oz. — White. 

9. Pimento 1 fts., sifted barley meal 2 fts., treacle q. s. ; 
dose, IJ oz. — B. CiAEKE. 

MIXED BALLS. Cordial Astringent Ball. Cordial ball 

(No. 2) 1 oz., catechu 1 di*., opium 10 gr. ; to washy horses, 

before or after a journey. — Youatt. 
Cordial Anodyne Balls. 1. Cordial mass (No. 6) 10 dr., 

camphor 1 dr., opium 20 gr. — Blaine. 

2. Oinum \ dr. to 2 scruples, soap 2 dr., ginger 1 dr., 

aniseed 4 dr., oil of caraway \ dr., treacle q. s. — White. 
Balsamic Cordial Ball. Cordial mass (No. 6) 1 oz., myrrh 

1 dr., balsam of Tolu 1 dr, — Blaine, 



Pectoral Cordial Balls. 1. For old coughs. Fenugreek, 
aniseed, cumin, safflowor, cleeamjjane, coltsfoot, sulphur, 
of each 3 oz., liqviorice juice 1 oz., olive oil 8 oz., honey 
8 oz., Genoa treacle 12 oz., oil of aniseed 1 oz., wheat meal 
li lb., or q. s. ; one ball or 2 oz. (dissolved in water or 
warm wort), every day for 12 or 15 days if required. — 

2. Elecampane ^ oz., ginger If dr., squill 1 dr., oil of 
aniseed 20 drops, syrup of Tolu, q. s. — White. 

Diuretic Cordial Balls, to fine the legs of debilitated and 
overworked horses, and sometimes given in old coughs, &c. 

1. Resin 2 oz., soap, nitre, caraway, of each 2 oz., ginger 
1^ oz., sulphur 2 oz., oil of caraway f dr., oil of jimiper 
i dr., syrup to form a mass. 

2. Soap and common turpentine each 4 dr., ginger 1 dr., 
opium I dr., caraway seed q. s. for 1 dose. — White. 

3. Strained turpentine 8 oz., resm 4 oz., olive oil 2 oz., 
soap 8 oz. ; melt together and add powdered ginger 6 oz., 
pimento 6 oz., liquorice jiowder q. s. to form a mass. 

4. Resin 4 dr., nitre 2 dr., and ginger 1 dr., with suffi- 
cient soap to form a ball. — Spoonee. 

DIURETIC BALLS. For swelled legs, grease, &c., for carry- 
ing off bad humours. And in many chrome diseases. The 
too frequent use of diuretics injures the kidneys, and 
weakens the system. (See Alterative Balls, further back.) 

1. Resin, soap, nitre, of each equal parts, beaten together 
into a mass ; dose, 1 oz. to 1\ oz. — V.C. 

2. Common turpentine 4 oz., Castile soap 4 oz., caraways 
8 oz., ginger 1 oz., flour q. s. — White. 

3. Resm 16 oz., white soap 16 oz., nitre 8 oz., dried 
common soda 2 oz., oil of juniper 4 oz. ; beat together, 
adding flour if required ; dose, 1 oz. to 1|^ oz. 

4. Nitre 1 lb, Castile soap f ft, common turpentine 1 ft, 
barley meal 2| lbs., or sufficient ; dose, _about 1 oz. — B. 

5. Wliite soap 8 oz., nitre 3 oz., resin 3 oz., camphor 3 
dr., oil of juniper 3 dr. For 6 balls ; 1 every, or every 
other morning. — Taplin. 

6. Common turpentine 16 oz., sulphur 24 oz., nitre 8 oz., 
honey 8 oz., flour or linseed meal q. s.; dose, 1^ oz. 


7. Camphor 2 dr., nitre 1 oz., flour and syrup to form a 
ball ; for stoppage of water. — White. 

8. Yellow resin 4 fts., common turpentine 2 fts., yellow- 
soap 2 fts., melt together, and add nitre 1 ft. — Blaine. 

9. Common turpentine (or powdered resin) i oz., Imseed 
meal i oz., ginger i dr., palm oil q. s. — Yottatt. 

10. Yellow resin 2 oz., common turpentine 4 oz., soap 
3 oz., melt together, stir in 1 oz. sweet oil, add oil of ani- 
seed i oz., oil of juniper i oz., gmger 2 dr., linseed meal 
q. s. ; mix, and divide into 8 balls ; 1 a day till the water 
is affected. — Hinds. 

11. Eesui 2^ lbs., cream of tartar i ft, sulphur i ft, lin- 
seed meal 1 ft, palm oil 1 ft ; dose, 1 oz. to 2 oz. — Clater. 

12. Nitre 1 oz., vermilion i oz., resin 1 oz., camphor 
i oz., honey q.s. for 4 balls. — Lebas. 

13. Powdered yellow resm 4 dr., nitrate of potash 2 dr., 
p. ginger 1 dr. ; beat up mtli soap. — Spoonee. 

14. Nitre 8 oz. ; oxysulphuret of antimony 1 oz., sul- 
phur 8 oz., resin 8 oz., oil of juniper 1 oz., yellow soap 
8 oz., treacle to form a mass ; dose, 1^ oz. 

15. AMiite soap 1 oz., extract of juniper berries q. s. 
for 2 balls. — Bourgelat. 

Tonic^ Diuretic Ball. Gentian 1 di-., ginger | dr., suljihate 
of iron 2 dr., dim-etic mass (No. 11) ^ oz., oil of juniper 
10 di-ops, syi-up of squills i oz. ; t\vice a day in dropsy of 
chest : less fi-equently in swelled legs. — Clater. 

Tonic and Diuretic Ball for Pleurisy. Sulphate of copper 
li dr., ginger and gentian 2 dr. each, with Venice turpen- 
tine. — Spooner. (See also Leicester Bed Balls, and Miscel- 
laneous Balls, further on.) 


1. Emetic Tartar ^ dr., camphor | dr., nitre 2 di-., 
common mass 6 dr., or q. s. for 1 ball ; to be given once or 
twice a day.— Morton. 

2. Camphor 1 dr., nitre 6 dr., antimonial powder 2 dr., 
flour and syi'up to form a ball. — White. 

3. Antimonial powder 2 dr., nitre 3 dr., cream of tartar 
2 dr., honey to form a ball j in influenza twice a day, after 
a mild laxative. — Blaine. 

4. See Balls for Inflammation of Lungs, No. 4. — Ciatee. 


says he has tried the various preparations of arsenic, anti- 
mony, copper, mercury, zinc, aconite, digitalis, hemlock, 
henbane, hellebore, nightshade, &c., in glanders, without 
any specific or curative effect. Mr. Youatt considers it 
useless to attempt the cure of glandered horses ; but that 
farcy in its early stages and mild form may be successfully 
treated. Mr. Blaine says, " All the mercurials have been 
used with benefit in farcy ; but they must be discontinued 
as soon as the mouth is affected, or sickness, loss of appe- 
tite, &c., produced." Mr. Finlay Dun says glanders is 
incurable, and recommends immediate slaughter. He after- 
wards adds, that life may be prolonged by generous diet ; 
and further recommends sulphate of copper and arsenic. 

1. Ethiops mineral 2 dr., blue pill 1 dr., prepared anti- 
mony 3 dr., diuretic mass 4 di\ One every morning. 

2. Strong mercurial ointment 2 to 3 dr., guaiacum 3 
dr., soap 4 dr., fenugreek 12 dr., treacle to form a mass, 
for 6 balls. [See Mercurial Alterative Balls, further back.] 

3. Sulphate of copper 1 dr., corrosive sublimate 8 gr., 
linseed powder ^ oz. — White. 

4. Corrosive sublimate 10 gr., gradually increased to 20, 
gentian 2 ch-., ginger 1 dr., syruj) to form a ball ; to be 
given night and morning till some effect is produced ; 
when the mouth is affected, the sublimate may be ex- 
changed for 1 dr. sulphate of copper. — Youatt. 

5. Corrosive sublimate 10 to 20 gr., opium | to 1 dr., 
powdered aniseed i oz., with syrup to make a ball. 

6. Sulphate of copper 1 dr., calomel 20 gr., common 
turpentine 3 dr., liquorice powder and syrup q. s. for one 
ball. — Coleman. 

7. Sulphate of copper 1 dr., white arsenic 8 gr., corro- 
sive sublimate 8 gr., linseed powder ^ oz., syrup to form a 
ball.— White. 

8. Ethiops mineral 2 dr., opium 10 gr., liquorice powder 
and mucilage to from a ball ; to be given twice a day till 
the breath or urine is affected.-^HiNDS. 

9. Sidphate of iron 2 dr., Peruvian bark 1 oz., opium 
i dr., syrup to form a ball. — Smith. 

10. Cantharides 4 gr., gradually increased to 6 or 8 gr., 


gentian, ginger, and caraway, each 1 dr. ; syrup q. s. ; 
every, or every other day. — Vines. 

11. Sulphate of iron 2 dr., iodide of potassium 10 gr., 
ginger 1 dr., gentian 2 dr., made into a ball with treacle. 


12. Diniodide of copper 1 dr., gentian 1| dr., pimento 
1 dr., cantharides 5 gr. ; for one ball. — MoETON. 

13. Sulphate of zinc 15 gr., cantharides 7 gr., pimento 
or ginger 15 gr., treacle and oatmeal to form a ball ; 1 
daily. — Beacy Claek. 

14. Sublimate, arsenic, vei'digris, each 8 gr., sulphate of 
copper 20 gr. for one ball (with common mass q. s.) ; the 
dose may be gradually increased, carefully watching its 
effects, but should never exceed 15 gr. of sublimate and 
arsenic. — Blaine. 

15. Sublimate 10 gr., gentian 2 dr., ginger 1 dr., linseed 
meal ^ oz., palm oil to form a ball ; night and morning for 
a fortnight ; for farcy. — Clatee. 

16. Sulphate of copper | dr. to 1 dr., ginger and gen- 
tian, each 1 dr., linseed meal and palm oil to form a ball ; 
morning and night for a fortnight, then daily as long as 
necessary : in glanders. — Clatee. 

17. Sti'ong mercurial ointment 3 oz., white soap 2 oz., 
starch 2 oz., form a mass and divide into 12 balls ; 1 every 
morning. — Moieoud. 

18. Assafoetida 3 oz., vermilion 2 oz., muriate of lime 
3 dr., galangal 1 oz., strong mercurial ointment 2 oz. ; 
beat together into a uniform mass, and divide into 6 
balls ; one every other morning. — Lebas. 

19. Ethiops mineral 8 oz., powdered burdock root 16 oz., 
treacle q. s. ; make into 32 balls. — MoiRorD. 

20. Antihecticum Poterii 2 dr., with 6 dr. of cordial 
ball ; every other day. — Lawrence. 

21. Calomel 1 oz., assafoetida 4 oz., galangal powder 
1 oz., mercurial ointment 2 oz. Mix, and form 6 balls. 
One every other morning. — Lebas. 

22. Hydrar<jyro-iodide of potassium (see Hydrargyri et 
Potassii lodidum. Pocket Formulary) 3 oz., powdered 
althaea root, and honey q. s. to make 100 balls. Give 
from one to eight daily, gradually increasing the dose to 
the latter number. — Bouchaedat. 


BALLS FOR GREASE. See Dim-etic BaUs, and alterative 


1. For hepatitis without purgmg : calomel 1 dr., anti- 
monial powder 2 dr., aloes 3 dr., syrup to form a ball ; 
one every four or five hours, till the bowels are opened. — 

2. Calomel i Ai:, aloes 1 dr., soap 2 dr., rhubarb ^ oz., 
synip to form a ball ; to be given every 12 hours, till it 
purges moderately. — White. 

3. Aloes 2 dr., calomel 1 dr., syrup to make a ball, 
twice a day. — Yoijatt. 

4. Opium 1 di'., calomel 1 dr., emetic tartar 2 dr., 
liquorice powder 3 di-., syi-up to form a ball j once every 
12 hours. — White. 

5. Opium J dr., calomel 1 dr., resin 3 dr., carbonate of 
potash 2 dr., with soft soap. To be preceded by blisters 
to the side, and purgative draughts. — Spoonee. 

Yelloios {Jaundice) ivithout Fever. 1. Calomel 1 dr., aloes 
2 dr., soap 2 dr. ; for one ball ; night and mornuig till 
purged, then so as to keep the bowels lax. — Blaine. 

2. Calomel | dr., aloes li dr., Castile soap 2 dr., rhu- 
barb 3 dr., syrup to form a ball. — White. 

3. In the latter stage, when not costive, calomel 12 gr., 
sidphate of copper 1 dr., gentian 3 dr., oak bark 3 di'., 
chamomile 3 di'., syrup to form a ball; once or twice a 
day. — Blaine. 

PHYSIC OR PURGING BALLS. The animal should be 
prepared by bran mashes for two days, and the ball given 
fasting in the mornuig. Gentle exercise with a ball is 
useful, but not after it begins to operate. Genuine Barbadoes 
aloes alone should be used (from the gourd, not melted), 
and the dose seldom need exceed 6 dr. A week should 
be allowed after the operation of one l)all before another 
is given. See Aloes, in the Veterinary Materia Medica. 

1. (V. C. Cathartic Mass.) Bruised B. aloes 8 oz., olive 
oil 1 oz. ; melt together in a vessel placed in hot water j 


remove it from the fire, add 3 oz. of treacle, and stir all 
together ; tlose, 6 to 12 dr., equal to 4 to 8 di\ of aloes. 

2. (V. C. Stronger.) To each dose of the last add from 
4 to 8 drops of croton oil. 

3. Aloes Barbadoes in small pieces 8 parts, glycerin 2 
parts, ginger in powder 1 part. Melt together in a water- 
bath, and thoroughly incorporate by constant stirring. If 
desirable, gentian may be substituted for ginger. Dose, 
from 6 to 8 dr. — TrsoN. 

4. B. aloes 4 to 8 dr., soap 3 to 4 dr., ginger 1 dr., oil of 
cloves 10 drops (or oil of caraway or aniseed 20 drops), 
water 1 dr. or q. s. ; beat together into a mass. — White. 
Mr. W. says it is the best that can be employed. 

5. B. aloes 15 oz., ginger 1 oz. ; mix and beat up with 
8 oz. of palm oil. Dose, 1 oz. to li. — Youatt. 

6. B. aloes 24 dr.. Cape aloes 12 dr., olive oil 4 dr. ; 
treacle 12 dr.; dose, 7 to 14 dr. ; mix as No. 1. — MoRTOisr. 

7. B. aloes 5 dr., 7^ dr. or 9 dr., oil of caraway 10 
di'ops ; made up with palm oil or lard. — Mr. Blaine's 
Nos. 1, 2, and 3. 

8. Melt B. aloes (in a tin vessel immersed in boiling 
water) -n-ith a fifth of its weight of treacle, and, while soft, 
pour it into paper moulds ; 1 oz. is a full dose for a large- 
sized saddle or coach horse. — B. Claek. [For a conve- 
nient apparatus for melting and casting these balls, see 
Mr. Bracy Clark's Pharmacopoeia Equina ; or Vol. V of 
the Pharmaceutical Jommal.] 

9. B. aloes 5 to 8 dr., cream of tartar 2 dr., oil of cloves 
10 di'ops, treacle to form a ball. — Peall. 

10. Aloes 7 dr., Castile soap 4 dr., aromatic powder 1 dr., 
oil of caraway 6 cb'ops ; mucilage to form a ball. — Hinds. 

11. B. aloes 7i parts, Socotrine aloes 7i parts, ginger 
1 part ; mix the powders, add 7j parts of palm oil, and 
beat to a mass ; keep it in a jar closely covered ; dose, 
li oz. to If oz. — Clatee. 

12. B. aloes 13^ oz., lard 6 oz., treacle li oz., water 
IJ oz. ; put them in an earthen vessel, placed in boiling 
water ; mix, and form the mass into 18 balls. — McEwEN. 

13. Aloes and hard soap each 5 oz., pearl ashes 1 oz., 
powdered ginger 1 oz. Melt in a ladle and divide, while 
warm, into 8 balls. 


Mercurial Physic Balls. 1. Cathartic mass (No. 10 above) 
10 to 14 dr., calomel 1 dr. to \^ dr. ; mi.x. — Clatee. 

2. For stomach staggers : aloes 1 oz., calomel i di'., 
cascarilla 3 di'., syrup to form a ball. — White. 


1. Ipecacuanha 1 dr., aloes 3 to 4 dr., liquorice powder 
aud mucilage to form a ball. — Hinds. 

2. Aloes 3 to 4 dr., soap 3 dr., oil of caraway 20 drops, 
syrup q. s. — White. 

3. Aloes 3 to 4 dr., soap 4 dr., emetic tartar 2 dr., mu- 
cilage to form a ball. — Hinds. 

For other Formulae (see Alterative Balls, laxative, fur- 
ther back). 

NAUSEATING BALLS. These are given in inflammatory 

1. Powdered white hellebore | dr., linseed meal 4 dr., 
treacle to form a ball ; one night and morning till some 
effect is produced : in inflammation of the kidneys. — 

2. White hellebore 20 gr., common mass or other proper 
material to form a ball ; give one every 4, 6, or 8 hours, 
till .symptoms of nausea appear, taking care not to carry 
it too far. — Percivai. (See Fever Balls further back.) 
See Hellebore, in Veterinary Materia Medica. 

STOMACHIC BALLS. For indigestion, and during re- 
covery from debilitating diseases which have impaired the 
appetite. A mild purge should be previously given. 

1. Gentian, quassia, grains of paradise, of each 3 dr., 
Venice turpentine q. s. for 1 ball. — Blaine. 

2. Gentian 2 or 3 dr., carbonate of soda 1 dr., ginger 
1 dr., treacle to form a ball. — White. 

3. Chamomiles 2 dr., calumba 2 dr., common salt 1 dr., 
fenugreek 2 dr., sp'up to form a ball. 

4. Myrrh 1| dr., cascarilla 2 dr., Castile soap 1 dr., 
syrup to form a ball. — White. 

5. Laxative SiomacTiic Ball. Aloes 3 dr., rhubarb 3 dr. 
carbonate of soda 2 dr., ginger \\ di-., treacle to form a 
ball. — White. 



6. Calumba and chamomile in powder, each 2 dr., Venice 
treacle J oz., oil of caraway 25 drops, honey q. s. — 
Lawrence. See Tonic Balls, for other formula. 

TONIC BALLS. In diseases attended with general debility, 
and to restore strength after a tedious ilhiess. 

Vegetable Tonics. 1. Peruvian bark 1 oz., opium \ dr., 
ginger \\ dr., oil of caraway 20 drops, treacle to form a 
ball. — White. 

2. Sulphate of quinine 1 dr., gentian, oak bark, and 
honey, to form a ball. — Moiroud. 

3. Gentian 1 dr., ginger i dr., cascarilla 1 dr., treacle 
and linseed meal to form a ball. — Clater. 

4. Myrrh 2 dr., mustard flour 1 dr., cantharides 5 gr., 
chamomile 4 dr., Venice turpentine q. s. for one ball. — 

5. Gentian 4 dr., chamomile 2 dr., carbonate of iron 
1 dr. ginger 1 dr., syrup q. s. for one ball. — YouATT. 

6. Quassia 2 dr., canella 2 dr., opium ^ dr., ginger 1 dr., 
treacle q. s. — White. 

Mineral Tonics. 1. Sul])hate of iron 4 oz., ginger 4 oz., 
common mass 10 oz. ; beat together to form a mass ; dose, 
1 oz. to i\ oz.— V. C. 

2. Sulphate of iron \ oz., aromatic powder 2 di-., muci- 
lage q. s. to form a ball. — White. 

3. Scales of iron 12 oz., gentian 8 oz., honey to form 
a mass. — Moieoud. 

4. Myrrh 3 dr., sulphate of iron 2 di-., chamomile 3 dr., 
ginger 1 dr., Venice turpentine or palm oil to form a ball. 
— Blaine. 

5. Gentian 4 dr., chamomile 2 dr., carbonate of iron 
1 dr., ginger 1 dr., syrup for 1 ball.— YouATT. 

6. Sulphate of iron 2 dr., carbonate of potash 2 dr., cas- 
carilla 2 dr., caraway 4 dr., treacle q. s. — White. 

7. Sulphate of iron 1 dr., carbonate of soda 2 dr., myrrh 
1 dr., ginger 1 dr., cantharides 6 gr., caraway 5 oz., treacle 
q. s. — White. 

8. Tonic mass. Sulphate of copper 2 oz., ginger 2 oz., 
common mass 12 oz., beat together ; dose, 1 oz. to 1\ oz. 
—V. C. 

9. Sulphate of copper and ginger, of each 1 dr., canella 
4 dr., conserve of roses q. s. for one ball. — Blaine. 


10. White arsenic 5 to 10 gv., aniseed i oz., opium J dr., 
treacle q. s. ; sometimes 2 dr. of sulphate of zinc may be 
added. — White. 

11. Ai-senic 10 gv., gentian and cascarilla, of each 3 dr., 
conserve of roses q. s. — Blaine. 

Mild Alterative Tonics. To promote condition ; a mild dose 
of jjliysic should be previously given. 

1. Aloes 1 dr., Winter's 'bark 2 dr., verdigris 1 dr., 
treacle or honey q. s. 

2. A^rsenic 8 gr., pimento 1 dr., extract of gentian 4 dr. ; 

3. Nitre 1 oz., sulphur 6 dr., physic mass i oz., gentian 
6 dr., ginger i oz., palm oil q. s. for 4 balls. One daily, 
after an attack of stomach staggers. — Clater. 

Tonic Condition Balls. Ginger and camphor, of each 1 dr., 
gentian and sulphate of iron, of each 2 dr. ; make up ^^th 
linseed meal. — Spooneb. 


1. Calomel 1 or 2 dr. at night, and an aloetic ball in the 
morning. — Clatee. 

2. Emetic tartar 2 dr., ginger a scruple, linseed meal 
and treacle to form a ball; one every morning an hour 
before feeding.— Yotjatt. 

3. Calomel 8 gr., arsenic 8 gr., tin filings 1 oz., Venice 
turpentine ^ oz. ; mix ; and give every morning fasting, 
for a fortnight. — Blaine. 

4. Common salt i oz., gentian 2 dr., rust of iron 2 dr., 
savin 1 dr., treacle to form a ball ; to be given every 
morning for a week ; then a purging ball. 

5. B. aloes 6 dr., ginger 1^ dr., oil of wormwood 20 
drops, carbonate of soda 2 dr., syrup to form a ball ; i dr. 
or 1 dr. of calomel may be added, or given the previous 
night ; to be repeated at intervals of 10 days if reqiured. — 

6. Emetic tartar 2 dr., common mass 6 dr. ; to be given 
for 6 mornings, and a purging ball on the seventh. 

7. Assafoetida 2 d:-., calomel 1 or 2 dr., savin li dr., oil 
of wormwood 20 drops, syrup q. s. ; at night, and a physic 
ball in the morning. 

8. Emetic tartar 1 dr., sulphur 1 dr., linseed meal 4 


dr., palm oil to form a ball ; one every morning after a 
mercm-ial physic ball. — Clatee. 

9. For long round worms. Emetic tartar 2 dr., ginger 

1 dr., tin filings 6 dr., linseed meal 1 dr., palm oil to form 
a ball. 

10. Assafoetida 4 oz., gentian 2 oz., strong mercimal 
ointment 1 oz., honey to form a mass, for 16 balls ; one or 
more every morning. — Lebas. 

11. For tajjeioonn. ^ ft. to 1 ft of cnsso in a drench ; 
or 1 to 2 oz. of Kamala. 


Garlic Ball. Beat garlic to a paste "mth enongh linseed or 
liquorice to form a mass ; dose, 10 dr. 

Camphor Ball. Mix into a ball 2 dr. of_ camphor with 
liquorice powder and syrup enough to give it a proper 

Iodine Ball. Iodine 5 gr., linseed meal 5 dr., palm oil to 
form a ball. 

Ball to prevent Hydropliohia. Skullcap 2 scruples, bella- 
donna 2i gr., form them into a ball, to be given night and 
mor)iing ; "the second week 2 balls, the third 3 balls, and 
tliis continued for 6 weeks. — YOUATT. 

Leicester Bed Balls. Nitre 1 ft, resin 1 lb. common soda 

2 oz., Castile soap i ft, ginger 2 oz., oil of juniper 2 dr., 
cinnabar ^ oz. ; dose, 1^ oz. 

Balls for Appetite. Equal weights of assafoetida, saffron, 

bay-berries, and aloes, made into a mass with extract of 

gentian ; dose, 1 oz. — Lebas. 
Aiiodtjne Ball. Opium \ dr. to 1 dr., camphor 1 dr., aniseed 

\ oz., soft extract of liquorice q. s.— White. 
Antispasmodic Ball. Opium 1 dr., powdered belladonna 

10 gr., linseed meal 3 dr., palm oil or treacle q. s. ; twice 

or thrice a day, in spasm of the neck of the bladder. — 

Ball for Roaring. The cough Ball, No. 12, may be tried ; 

and the compound iodine ointment rubbed on the throttle 

for some weeks or months. 
Stimulating Diaphoretic Ball. Emetic tartar li dr., ginger 

2 dr., camphor i dr., opium 2 scruples, oil of caraway 15 


drops, honey to form a ball; for hide-bound and unhealthy 

coat without any other disease. — White. 
Baetlett's Perspirative Ball. Dover's jjowder 3 dr., cam- 
phor 1 dr., treacle q. s. 
Hixd's Sweating Ball. Emetic tartar, 1 dr., assafoetida 1 

dr., liquorice powder and syrup to form a ball ; repeat in 

12 hours if required. 
Grease Ball. Liver of antimony 16 oz., salt of tartar 16 oz., 

gum gviaiacum, fenugreek, parsley seed, of each 4 oz., 

treacle to form a mass ; dose. It oz. 
Sedative Ball. In slight colic. Assafoetida 4 dr., ojnum 

4 dr., syrup and liquorice powder to form 4 balls. — 

Cordial and Anodyne Ball. Castile soap 3 dr., camphor 

2 dr., ginger \^ dr., and Venice tm-pentine 6 dr., into 

1 ball. 
Stimulating Diuretic Balls. Cantharldes 1 dr., aloes 2 dr., 

strained turpentine 1 oz., honey q. s. ; make 4 balls, and 

roll in elecampane powder. — M. Gohiee, i}i Dropsy. 
Stimulating Expectorant Ball. Assafoetida 3 dr., galbanum 

1 dr., carbonate of ammonia | dr., ginger 1^ dr., honey 

q. s. — White. 
Sedative Aperient Ball. In epidemic catarrh or distemper. 

Balls for Inflammation of the Lungs (No. 4) 6 dr., physic 

l)all (No. 10) 2 dr. ; one at night and another in the 

morning. — Clater. 
Zinc and Valerian Ball. — O.xide of zinc 1 oz., valerian 2 oz., 

oil of hartshorn 1 oz., soft extract of juniper berries, q. s. 

to make 4 balls ; one, twice a day. — Eckel. 

CHEWING BALLS, or Masticatoeies. The ingredients 
are to be tied in a piece of rag, and fixed by a string so 
that it may be kept in the mouth and chewed. 

1. Emollient Masticatory. Marshmallow root, liquorice, 
gum Arabic, of each (in powder) 1 oz,, honey 1 oz., or q. s. 
— Lebas. 

2. To promote Appetite. Assafoetida, liver of antimony, 
juniper berries, bay-wood, pellitory, made into a mass with 
verjuice, tied as above. — Solletsell. 

3. Assafoetida, common salt, mastic, galangal, each 1 oz. 
— Lebas, 


4. Assafcetida 2 oz., salt 1 oz. — Botjrgelat. 

5. Angelica i oz., assafcetida 1 oz., vinegar 2 dr. — 


6. riour of mustard i oz., sal ammoniac 2 dr., powdered 
pellitory 1 oz. — Moirotjd. 


Electuaries are compound medicines in the state of a soft 
paste. Wlien the paste is hard enough to be formed into 
balls, the compound resembles ball masses or balls, under 
which we have placed them. French Pharmaciens often 
xise the term opiates as nearly synonymous with electuaries ; 
but we only apply the name (opiates) to compounds con- 
taining opium. 

Opiate Confection. {Veterinary.) Opium 1\ oz., mace- 
rate in a little hot water till soft, and rub it to a paste ; 
then add ginger 3 oz., caraway 6 oz., treacle 1| lb ; dose, 
1^ to 2 oz. —White. 


1. MarshmaUow root and liquorice (in powder) of each 
2 oz., honey 10 oz. ; mix ; to be given at twice, with a 
spatula. — MoiEOUD. 

2. Melt \ oz. spermaceti with 2 oz. of olive oil, add 6 oz. 
of honey, and mix with 1^ oz. p. marshmallow root ; to be 
given daily. — Moieoud. 

3. {With Opium.) Powdered gum 2 oz., marshmallow 

1 oz., extract of opiimi 2 dr., honey 3 oz. ; for 2 doses. 

4. Cough Electuary ivith Manna. Manna 2 oz., honey 
6 oz. ; in the morning ; said to have cured acute bron- 

5. Powdered liquorice 8 oz., elecampane 4 oz., sulphur 

2 oz., hoii?y of squill 32 oz. ; mix ; for 8 doses. 

Lebas gives a form for an electuary {Theriaque) of many 
ingi-edients, the first of which (cordial powder) itself cou- 


tains 26 different substances. We only insert here the 
simple fonuulffi of the French veterinarians.] 

1. Powdered angelica root 2 oz., niasterwort 1 oz., mu- 
riate of ammonia | oz., honey 8 oz. — Moieoud. 

2. Stimulant and Expectorant. Assafcetida 4 oz., ele- 
campane 8 oz., honey 32 oz., for 6 doses. — Moieottd. 

3. Powdered cassia and ginger, each 1 oz., honey 6 oz. 
— Moieoud. 


1. Pied oxide of iron 8 oz., gentian 12 oz., extract of 
juniper berries 32 oz. MoiEorD prescribes 6 oz. for a 
horse, or 1 oz. for a sheep ; but these are larger doses than 
are customary in England. 

. 2. Permian bark 6 oz., nitre 1 oz., camphor | oz., honey 
16 oz. — Lebas. 

3. Powdered bistort 1 oz., calcined magnesia 4 dr., 
honey 4 oz. — Moieottd. 

tic compounds are usually made stiff enough to form into 
balls. See Physic Balls. 

1. Oil of croton 20 drops, powdered semia 4 dr., honey 
q. s. — Moieoud. 

2. Sulphate of magnesia 4 oz., honey 16 oz., bran a 
quart ; infuse the bran in sufficient hot water, and add the 
salt and honey ; twice a day till the bowels are relaxed.— 


3. Sulphate of soda or magnesia 5 oz., maima 4 oz., 
bran 1 quart ; as the last.— Moieoud. 

DIURETIC ELECTUARIES. 1. Acetate of potash 2 oz., 
oxymel of squills 4 oz. ; oatmeal or flour, to give a soft 
consistence. — Moieoud. 

2. Nitre 1 oz., camphor 2 dr. (rubbed with yolks of 2 
eggs), oxymel 4 oz. j flour or liquorice powder, to give a 
suitable consistence. — Moieoud. 


1. Sulphur 1 oz., powdered angelica 1^ oz., honey 5 oz. 
— Moieoud. 


2. Prepared antimony 1| oz., elecampane 2 oz., treacle 
4 oz. 

3. Kermes mineral 1 oz,, powdered sassafras and ele- 
campane, each 2 dr., honey 6 oz. 


Me. B. CLARK'S PULVIS UTILIS, as a vehicle for other 
powders. Turmeric ^ lb, oatmeal or sifted barley-meal 4 fts.j 


1. y^niTvJs, Aromatic Poioder. Caraway 6 oz., pimento 
4 oz., ginger 2 oz., liquorice 2 oz. ; mix ; dose, 6 to 8 dr. 

2. Common Horse Spice. Caraway, aniseed, coriander 
seeds, of each 16 oz., turmeric 32 oz., cumin seeds, liquo- 
rice, and ginger, of each 8 oz. ; mix. 

3. This is inserted, not as a desirable form, but as a 
specimen of what is used in the trade. Cayenne 2 oz., 
bean flower 45 lbs., mustard hulls 45 lbs., cumin seed 15 lbs., 
caraway 15 lbs., turmeric 9 lbs., bay-berries 3 lbs., ivory- 
black 1 lb. — Geay's Supplement, The cordial powder of 
Lebas contains 26 ingredients. 


1. Carbonate of soda 2 to 4 dr., ginger 1 dr., calumba 
2 to 4 dr. — White. 

2. Prepared chalk 4 dr., gentian 2 to 4 dr., aromatic 
powder (above) 1 or 2 dr. 

POWDERS. For swelled legs, grease, foul humours, hide- 
bomid, mange, surfeit, old coughs, and to render the skin 
fine. They are usually given with moistened corn. Too 
free use of these powders may prove injurious. 

1. Sulphur 2 parts, black antimony 1, nitre 1 ; mix ; 
dose \ oz. to 1 oz. — V. C. 

2. Sulphur" 4 dr., levigated antimony 2 di-., nitre 3 dr. ; 
mix ; in hide-bound and unthrifty coat, every night. — 

3. Ethiops mineral 5 oz., cream of tartar 1 oz. ; mix ; 
give every night in a mash ; for grease, — Blaine. 


4. Siilpliur 12 oz., antimony (black) 12 oz. ; mix, and 
davide into 24 powders ; for mange, &c. — Taplin. 

5. Nitre 16 oz., resin 16 oz., prepared antimony 4 oz., 
flowers of sulpliur 24 oz. ; mix j dose, 1 oz. every evening, 
^^■ith moistened corn, for 6 or 8 times. 

6. Equal weights of antimony, niti'e, and cream of 
tartar ; dose, 6 to 9 dr. — Blaine. 

7. Nitre 6 oz., vermilion i oz., resin 6 oz., tartarized 
antimony 2 dr. ; for 12 doses. 

8. Sulphur i oz., prepared antimony 1 dr. ; once a day, 
in the food, for 10 or 14 days. — Clatee. 

9. Taplin's Alterative Powders. Le\'igated antimony 
8 oz., sulphur 8 oz., Ethiops mineral 4 oz., cream of tartar 
4 oz. ; in 12 doses. 

10. Cream of tartar 2 dr., nitre 2 dr., sulphur 4 dr. ; for 
one dose. — Blaine. 

11. Nitre 1 oz., resin 1 oz., rust of iron 1 oz., emetic 
tartar 15 gr. ; dose, 1 oz. — Lebas. 

12. In Farcy. Prepared antimony 12 oz., sulphur 12 oz., 
cream of tartar 8 oz., cinnabar 6 oz. ; mix, and di\'ide into 
20 doses ; one every night, in corn. — Taplin. 

CONDITION POWDERS. A want of condition is gene- 
rally indicated by, and connected with, the unthi-ifty state 
of the coat, which the above (alterative) powders are sup- 
posed to remedy. Sometimes warm and bitter tonics are 
added to those ingredients which promote the action of 
the skin and kidneys, to increase the appetite and promote 
nutrition ; but the most scientific practitioners condemn 
these additions; and particularly when the animal is 
changmg its coat. 

1. Black antimony 4 oz., flowers of sulphur 2 oz., bean 
flour or barley-meal | ft ; a tablespoonful with corn. — B. 

2. Sulphur 2 fts., fenugi'eek 4 fts., cream of tartar 1 ft, 
liquorice 1 ft, nitre 1 ft, black antimony | ft, gentian 5 ft, 
aniseed i ft, common salt 1 ft ; dose, 1 oz., daily for 2 or 
3 weeks. 

3. Gentian 4 oz., liquorice 4 oz., fenugreek 16 oz., dia- 
pente 6 oz., nitre 4 oz., salt 4 oz. ; to promote appetite. 

4. Aroniatic jjowder 2 oz., assafoetida \ oz., cream of 


tartar f oz., crocus luetallorum ^ oz. ; for 2 closes. — 

DIAPENTE. This should be made with equal parts of 
myrrh, gentian, ivory-dust, bay-berries, and birthwort. A 
worthless compound is commoiily sold for it. The follow- 
ing is one of the least objectionable substitutes : — Equal 
parts of gentian, turmeric, bay-berries, and mustard. 
Another form in use is— Bay-berries 2i its., guaiacum wood 

2 lbs., gentian 14 tbs., bole 2 lbs., bark which has been used 
for the tincture 2 its. 

Fevei-^ Powders. 1. Nitre 1 oz., camphor 2 drs., tartarized 
antimony 2 drs. — White. 

2. Nitre 6 drs., camphor 2 di-s., calx of antimony 1^ drs. 


3. Nitre 1 oz., unwashed calx of antimony 2 drs., anti- 
monial jiowder 3 drs., camphor 1 dr. — White. 

Pectoral Powder. Powder of gum tragacanth 6 oz., nitre 
1 oz. ; give a tablespoonful iii the mashes or food. lu 

Purgative Poivder. Ep.som salt 8 oz., aloes 10 oz., aniseed 

3 oz. ; dose, 2 oz. — Lebas. 

Poivder for the Gripes. Aloes, senna, ginger, cream of 
tartar, of each 1 lb ; mix. This was formerly honoured 
with the title of Pulvis Sanctus. 

Worm Powders. 1. Sulpluir 12 parts, quicksilver 4 parts ; 
triturate together till the mercury is extinct; then add 
male fern, rhubarb, tansy, gentian, of each 4 parts, 
wormwood, savin, aloes, castor seeds, of each 1 part ; dose, 
li oz. to 2 oz. — Lebas. 

2. Fern root 4 parts, tansy 2, assafoetida and aloes, each 
1 iDart ; dose, as the last. — Moieoud. 

3. Sulphur 1 oz., emetic tartar 4 drs., common salt 8 oz., 
liver of antimony 1 oz. ; mix ; for 6 doses ; one daily in 
wetted corn. — Hinds. 

Mk. White's Compound Arsenical Poivder. White arsenic 

1 cU-., cream of tartar 9 di's. ; mix carefully ; give 10 grs. 

3 times a day. 
Hayxe's Bitter Powder, for loss of appetite. Sulphate of 

potash 2 oz., gentian 1 oz., Hour q. s. To be given twice 

a day. 



MEDICATED PROVENDER. Bruised oats 4 lbs., bruised 
juniper herries 2 oz., common salt 1 oz. ; mix. Nourisliing 
and stimulant. — Delafond. 


f iquiti ll^bidnes for '§msts. 



BrinJcs, properly speaking, are liqiiicls which the horse will 
take willingly ; Drenches are those liquid medicines which 
nivxst be administered by a horn, bottle or funnel. This 
distinction is not always observed. 

MILD DRINKS. Demulcent, pectoral, cooling, and diu- 

Barley Water. Barley 1 lb, water 2 gallons ; boil to 6 
quarts, strain, and add 1 ft of honey. If common barley 
is used, it should be first boiled with a little water, and 
this throwTi away. If pearl liarley is used, this will be 
less necessary. In inflammatory and catarrhal complaints. 

Oatmeal Qruel. 1. Mix gradually 4 oz. of sweet oatmeal 
with as much cold water as will form a smooth mixture. 
Put 2 quarts of water in a saucepan over a clear fire, and 
before it gets very hot, add the mixture of oatmeal and 
water ; stir the whole till it boils, and let it simmer a little 
■while. Take care not to smoke it. 

2. Mix half a pint of oatmeal with the same measure of 
water ; triturate them in a mai'ble mortar with a wooden 
pestle, for some time ; then add 1 gallon of boiling water, 
and boil for a few minutes. — B. Claek. 

Blanche Water. Wet 3 or 4 handfuls of bran M-ith scald- 
ing water, and work it with the hands till it becomes 
clammy ; then add as much more water as may be desired. 
A mixture of oatmeal and cold water is also called wliite 
water, and in France, potato or other starch is used for the 
same purpose. 

Linseed Tea. 1. Infuse 4 oz. of linseed in 3 pints of boiling 
M'ater for several hours near the fire, stirring occasionally ; 
then strain off, and add 4 oz. of honey j for 2 doses ; iu 
coughs, &c. 


2. Pour 1 gallon of boiling water on ^ lb of linseed j 
let the infusion stand till nearly cold, then pour off the 
clear liquid. — Youatt. 

Compound Decoction of Linseed. Linseed 4 oz., liquorice 
root 4 oz., mallows 2 handf uls ; boil in six quarts of water 
for half an hour. Let the horse drink it freely. — 

Cooling and Refreshing Drinh. Barley water, linseed tea, 
or blanche water, 8 quarts, simple oxymel 16 oz. — 


Cooling and Diuretic Drink. Dissolve 1 oz. of nitre in a 
pail of water. 

Camphorated Diuretic Drinh. Water 10 quarts, nitre 1 oz., 
eamplior (rubbed with yolks of 2 or 3 eggs), i oz. ; mix, 
and let the animal drink when thirsty. — Moieoud. 


Bran Mash. Bran or pollard | peck; put it in a bucket, 
and ]iour on it enough scalding water to wet it thoroughly ; 
let it be well stirred with a stick, or worked with the 
hands, and let it stand, covered up, till new-milk warm. 
Emollient and slightly laxative. When intended to be 
nutritive, oats sliould be scalded with the bran. — B. 

Malt Mash. Upon a peck of ground malt pour a gallon and 
a half of boiling [better not quite boiling] water. Stir 
frequently, and give when new-milk warm. Nutritive, in 
diseases attended with great debility. — Maekiiam. 

Linseed Mash. HiNDS' Cooling Decoction. Linseed 2 quarts, 
coirso sugar 2 oz., boiling water 6 (juarts ; simmer for 
three or four hours. 



For Diarrhoea, 1. Restringent Draught. Opiiim 1 dr., 
prepared challc 1 oz., comj)Ouud powder of tragacauth 
1 oz., mint water 1 pint. — WmxE. 


2. Laudanuiu 1 oz., ether 1 oz., tannin 1 scruple, given 
in gruel or ale. This is to be given when the purging lias 
gi.iie on for some days, or when laxatives have been given 
without the desired effect. — Fiklay Dun. 

3. Prepared chalk 8 oz., gum Arabic i oz., catechu 2 drs., 
thin starch ^ pint. — Blaine. 

4. Prepared chalk 1 oz., catechu 2 drs., p. opium 1 dr., 
p. ginger 1 dr. ; rub together with the contents of 1 egg and 
add I pint of thin gruel. — Clatee. 

5. For purging from corrosive siihlimate. Powdered 
opium 2 drs. ; rub down with the yolk and white of one 
egg, and the contents of two more eggs, and gradually stir 
in i pint of thin gruel. — Clatee. 

Draught for FnterHis. Opium li^ dr., tartar emetic 1 dr., 
spirit of nitrous ether 1 oz. ; mix, and add 1^ pint of 
linseed oil. — Spoonee. 

For Dysentery or Molten Grease. 1. Castor oil 8 oz., 
ipecacuanha 1 dr., opium 20 grs., liquid arrowroot 8 oz. 
Kepeat once or twice at intervals of 6 hours ; then sub- 
stitute boiled starch for the castor oil. — Blaine. 

2. Opium 2 drs., nux vomica h dr., ipecacuanha 1 dr., red 
wine 1 quart ; mix ; morning ami evening. 

For Diabetes. 1. Opium 1 dr., ginger 2 drs., p. oak bark, 1 
oz., decoction of oak bark 1 pint. — White. 

2. Sulphuret of potash 2 drs., uva ursi 4 drs., oak bark 
1 oz., catechu 2 drs., opium ^ dr. In strong chamomile 
tea. — Blaine. 

3. Calomel 3 drs., cascarilla 2 drs., salt of steel 2| drs., 
salt of tartar 1^ drs., tincture of opium |- oz., strong beer 
q. s. — White. 


for Spasmodic and Flatulent Colic, cr Gripes. 

[N.B. As most of these drenches would be injurious in 
injlammation of the boivels (Enteritis), care should be 
taken to distmguish between this disease and colic. Inflam- 
mation is known by the quick but small pulse, redness of 
the inside of the eyelids, coldness of the ears and legs, 
and scanty and high-coloured urine. In colic, the attacks 
and remissions of pain alternate; in iuHummation, the 
pain and distress continue. In colic, the pain is relieved 


by fi-iction and motion ; in inflammation, it is increased. 
Cold is sudden in its attack ; inflammation, more gradual 
in its approach.] 

1. Brady, rum, or gin from 4 to 6 oz., hot water 12 oz. 
Mr. ClABK directs a wineglassf ul of spirits to half a pint 
of warm water. A pint of ale is sometimes substituted. — 

2. Half a large bottle of Daffy's elixir, with hot 

3. Tincture of pimento 4 oz., warm water half a pint. — 
B. Claee. 

4. Anodyne carminative tincture (White's, see below) 
2 to 4 oz., hot water half a pint — White. 

5. Antispasmodic Draught. Spirit of nitric ether 2 oz., 
tincture of opium 1 oz., solution of aloes (see below) 4 oz. 
—V. C. 

6. Spirit of nitric ether ^ oz., tincture of opium \ oz., 
oil of turpentine 3 oz., gniel 1 pint. — Blaine. 

7. Rectified oil of turpentine 3 oz., tincture of opium 
1 oz., warm ale 1 pint. If it does not relieve, repeat half 
the quantity with 1 oz. aloes dissolved in warm water. — 


8. Strong ether 1 oz., laudanum 2 oz., oil of peppermint 
1 dr., ale and gin, each a i of a pint. — Blaine. 

9. Camphor 2 drs., tincture of opium 1 oz., oil of per- 
permint 30 drops, warm water 1 pint. In a violent at- 
tack, add 1 oz. of spirit of turpentine. — Peall. 

10. The juice of three or four onions, with half a pint of 
sound ale. 

11. Pepper ^ oz., oil of turpentine 3 oz., laudanum 1 oz., 
ale i of a pint. — Blaine. 

12. Pep])er a teaspoonf ul, juice of 2 or 3 large onions, 
gin 5 of a pint. — Blaine. 

13. Laudanum 1 oz., sweet spirit of nitre 4 oz., oil of 
juniper 1 oz., tincture of benzoin 2 oz., spirit of sal volatile 
1\ oz., oil of peppermint 1 dr. ; mix ; give a fourth part 
in warm water or gruel, and repeat in 2 or 3 hours, if 
necessary. — Hinds. 

14. For Flatulent Colic. Tincture of opium 1 oz., Tinct. 
of myrrh 1 oz., sulphuric ether 6 drs., te])id water a pint. 
Repeat in an houi-, if relief is not obtained. — Spoonee, 


15. Heat ^ tb of common salt, and quench it in a quart 
of good ale. Give it new-milk warm. — Downing. 

16. In fiatulent colic, token there is an evident disten- 
sion of the abdomen with gas : chloride of lime ^ oz. (or 
solution of chlorinated soda 1 oz.), water 1 quart ; repeat 
in half an hour if necessary. 

17. Ginger, caraway, nutmeg, pimento, of each 1 oz., 
bruise, and boil them in f of a pint of ale for a few 
minutes, and add a gill of any spirit. — Taplin. 

18. Sol. of ammonia, Sp. nitrous ether, compound tinc- 
ture of gentian, of each equal parts. Dose, 1 to 2 fluid oz. 

19. Cordial Antispasmodic Drink, for Spasm of the Dia- 
plu'agm. Ginger 1 dr., caraway 2 drs., laudanum 1 oz., 
sweet spirit of nitre 1 oz., warm ale ^ a pint. — Clater. 

20. Antispasmodic Drench for Suppression of Urine. 
Nitre 1 oz., camphor 2 drs., linseed tea 1 pint. — White. 

21. Diuretic Camphor Drinh. Camphor 2 to 3 drs., 
olive oil 1 oz., carbonate of soda 1 dr. ; rub together, 
and add tincture of opium 1 dr., warm water 2 pints. 

22. Antispasmodic Drenches for Locked Jaw. 1. Opium 
1^ drs., camphor 2 drs., ginger 3 drs., brandy-and-water 
8 oz. — White. 

2. Ether ^ oz., tincture of opium 2 oz., camphor 1 dr., 
peppermint water \ x'i'^t. 

used in the same cases as the cordial balls, but are pre- 
ferred where a more quick and powerful operation is 
required. Some of them are used in indigestion and 
slight attacks of colic. 

1. Cloves and black pepper (bruised) i oz., boiling water 
a quart ; infuse and give warm. — MoiROUD. 

2. Any of the cordial balls may be dissolved in warm 
ale or water, or peppermint water, and given as a drench. 

3. A bottle of wine, 1 oz. of extract of juniper ben-ies, 
and 5 oz. of cinnamon in powder. — M. Lebas. 

4. Peppermint 2 oz., chamomiles \ oz. ; infuse in 2h: 
pints of water, and give it before it is cold ; in slight colic 
and indigestion. 



DRENCHES, for Coughs, Epidemics, Catarrh, &c. (For 
linseed tea, compound infusion of linseed, barley water, 
&c., see Deenches, further back.) 

1. Simple Emulsion. Olive oil 2 oz., honey 3 oz., soft 
water 1 pint, subcarbonate of potash 2 drs. ; mix. — 

2. Linseed tea 1 pint, honey 2 oz., syrup of poppies 2 
oz., linseed oil 4 oz. 

3. B. Cxaek's Cough Brench. Linseed oil 2 oz., 
. solution of potash 40 drops, treacle 1 oz., soft water 10 oz. ; 


4. Powdered gum 2 oz., warm water a quart ; dissolve, 
and add honey 4 oz. — Moihoud. 

5. Marshmallow root 2 oz., water 22 or 3 pints ; boil to 
a quart, and add 4 oz. of treacle. — Moieoud. 

6. Liquorice and Marshmallow roots, of each 2 oz., water 
a quart ; boil, strain, and add honey 4 oz. — Lebas. 

7. Marshmallow root 2 oz., 4 pojipy heads, water a 
quart ; boil for ten minutes, strain, and add to the liquor 
before quite cold, 4 oz. of olive oil, 6 oz. of honey and 
the yolks of 4 eggs, pre\'iously well beaten together. — 


8. Compound decoction of linseed (see liquid medicines 
for horses, further back) 1 quai-t, oxymel 3 oz. 

9. Spei'maceti \ oz., olive oil 3 oz. ; melt together, and 
add, honey 4 oz., water (by a little at a time) to make uj) 
a quart ; repeat it twice a day. — Lebas. 

10. Camphorated 'Emulsion. Reduce to jiowder, with a 
few drops of spirit, 1 or 2 drs. of camphor, add 12 drops of 
oil of aniseed, and \\ oz. of simple emulsion. — White. 

11. Oxymel of squills 2 oz., opium \ dr. to 1 dr., linseed 
oil 2 oz. ; mix the opium with 8 oz. of water, and add the 
other ingredients ; for one dose. — White. 

12. For chronic coughs. Tar-water \ pint, lime-water \ 
pint, powdered squill 1 dr., every morning. — Blaine. 

13. In inflammation of the lungs, or catarrhal fever, 
Tartarized antimony, 2 drs., digitalis I2- drs., nitre 3 drs., 
simple oxymel 4 oz., compound decoction of linseed 8 oz. 
— Blaine. 

14. The same, omitting the digitalis, and substituting 
6 oz. of warm water for the dec. linseed. In influenza, 


when soreness of throat prevents swallowing balls. — 

1.5. In inflammation of the lungs : Ipecacuanha, 2 drs., 
laudanum 4 drs., powdered camphor 2 drs., Mindererus 
sph-it 4 oz., linseed tea |- pint. — Blaine. 

16. In pleurisy. Boil pearl barley, split figs, and 
raisins, each 6 oz., and liquorice root 2 oz., in 4 quarts of 
water downi to 3; strain, and add honey 1 lb, vinegar 

1 pint ; give 1 oz. nitre in a pint of this decoction every 
6 hours. — Taplin. 

17. li epidemic {epizootic) catarrh ; Spirit of nitrous 
ether 1 oz., Mindererus spirit 6 oz., with linseed tea. — 

18. Gibson's Drink for Catarrhal Epidemic. Colts- 
foot, hyssop, chamonule, of each a handful, linseed and 
garlic, each 1 oz., liquorice root sliced 1 oz., saffron \ oz. ; 
infuse in 2 quarts of boiling water ; give half in the morn- 
ing and the rest in the afternoon. 

19. In influenza {after bleeding). Oil of croton 5 drops, 
nitre 4 to 6 cli-s., tartarised antimony 1 dr., spiritof nitric 
ether | oz. to 1 oz., solution of acetate of ammonia (B. P.) 

2 to 4 oz., warm water q. s. Once or twice daily. Some- 
times J oz. of cream of tai-tar is added. — Spoonee. 

20. Forjnalignant ejndeniic Oxymel 4 oz., spirit of 
Mindererus 4 oz., beer yeast 4 oz., sweet spirit of nitre 1 oz. 

DIURETIC DEENCHES, for Dropsical Complaints, &c. 
The use qtf stimulating diuretics in retention of urine from 
inflammation of the neck of the bladder, is dangerous. 

1. Maekham's Dropsy Drench. Decoction of worm- 
wood in ale 2 quarts, soap 1 oz., grains of paradise 6 drs., 
long pepper 6 drs., treacle 3 oz. ; for one dose, fasting. 

2. For dropsy of the belly. Castile soap 2 oz., strong 
beer 1 pint ; dissolve, and add cascarilla 2 drs., ginger 3 drs., 
oil of juniper 2 drs. (or balsam of copaivi 1 oz.) ; mix, for 
one dose. — White. 

3. White soap 1 oz., spirit of turpentine 1 oz., honey 
4 oz., decoction of linseed 2 quarts ; for two doses. — 

4. Strained turpentine 2 oz., yolks of 6 eggs ; triturate 
together till incorporated, and add gradually 2 quarts of 
linseed tea; for 2 doses. — MoiBOUD, 


5. Wliite wiue and water 4 quarts, nitre 3 oz., honey 
4 oz. ; for 3 doses. — Lebas. 

6. Acetate of potash 2 or 3 oz., honey 6 drs., decoction of 
hemp or linseed 2 quarts; for 1 dose. — Moieocd. 

7. Acetate of potash 2 oz., camphor (rubbed with yolks 
of 2 eggs) 2 drs., decoction of linseed 2 quarts; for 2 doses, 
at an interval of some hours ; in irritation of the urinary 
passages, especially arising from cantharides or resinous 
irritants. — MoiEoro. 

8. Squill Drench. Decoction of pellitory of the wall 
1 quart, oxymel of squills 4 oz. — Moieoud. 

D. ColcJiicum Drench. Colchicum wine 2 oz., simple 
oxymel 4 oz., barley water 1 quart. 

10. Sweet spirit of nitre 4 oz., white wine 1 quart, 
water 2 quarts; for 3 doses; in dysuria not arising from 
mechanical obstruction, or inflammation of the neck of the 
bladder. — Lebas. 

11. Saline Diuretic Drink. Glauber's salt 2 oz., nitre 6 
drs., warm water 1 pint, sweet spirit of nitre 1 dr. — Claek. 


1. Expressed juice of cleavers 6 oz., strong decoction of 
hempseed 6 oz., essence of spruce 6 oz. ; mix; give every 
evening ; and a mercurial or arsenical ball in the morning. 
— Blaine. See Farcy Balls. 

2. For Glanders. Sulphate of copper 3 to 6 drs., gum 
Arabic 2 or 3 oz., dissolved in 2 or 3 phits of water. — 


1. Nitre 2 drs., tartar emetic ^ dr., M'arm water or thin 
gruel 12 oz. ; once or twice a day. — B. Claek. 

2. Sweet spirit of nitre 1 oz., spirit of Mindererus 6 oz., 
water 4 oz. 

3. Draught for Influenza. Spirit of nitrous ether 2 oz., 
tartarized antimony 1 dr., nitre 4 drs., warm water J pint. 
— Spoonee. 


1. Castor oil 6 oz., linseed oil 8 oz., gruel q. s. — Blaine. 

2. Glauber's or Epsom salts 6 or 8 oz., whey or gruel 
1 quart, castor oil 6 or 8 oz, — AVhite. 


3. Barbadoes aloes 2 di's., tartarized autimony 1 dr., 
warm water 4 oz. ; mix, and add castor oil 4 oz. — White. 

4. Laxative Febrifuge in Influenza. Linseed oil 12 oz., 
nitre 3 drs., camphor powdered 1 dr., sweet spirit of nitre 
1 oz., warm water \ pint. — Clatee. 

5. Laxative Anodyne Brink. In inflammation of the 
bowels ; Linseed oil 1 pint, opium 2 scrujiles, sweet spirit 
of nitre 6 drs., warm water 4 oz. — Ciatee. 

6. Aloes 2 or 3 drs., salt of tartar 1 dr., water or mint 
water ^ pint; mix, and add castor oil 4 to 6 oz. — White. 

7. A Cooling Purging Drink. Infuse 2 oz. senna with 
3 drs. salt of tartar in a quart of boiling water for 2 hours; 
strain and add 4 oz. Glauber's salts, and 2 or 3 drs. of 
cream of tartar. — Baktlet. 

8. Draught for Hepatitis. Carbonate of potash, and 
aloes, each 2 drs. ; dissolve in hot water, shake with 12 oz. of 
linseed oil, and calomel 1 dr. Repeat twice a day without 
the aloes, until relief is obtained. When in pam, add 1 oz. 
of tincture of opiiun. — Spooneh. 


1. B. aloes 2 oz., gum Arabic 1 oz.; powder and mix 
them, and pour on them a pint of boiling water. Take 
10 gr^. of farine of croton, and add to it gradually 4 oz. of 
the above solution. Repeat this dose every 6 hours till it 
operates ; in inflammation of the brain.— Clatee. 

2. Aloes 1 oz., soap 2 drs., salt of tartar 1 dr., water 
1 pint ; in apoplexy or staggers. — White. 

3. Infuse 1 oz.' of senna in a quart of boiling water, 
strain, and add 1 oz. of aloes in powder. — Bofrgelat. 

4. Aloes 1 oz., sulphate of magnesia 2 oz., aniseed 
powder \ oz., water a quart. — Lebas. 

5. Aloes 1 oz., syrup of buckthorn 4 oz., warm water 
a quai-t. — Lebas. 

from Indigestion. 

1. After a ball of aloes and calomel, and clyster of salt 
water ; Spirit of sal volatile i oz., cascarilla powder 2 drs., 
warm water ^ pint ; twice a day ; and the same without 
the cascarilla every hour. — White, 


2. Aloes 3 clrs., pimento 2 (Irs., gin^'oi' 1 (Ii'.; infuse in a 
quart of hot water, and when cold, add 2 oz. spirit of tur- 
pentine, and 1 oz. of spirit of hartshorn. Repeat in au 
hour if required. — BlAiNE. 

3. Laxative Tonic Drinks. Linseed oil 1 pint, powdered 
gentian 2 drs. ; every 6 hours till the bowels are properly 
opened. — Cxatee. 

4. Common salt 4 oz., ginger 2 drs., magnesia 1 oz., 
warm water 1 quart. — White. 

5. Valerian 1 oz., serpentary i oz., saffron 2 drs., infuse 
in a pint of boiling water, and, when nearly cold, strain 
off, and add 1 oz. tincture of assafffitida and 2 drs. of 
laudanum. — Taplin. 

6. After a Purgative. — Volatile tincture of valerian 1 
oz., powdered valerian 1^ oz., peppermint water 8 oz. ; 
mi.'c, for a dose. — White. 

TONIC DEEKCHES. Tonics are more generally admi- 
nistered in the form of balls. 

1. Mild Tonic in later stages of Epidemic Catarrh or 
Distemper. Gentian 1 dr., powdered ginger \ dr., casca- 
rilla 1 dr., wann water ^ pint, sweet spirit of nitre h oz. 
to 1 oz. ; to be repeated night and morning unless the 
pulse is quickened. — Clateb. 

2. Gentian root 2 oz., smaller centaury 1 oz., worm- 
wood ^ oz. ; boil in 3 ])ints of water to a quarter. — Vatel. 

3. Clark's Bitter Drench. Quassia chips 2 oz., water 
3 pints ; boil to 2 pints ; for 3 doses. 

4. Quassia 1 oz., ginger 2 drs., water 2 joints ; boil for 
10 minutes ; for 2 doses. 

5. Metallic Tonic, Sulphate of zinc \ dr., ginger or 
pimento 1 dr., ti-eacle 1 oz. ; mix, and add gradually 12 oz. 
of warm water. — K. Claek. 

6. Egyptian Tonic Drhik. In farcy and nasal gleet. 
^gyptiacum -J oz., pimento or ginger ^ dr., warm water 
12 oz. — Clark. 

7. Cantliarides Tonic Drench (for the same). Sulphate 
of zinc 15 grs., cantharides 7 grs., pimento 1-5 grs., treacle 
1 oz., warm water to form a drencli. 


1. Guaiacum wood 2 oz., sassafras 1 cz., linseed -J oz., 


\vater q. s. to yield a quart of decoction ; boil, strain, and 
add of corrosive sublimate 10 grs., sal ammoniac 2 drs. — 

2. Iodide of jiotassium 40 grs., iodine 10 grs., water a 
quart. — MoiROUD. 

3. Muriate of lime -^ oz., water a quart. — MoiEOUD. 


1. Common salt 2 oz., infusion of wormwood a quart. 
Repeat it for some days. — Moiroud. 

2. A quart of linseed oil. — Clatee. 

3. Oil of tui'ijentine 4 oz., linseed or castor oil 8 oz., 
gruel a pint ; preceded by a mild dose of aloes, and bran 

4. Fern root 2 oz., valerian 1 oz., Dippel's animal oil 
(empyreumatic oil of hartshorn) 1 oz., yolks of 2 eggs, 
honey 2 oz. ; boil the I'oots in 2 parts of water to half, in- 
corporate the oil with the egg, and then the honey, and 
mix the whole with the decoction. — Vatel. 

5. Animal oil 1 oz., yolks of 2 eggs, honey 1 oz., water 
or some bitter infusion a quart. Chabert recommends 
infusion of savory as a vehicle for the oil. — Lebas. 

6. Soot (wood soot ?) in fine powder 2 oz., spirit of 
wine 2 oz. ; mix, and add a quart of infusion of rue, or of 
tansy. Some practitioners prefer milk as a vehicle for 
worm medicines. — MoiROUD. For other worm remedies, 
see Worm Balls. 

*#* Worms may be prevented by a properly regulated 
dietary, and access to rock salt. — Finlax Dun. 

TEMPER.— Pestilential or Putrid Fever. 

1. Gentian 1 dr., calumba 2 dr., ginger 1 dr., laudanum 
^ oz., spirit of niti'ous ether ^ oz., peppermint water 3 oz. 
— Clatee. 

2. Gentian 2 oz., willow bark 6 oz., water 3 pints; boil 
to a quart, and add solution of acetate of ammonia (B. P.) 
6 oz. — MOIEOUD. 

3. Dissolve 5 dr. of chloride of lime in 8 oz. water, and 
add spirit of nitric ether ^ oz., laudanmu j oz. tincture 
of calumba 1 oz. j twice a d;iy. — Clatee. 


4. Bruised bark 3 oz., acetate of ammonia (B. P.) 4 oz., 
camphor 1 dr. ; boil the bark in 2 quarts of water in a 
covered vessel for a quarter of an hour ; strain, and when 
cool, add the camphor (rubbed \vith yolk of egg or honey), 
and the acetate of ammonia. — Lebas. 

5. Spirit of nitric ether 1 oz., Mindererxis' spirit 4 oz., 
infusion of chamomile 6 oz., beer yeast 6 oz., tincture of 
opium 3 drs. — Blaine. See also Antiseptic Drenches 

ANTISEPTIC DRENCHES, to check Mortification. 

1. Peru\-ian bark 1 oz., ginger 2 dr., opium 1 dr., fresh 
beer q. s. — White. 

2. Opium 1 dr., carbonate of ammonia 1 dr., aromatic 
powder 2 drs., camphor 1| drs., good ale or porter, a pint. 

3. Chloride of lime or soda 2 to 3 drs., serpentary in 
powder 1 oz., fresh beer, or sweet wort 1 quart. — White. 

gative drink (No. 1) 4 oz., vinegar 4 oz., thick gruel 4 oz.; 
repeat it every 6 hours, without the croton, till purging is 
produced, — Clatee. 


leaves 8 oz., rue 8 oz. ; cut them very tine and boil hi 
3 jnnts of milk, in a close vessel, for an liour, and strain ; 
boil the ingredients another hour in 3 pints of water, and 
strain ; mix the decoction ; give a third part every morn- 
ing fasting. — Blaine. 

2. Excise and cauterize the bitten part at once. Chloral 
hydrate, belladonna and ammonia, the latter, subcutane- 
ously. — F inlay Dun. 

Curara, the potent arrow-poison of the South American 
Indians, has been proposed as a remedy for rabies. 


1. Ergot of rye in line powder 2 or 3 drs., pennyroyal 
water, or infusion of rue, 1 quart. 

2. Saffron 6 drs., chamomile 2 oz., boiling water a quart ; 
make an infusion, to be given warm. 1 oz. of dried savin. 


^\■itll 1 oz. of cassia, may be substituted for the saffi'oii. — 


1. Opium 1 dr. dissolved in warm water, ^ pint; add 1 
quart of starch gruel. 

2. Oil of peppermint 50 drops, dissolved in a pint of 
warm water, with 2 oz. of gum Arabic ; add tincture of 
opium I oz. 

3. Mix tincture of oijlum J oz., with sweet spirits of 
nitre 1^ oz., essence of peppermint 1 dr., and water 1 pint. 

lODESTE DRENCH. Iodide of potassium 2 scruples, iodine 
12 grs. ; triturate together, and add gradually a quart of 
water. — Moiboi'd. 




Solution of Aloes. Aloes 1 part, water 7 parts, proof spirit 
1 part ; dissolve the aloes in water by means of a water- 
bath, and when removed, add the spirit.— Moeto>". 

Anodyne Carminative Tincture. Opium 1 oz., cloves 1 oz., 
ginger 1 oz., old brandy (rum or giu) 1 quart ; digest in a 
corked bottle, shaking daily. — White. 

Ethereal Tincture of Opium. Turkey opium 1 lb, spirit of 
nitric ether 8 tbs. ; macerate for a month. Dose, ^ oz. to 
1 oz., in spasmodic colic— Dickens. 

Gripe Tincture. Tincture of Pimento. Ground pimento 
1 ft), rectified spirit, and soft water, of each 3 pints ; digest 
for sonie days and strain : give 4 fl. oz. at once, and repeat 
every hour till relieved. — B. Clark. 

Tincture of Foxglove. Digest 3 oz. of di-ied foxglove m a 
quart of any spirit. — YorATT. 

Infusion of Foxglove. Infuse 1 oz of powdered foxglove in 
a quart of boiling water till cold. — YouATT. 

Tincture of Myrrh. Myrrh 2 oz., sand 2 oz., rectified spirit 
and soft water, of each \ pint.^B. Clark. 

Tincture of Aloes and Myrrh. Aloes 12 oz., myrrh 6 oz., 
rectified spirit 1 gallon, water ^ gallon ; digest l-l days, 
frequently shaking, and filter. For outward use, rectified 
wood naphtha may be substituted for the spirit. — V. C. 

Tincture for Colic. Opium 1 dr., horseradish 2 oz., capsi- 
cum 1 oz., spirit of nitric ether 1 ftj ; macerate 14 days ; 
dose, 1 oz., with 2 oz. of spirit of nitric ether, every 2 
hours as long as necessary. — Gregory. 

Tincture of Croton. Bruised croton seeds 1 oz.; rectified 
spirit 16 oz. Digest for 7 days, and filter. Dose, k oz. to 
1 oz. in water. 

Tincture of Iodine. Iodine 1 part, rectified spirit 8 parts ; 

dose, 1 to 2 drs. — V. C. The following is preferable : 
Compound Tincture of Iodine. Iodine 1 oz., iodide of potas- 
sium 2 oz., spiri 


Solution of Chloride of Lime. 1. Chloride of liino 1 dr., 
water 8 oz.; mix in a mortar, and filter. — ClateBt 

2. Chloride of lime 1 part, water 10 parts. — Cheval- 


3. Chloride of lime 1 part, water 48 pai-ts. — Lakbae- 
EAQUE. See Lotions, mider Medicines foe Horses. 

Solution of Nitre. Nitre 1 part, water 7 parts. — V. C. 

Solution of Ammonio- Sulphate of Cojyper. Dissolve 1 part 
of sulphate of eopper in 4 parts of water, and add ammo- 
nia until it begins to precipitate. 4 ounces every 8 hours 
as a tonic. — Jeckyll. 

Solution of Senhane. Extract of henbane 4 drs., spirit of 
nitric ether 4 oz. Antispasmodic ; dose, 2 oz., with or 
without solution of aloes. — Wright. 

For Solutions and TiNCTVEES/or outivard use, see Extee- 
NAL Applications (Vet. Formulary), further on. 


Laxatioe. 1. Aloes 1 oz., water 2 or 3 quarts. — Yofatt. 

2. Water gruel 1 gallon, olive oil 1 pint. — White. 

3. Epsom salts 6 oz. (or common salt 6 oz., or soap 
2 oz.), thin gruel or broth 5 quarts. — Blaine. 

4. Soft soap 2 oz., warm water f of a pailful. — B. 

5. Infuse 3 oz. senna in 2 quarts of water, and add 
Epsom salts 4 oz., honey 6 oz. — Moieoud. 

6. Chamomiles, fennel seed, coriander seed, of each 1 
oz., caraways \ oz. ; boil iu 2 quarts of water to 3 pints ; 
strain, add 2 oz. Epsom salts, and wdien nearly cool, 
i pint of olive oil and \ pint of tincture of semia. — ■ 

Purgative. 1. Aloes 8 to 12 drs., salt 8 oz., water 1 gallon : 

in staggers. — White. 

2. Senna 2 oz., tobacco 2 oz. ; boil for a quai-ter of an 

hour in 2 quarts of water, strain, and add common salt 4 

oz., emetic taiiar 1 dr. ; for 2 doses. Very irritating. — 

Emollient, Dried mallow leaves, or marshmallow root, 1^ 

oz., linseed ^ oz., water 2 quarts ; boil and strain ; to be 

used warm. — MoiEOUD, 



Emollient and Anodi/ne. 1. Mix 6 drs. of starch in powder 
with a httle cold water, and add it to a decoction of 6 
poppy -heads in 2 quarts of water ; boil for an instant and 
strain : in intestinal irritation. — MoiEOUD. 

2. Gruel 2 pints, liquid starch or arrowTOot 1 pint, 
powdered opium 1 dr. to 1,^ dr. — AVhite. 

3. Boil 6 poppy-heads in 4 quarts of water till reduced 
to 2 quarts j add prepared chalk 2 oz., boiled starch 2 
quarts ; once or twice a day hi diarrhoea. — Blaine. 

4. A double handful of coarse bran, 6 poppy-heads, 
2 quarts of water ; boil and strain. — Moieoud. 

5. Tripe liquor (or suet boiled in milk) 3 pints, tliin 
starch a quai-t, laudanum | oz. ; in diarrhoea. 

Cooling. Butter-milk or whey, barley-water, of each a 

quart. — Moieoud. 
Carminative and Stimulant. 1. Chamomiles 3 oz., aniseed 

or fennel seed 1|- oz., 4 pojjpy heads ; l)oil the poppies in 

sufficient water, and infuse the flowers and seeds in the 

hot decoction. — Vatei. 

2. To expel wind. Boil 1 ft of figs in 3 quarts of water 

for half an hour, then add 2 handf uls of chopped rue ; 

boil a few minutes, strain, and add 8 oz. of olive oil. — 


For Gripes. Mash 2 onions, pour over them 2 oz. of oil of 
turpentine, and 4 quarts of tliin gruel. — Blaine. 

Astringent. 1. Alum whey 1 quart, thin starch a quart. 
2. Suet milk 3 pints, starch gruel 2 pints, laudanum 
i oz. 

Vermifuge. 1. For Thread Worms. Powdered aloes ^ oz., 
powdered gum Arabic | oz.; mix with half a pint of boiling 
water; then mix the white of an egg with a quart of 
linseed oil, and gradually add the solution of aloes. — 

2. Infuse 4 oz., of tansy in 2 quarts of water ; strain 
and add 2 oz. of animal oil (empyreumatic oil of harts- 
horn) ; also the worm drenches (Nos. 4 and 6) may be 
used in this method. — Moieoud. 

Uterine Stimulants. 1. Infuse a handful of rue in 2 quarts 
of water, and add 2 oz. of common salt. 

2. Savine 2 oz., sal ammoniac 4 dr. : as the last. 

Diuretic. 1. Nitre 1 oz., decoction of linseed 3 pints. 


2. Camphorated. Incorporate 4 drs. of camphor witli 
tlie yolks of 2 q§§^, and add it to the last. — Moirotjd. 
For Irritable Bladder. 1. Belladonna leaves 3 oz., water 3 
pints ; boil and administer warm. — MoiEOIJD. 

2. Extract of belladonna 2 drs., boiling water 1|- pint. 
Nourishing. 1. Thick gruel 3 quarts, ale 1 quart. — Blainb. 

2. Milk 2 quarts, yolks of 4 eggs ; mix, and give warm. 


3. Strong broth 2 quarts, thickened milk 2 quarts. — 

4. Tripe liquor or broth 3 quarts, flour 4 oz., ; mix the 
flour in the hot broth ; repeat fi-equently. — Moirotjd, 

External ^pplitations. 



1. Powdered Spanish Flies 1 oz., spirit of wine 6 oz., 
water of ammonia 2 oz. ; let it stand for a week, shaking 
frequently, and strain. (See No. 11.) — White. 

2. Flies 1 oz., euphorbium ^ oz., oil of turjjentine 4 oz. ; 
digest for 2 or 3 days, and pour off the liquid ; digest the 
flies, &c., in 4 oz. of spirits of wine and 2 oz. of water of 
ammonia for 3 or 4 days, shaking frequently ; strain ofE 
this liquid, and mix it with the former. This is more 
active than the last.— White. 

3. Blaine's Liquid Blister. Spanish flies, coarsely 
powdered, 8 oz., oil of turpentine 2 quarts ; steep for 3 
weeks, strain, and add a quart of olive oil. 

4. Blaine's Milder or Sweating Liquid. Mix 4 oz. of 
the last \vith 6 oz. of oil. 

5. Clater's Strong Liquid Blister. Si>irits of turpen- 
tine coloured with alkanet, 1 gallon, powdered flies 1 ft ; 
macerate for a month, shaking daily, then pour off the 
clear fluid for use. 

6. Common or Sweating Liquid. Mix the last with 
equal ]jart of spermaceti oil. 


7. Powdered flies 3 oz., spirit of tui'peutme a inni ; 
digest for a few days. — Yocatt. 

8. Blistering Liquid. The \'iiiegar of cantliaridos 
(Acetuni Caiitharides. Epispasticuiu) of the British Phar- 

9. Blistering Liniment for immediate use. Spanish flies 
in fine powder 1 oz., oil of turpentine 6 oz. To be rubbed 
on the belly in infiammation of the boivels. — White, 
Cantharides 3 drs., in hartshorn 4 oz. ; in a fortnight, 
strain, and add olive oil 4 oz. — Spooxer. 

10. Croton I/iniment. A tincture of croton nuts with 
oil of turpentine is used as a blister, but is not so eflica- 
cious as cantharides. — You ATT. 

11. White's Mustard Blister. Best flour of mustard 
8 oz., water enough to form a paste, oil of turpentine 2 oz. ; 
water of ammonia 1 oz. 

12. Blistering Tincture. Flies 1 oz., proof spirit 8 oz. ; 
macerate 2 or 3 weeks ; mix and filter. To be rubbed in, 
and repeated next day if necessary. — White. 

13. Saturated tincture of cantharides 1 oz., bicliloride 
of mercury 6 grs. — Kent. 

14. Powdered cantharides 1 dr., oli\e oil 2 oz. To be 
applied every 48 hours for a week in old spavin. — Taplix. 

15. Oil of Cantharides (by infusion). Digest 1 ounce 
of powdered cantharides in 8 ounces of olive oil in a water- 
bath, for two hours, and strain. 

16. Cantharides Solution (for setons). Digest 1 ounce 
of p. flies with 8 of oil of tviri^entine, with a gentle heat, 
for 14 days ; strain, and add to the clear liquid an equal 
weight of Canada balsam. Soak the cotton cord in the 
solution, draw it between the finger and thumb, and dry 
it. — Morton. 


1. Soft soap 4 oz., camj^hor 1 oz., proof spirit 2 pints, 
water of ammonia \ pint. — V. C. 

2. Sweet oil 2 oz., sjnrit of hartshorn 1 oz., oil of tur- 
pentine i oz. — White. 

3. Common oil 6 oz., liquid blister 2 or 3 oz. : in chronic 
sprains. — Blaine. 

4. Soap Liniment. Soft soap 6 oz., water 8 oz. ; dis- 


solve, and acid 1 pint of rectified spirit, in which is dis- 
solved 2 oz. camphor, 1 oz. oil of rosemary, and 2 to 4 oz. 
strong water of ammonia. — White. 

5. For splints. Oil of origanum 1 oz., spirit of turpen- 
tine 1 oz., spirit of wine ^ oz. To be applied night and 
morning for a few days, discontinuing it as often as any 
moisture appears. — Lancet. 

6. For the same purpose. Oil of origanum ^ oz., oil of 
turpentine ^ oz., campliorated spirit of wine 2 oz. — 

7. For sprains, old sivellings, rheumatism, cf'c. Spirit of 
hartshorn 2 oz., camphorated spirit 2 oz., oil of turpentine 

1 oz., laudaniim | oz., oil of origanum 1 dr. 

8. Camphorated oil 4 oz., oil of turpentine 1 oz., oil of 
origaniim 1 dr. 

9. For callous sicellings after bruises. Soap liniment 
4 oz., camphor 2 drs., water of ammonia 1 oz. 

10. For indolent tumours : Mercurial ointment 2 oz., 
olive oil 2 drs., camphor 2 drs. 

11. Olive oil 4 oz., water of ammonia 2 oz., oil of tur- 
pentine 2 oz. 

12. For strains. Barbadoes tar 2 oz., sjiirit of tiirpen- 
tine 2 oz., opodeldoc 4 oz.— Taplin. 

13. Oil of turpentine 2 parts, muriatic acid 1 part. — 

14. Camphorated oil 4 parts, oil of turpentine and tinc- 
ture of cantharides, of each 2 parts, acetic acid 1 oz. — 

15. Turpentine Liniment. Equal parts of oil of tur- 
pentine and oil. Digestive and rubefacient. — V. C. 

16. Compound Turpentine Liniment. Soft soap 4 oz., 
camphor 1 oz., oil of tiirpentine 16 oz. ; mix. — V. C. 

LINIMENT FOR EOG SPAVIN. Mercurial ointment 

2 oz., oil of cantharides 4 drs. — Moeton. 

LINIMENT FOR SORE BACKS. Extract of lead \ oz., 
vinegar 1 oz., olive oil 2 oz. — White. 

LICE, &c. 

1. Equal parts of oil of tar, oil of turpentine, and seal 


oil. Apply every second day for 2 or 3 times, then wash. 
—V. C. 

2. Sulphnr 4 oz., turpentine 4 oz., oil of tar and train oil 
6 or 8 oz. The parts to be first washed with soft soap, 
and dried. 

3. For lice: Sublimate 1 dr., muriatic acid 3 drs., 
tobacco water 2 pints, oil of turpentine 4 oz. — White. 

4. Liniment for Mange. Goulard's extract of lead 2 oz., 
olive or rape oil 2 oz., sulphur 1 oz. 

BAD THRUSHES. See also Caustics and Lotions. 

1. Barbadoes tar 1 oz., oil of turpentine IJ oz. ; mix 
carefully, and add oil of vitriol 1 di'. — White. 

2. Butter of antimony alone. 

3. Crystallized verdigris in fine powder 1 oz., honey 
2 oz., bole and alum, of each i oz., vinegar to form a lini- 
ment ; to be mixed over a gentle fire. Greasy applications 
are to be avoided. — White. 

4. Carbolic acid. 

See also Detergent Liniments, below. 


1. Oil of turpentine 1 oz., oil of vitriol 2 drs. by measure ; 
mix in a large gallipot, and when cool, add 2 oz. of linseed 
oil. — White. 

_ 2. ^gyjptiacum. Bruised sulphate of copper 12 oz., 
vinegar 4 fts., treacle 3 lbs. : place over a clear fire, and let 
it boil up. — R. Claek. 

3. Wash for Grease. Sulphate of copper 2 drs., and 
alum 2 drs. in water 1 pint. 


See also Embbocations. 
Creasote Liniment. Creasote 2 oz., oil of turpentine 4 oz., 

olive oil 4 oz. ; mix; infsfidous sores, tinheaWni wounds, 

Sfc.—Y. C. ^ 

Oil of Cantharides. Powdered flies 1 oz., olive oil 8 oz. ; 

digest in a water-bath for 2 or 3 hours, and filter.— V. C. 
Goulard Liniment. Extract of lead 1 oz., olive oil 4 oz. — 

Morton. For excoriated surfaces, cfc. 


Saturnine Balsam. Acetate of load 1 oz., oil of turpentine 
2 oz. ; digest with a gentle heat. — MoiEorD. 

Drying Liniment. Linseed oil and spirit of wine, of each 
equal parts. — Solletsell. 

Marshmallow Liniment. Olive oil and niarshmallow oint- 
ment, of each 4 oz. ; melt the ointment and add the oil. — 


Emollient and Anodyne Liniment. Neatsfoot oil 4 oz., pop- 
lar ointment, marshmallow ointment, of each 2 oz. — 


Lime-water Liniment. Lime water 8 oz., olive or linseed oil 

2 oz. 
Narcotic Liniment. Olive oil 4 oz., laudanum 2 oz. — 


Liniment for cnnflrmed Orease. Verdigris, sugar of lead, 
of each \ oz., honey 1 oz. ; mix. — Clatee. 

Compound Iodine Liniment. Iodine 1 oz., soap liniment 
8 oz.— V. C. 

Turpentine Liniment. Equal parts of turpentine and olive 
oil.— V. C. 

Resolvent Liniment. Olive oil 2 oz., strong mercurial oint- 
ment 2 drs., water of ammonia 2 drs. 

Black Oils. Olive (or rape) oil 1 pint, oil of turpentine 
2 oz., mix, and add gradually 6 drs. of sulphuric acid ; leave 
the bottle open till cold. — Peecivall. 

Oils for Mange. Oil of turpentine 1 pint ; add to it, very 
gradually and cautiously, 2 oz. of oil of vitriol, stirring the 
mixture constantly, then add a quart of linseed oil ; from 
4 to 8 oz. to be rubbed in with a brush every second day, 
for 3 or 4 times. — Clatee. 

Waed's White Oils. Spirit of wine, oil of turpentine, rape 
oil, beef brine, camphor, of each equal parts. 

White Oils or Egg Oils. 1. Yolks of 2 eggs, 3 oz. solution 
of ammonia, 1 oz. oil of origanum, 4 oz. oil of tur- 
pentine, a pint of vinegar ; mix, s. a. — Phaemaceutical 

2. Distilled vinegar 1^ pint, oil of turpentine li dr., 
spirit of wine 1^ oz., Goulaed's extract of lead i oz., 
whites and yolks of 2 eggs : mix the turpentine and 
Goulard with the eggs, gradually add the vinegar, and 
lastly the spirit. — Redwood's Geay's Supplement, 


Liniment of Ammonia. This is sometimes tei'med White 
Oils. Olive or rape oil 4 oz., water of ammonia 1 oz. 
Sometimes 1 oz. of oil of turpentine is added to increase its 

Darhy's Oils. Eqnal parts of oil of amber, Barbadoes tar, 
and balsam of sulphur. 

Maeshall's Oils. Linseed oil 1 ft, olive or rape oil 1 ft, 
green oil ^ ft, oil of turpentine ^ ft, oil of vitriol li drs. 

Neiumarket Oils. Linseed oil, oil of turpentine, green oil, 
of each 3 lbs, oil of vitriol 1 oz. 

Nine Oils. Train oil 23 fts, oil of turpentine 6 ftjs, oil of 
bricks 1 ft, oil of amber 1 ftj, spirit of camphor 2 ftjs, Barba- 
does tar 7 ft)s, oil of vitriol 2 oz. — Gray's SrpPLEiiEXT. 

Eadley's Oils. Barbadoes tar 8 oz., linseed oil 4 oz., oil of 
tui-pentine 4 oz. 

Lord Stamford's Mixed Oils. Oil of origanum 6 oz., oil 
of turpentine 24 oz., spu'it of wine 16 oz., green oil 6 ft)S, 
camphor 3 oz. 


(See also LrN"i5iE>'TS and Lotioxs.) 

Embrocation for Strains. 1. Soft soap 1 oz., spirit of wine 
4 oz., oil of rosemary 2 drs., camphor 2 drs. 

2. For strains in the shoulder. Oil of turpentine 1 oz., 
camphorated spirit 2 oz. — Blacker. 

3. Equal quantities of soft soap, oil of turpentine, sjiirit 
of wine, and elder ointment. — White. 

4. Soft soap 2 oz., oil of bays 1 oz., water of ammonia 
1|^ oz., oil of origanum i oz. 

5. Barbadoes tar 2 oz., spirit of tuiiientine 2 oz., opo- 
deldoc 4 oz. After fomenting with hot vinegar and 
Goulard. — Taplix. 

Mustard Embrocations. 1. Mustard flour 4 oz., water of 
ammoiiia 1^ oz., oil of turjjentine 1 oz., water enough to 
bring it to the consistence of cream. 

2. Camphor 1 oz., oil of turpentine 1 oz., water of am- 
monia 2 oz., flour of mustard 8 oz., water to fonn a thin 
paste. — White. 

Embrocations for Poll Evil. Spirit of wine J pint, camphor 


2 drs., C4oulard's extract of lead 1 dr. ; mix. — Hinds. See 
DiscTTiEXT Lotions. 
Embrocations for Saddle-galls or Warhles. 1. Goulard's 
extract of lead 2 drs., distilled vingar 3 oz., spirit of wiiie 
4 oz. — White. 

2. Soap liniment and Mindererus spirit, equal parts. 

3. Sal ammoniac ^ oz., muriatic acid 2 drs., water 8 to 
12 oz. 

4. Wliite vinegar 3 oz., spirit of wine 3 oz., sugar of 
lead 2 drs., water 6 oz. ; mix. — Hinds. 

Clark's Emhrocatio Frigorifera. Vinegar 4 oz., camphor 
(dissolved in spirit) \ oz., ^\•ater to fill up a ^\'ine bottle. 

Clark's Emlrocatio Excitans. Olive oil 3 oz., camphor \ 
dr., spirit of turpentine ^ oz., water of ammonia 3 drs. 

Taplin's Embrocation for Windgalls. Oil of origanmn, 
spirit of turpentine, of each ^ oz., camphorated spirit 1 
oz. Applied with tow, and covered -w-ith a piece of lead 
bound on. 


COOLING LOTIONS, for external inflamm&tion. 

1. Sal ammoniac 1 oz., nitre 2 oz., water 16 oz. To be 
used as soon as made. — Morton. 

2. Goulard's extract of lead 1 oz., vinegar 2 oz., cam- 
phorated spirit 3 oz., water 16 oz. ; for recent spavin. — 

3. V. C. Goulard Water. Goulard's extract 2 drs., spirit 
2 drs., soft water 1 pint. 

4. White's Sattirnine Lotion. Sugar of lead 1 oz., 
vinegar and water of each 1 pint. 

5. B. Clark's Lotio Refrigerans. Liquor of diacetate 
of lead 1 dr., spirit of nitric ether 1 dr., water 2 puits. 
In slight rubs and bruises. 

DISCUTIENT LOTIONS for dispersing indolent t^umour 
and saddle-galls and for chronic strains, &c. 

1. Mindererus spirit 4 oz., camphorated spirit 4 oz., 
water 16 oz.— Percivall. 

2. Sal ammoniac 1 oz., vinegar 8 oz., camphorated spirit 
• 1 oz. — Morton. 


3. Tor saddle-galls and warbles. Goulard's extract 2 
drs., distilled vinegar 3 oz., spirit of wane 4 oz. — White. 

4. Mui'iate of ammonia I oz., mi;riatic acid 2 drs., water 
8 to 12 oz. ; /"or saddle-galls and windgalls. — White. 

5. Blaine's Saline Emhrocation. Sal ammoniac 8 oz., 
vinegar 3 pints. 

6. Mindererus spirit 2 oz., soap liniment 2 oz. — White. 

7. For warhles. White vinegar 3 oz., spirit of wine 3 oz., 
sugar of lead 2 drs., water 6 oz.— Hinds. 

8. Strong solution of salt 1 oz., tincture of myrrh \ oz., 
for saddle-galls. — YoUATT. 

9. Common salt 4 oz., vinegar \ pint, cold water 1 quart, 
spirit of wine and laudanum, each 1 oz. : in incipient 
poll-evil. — Clatee. 

10. White vinegar 1 pint, extract of lead 2 o?., cam- 
phorated spirit 4 oz., soft water 1 pint. — Taplin. 

11. For strains. Bay salt ^ lb, sal ammoniac 2 oz., sugar 
of lead i oz., vinegar 1^ pint, water 1 pint. 

ASTRINGENT LOTIONS, for drying up sores and diminish- 
ing their discharge (especially in grease and scratched 
heels), after the inflammation has been subdued by linseed 
or carrot poultices. 

1. Alum 4 oz., boiling water 1 pint, for grease and 
cracked heel. — Taplin. 

2. Alum 2 drs., sulphate of zinc 1 scruple, water 1 pint. 
— YorATT. 

3. Mild, for cracks. Sugar of lead 2 di's., sulphate of 
zinc 1 dr., infusion of oak bark 1 pint. — Blaine. 

4. For confirmed grease. Nitric acid 1 oz., water 8 oz. 
— Blaine. 

5. Strong, Blue vitriol \ oz., alum 3 drs., water 1 pint. 
— Spoonee. 

6. Sugar of lead 1 oz., blue vitriol 1 oz., water 1 quart. 
— White. 

7. Lime water 16 oz., spirit of camphor \ oz., sugar of 
lead 1 dr. — Bouegelat. 

8. Sulphate of iron 2 oz., alum 2 oz., vinegar 8 oz., 
water 3i- pints. — Moieoud. 

9. Tincture of myrrh 1 oz., camphorated spirit 1 oz., 
distilled vinegar and water, each 2 oz. — Taplin. 


10. For anburies. Alum 2 oz., water 1 pint, sulphuric 
acid 1 dr. 

11. Sulphate of irou 1 oz., water 1 quart; dissolve and 
add i oz. (by weight) of oil of vitriol. To toash farcy buds 
after they have been o^enec/.— Clater. 

12. One fluid drachm of carbolic acid in from 6 to 12 oz. 
of water. 

DETERGENT LOTIONS, for foul ulcers. 

1. Sulphate of copper 1 oz., nitric acid \ oz., water 6 oz. 
— White. 

2. Sulphate of copper 1 oz., sulphm-ic acid 12 drops, 
water 4 oz. 

3. Sulphate of copper 2 drs., M-ater 1 pint : for stimu- 
lating old ulcers. — Youatt. 

4. Sulphate of copper 1 oz., water 1 oz. : to remove 
fungous granulations. 

5. Nitrous acid 1 oz., quicksilver ^ oz. ; dissolve, and 
add water 8 oz. 


1. WTiite hellebore 2 oz., tobacco 2 oz., water 3 pints; 
boil, stram, and add, when cold, a pint of fresh lime-water. 
— Blaine. 

2. Boil 4 oz. of white hellebore in 3 pints of water to 2 
pints, and add corrosive sublimate 2 drs., previously dis- 
solved in 3 drs. of muriatic acid. — White. 

3. Boil 2 oz. of tobacco in a quart of water, strain, and 
add common salt 3 oz., soap 2 oz. — Lebas. 

4. Liver of sulphur 2 oz., water 1 quart. — Moirottd. 

5. Liver of sulphur 4 oz., soft soap 16 oz., water 2 
gallons. — Lebas. 

6. Acid nitrate of mercury 2 drs., distilled water 16 oz. 


7. Mercurial Wash. Sublimate 2 drs., spirit of wine 2 
oz., Avater 2 pints. — Clark. 

8. Chloride of lime 1 lb, water a gallon. Mix. — 

9. One fluid drachm of carbolic acid in from 6 to 12 oz. 
of water. — TusoN, 



Conglutinum. Sulphate of zinc 4 oz., water a pint. — BracY 

BlacJc Wash. For sluggish ulcers. Calomel 2 drs., lime- 
water 1 pint. 

Yelloiv Wash. Sublimate 8 grs., limewater 4 oz. 

Nitric Acid Lotion. Nitric acid 2 or 3 drs., Avater 1 pint; for 
exciting sluggish ulcers. — Moeton. 

Lotion of Nitrate of Silver. For the same. Nitrate of silver 
10 grs., distilled water 1 oz. — YoUATT. 

Lotion for Farcy. Dissolve 1 oz. of sulphate of iron in a 
quart of water, and add 5 oz. of oil of vitriol. — Clater. 

Styptic Lotion, for Stopping Bleeding. Alum 2 oz., sulphate 
of zinc 2 drs., water 1 quart. 

Catechu Lotion for Ulcers of the Mouth. Infuse 2 oz. of 
catechu in a cpiart of boiling water for an hour ; strain, 
and add 1 oz. of spirit of wine. (For saddle-galls add 4 
oz. of tincture of catechu and 8 oz. common salt.) — 


Lotion of Chloride of Lime. To chloride of lime 1 ft add 
gradually 1 gallon of water ; mix, and filter or decant : 
for mange, and as a stimulant to unhealthy wounds and 
fistulous sores. Diluted with 10 or 15 parts of water, it 
is used as a lotion for grease, exfoliated bones, &c., and is 
a disinfectant for foul stables. For ulcers of the tongue, 
mix 1 dr. of chloride of lime with a pint of water; for 
mange, 4 drs. to a pint. 

Wash for destroying Lice about the Legs. Corrosive subli- 
mate 1 dr., muriatic acid 3 drs., tobacco water 1 quart, oil 
of turpentine 4 oz. — White. 

Alum Mouth Wash. Alum 2 drs.,'sage tea a quart. — Eckel. 

For Bruised Gums. Alum 2 drs., tincture of myri-h 1 oz., 
honey 1 oz., water 2 oz. — Spooner. 

Acid Collutorium. Infusion of sage a quart, muriatic acid 
1 oz., flour 3 oz., honey 8 oz. To be applied to the mouth 
frequently. — E CJi el. 


1. Tobacco 4 oz., boiling water a quart; infuse for 24 


2. Mercurial. SLiblimate 2 drs., spirit of wine 2 oz., 
water 1 quart. 
The following LIQUID CAUSTICS are for canker, 
thrush, foul, unhealthy wounds, and to remove proud 
flesh, &c. See also Liniments (Detergent). 


1. Tincture of muriate of iron. 

2. Sulphate of copper 1 oz., water from 4 oz. (V. C.) to 
a pint. — Clatee. 

3. Saturated solution of sulphate of zinc : in quitters. — 

4. Alum i oz., borax | oz., boiling water 4 oz., styptic 
tincture 1 oz. — Taplin. 

5. Muriatic acid, alone or diluted. 

6. iEgyptiacum 2 oz., nitrous acid 20 drops. 

7. Any of the stronger caustics (except butter of anti- 
mony) diluted ^^'ith water. 

8. Goulard's extract 4 oz., suliihate of zinc 2 oz., sul- 
phate of cojjper 2 oz. ; white vinegar 32 oz. — Villate. 

9. Aloes 5 oz., weak spirit 10 oz. ; dissolve, and add 
6 oz. of sulphuric acid. — Dutille. 


1. Butter of antimony. This is the safest and most 
useful caustic in canker. 

2. Dissolve 1 oz. of quicksilver, by heat, in 2 oz. of 
nitric acid, and evaporate till the liquid weighs 2^ oz. 

3. Verdigris 1 oz., nitrous (red idtric) acid 1 oz. ; dis- 
solve. — White. 

4. Red precipitate 1 oz., nitrous acid 2 oz. — White. 

5. Nitrous acid, alone or with a little water. 

6. Sulphuric acid, alone or with a little water. 

7. Sublimate 1 dr., muriatic acid 2 drs., water q. s. — 

8. For canker. Dissolve corrosive sublimate ^ oz. in 
muriatic acid 1 oz., then add spirits of wine 4 oz., and 
water 4 oz. 

9. Cldoride of zinc with enough water to dissolve it; or 
Sir William Burnett's Patent Solution. 



1. Lunar caustic 1 dr., distilled water ^ oz. — Blaixe. 

2. Corrosive sublimate 2 drs., water 3 oz. 

Scalding Mixture for Poll-Evil. 1. Sublimate 2 drs., verdi- 
gris 2 drs., blue viti'iol 2 di's., sulphate of iron 4 drs., honey 
2 oz., oil of turpentine 8 oz., spirit of wAixq 4 oz.; to be 
applied hot, and confinetL-by stitches. — Gibson. 

3. Sublimate 1 dr., finely powdered and mixed with 4 oz. 
of basilicon, and melted to scalding heat. — Blaine. 

4. Caustic potash 1 dr., rubbed down with 4 oz. oil of 
turpentine. — Blaine. 

CAUSTIC FOR FARCY BUDS. Sublimate 1 dr., muriatic 
acid 3 drs., spirit of wine 1 oz., water | oz. — White. 

SOLID CAUSTICS. Lunar Caustic, Caustic Potash, and 
Chloride of Zinc. See Argenti nitras, Potassse hydras, and 
Zinci chloridum, Pocket Formulary. 

Canquoin's Caustic is made by mixing chloride of zinc with 
twice its weight of flour and a little water into a stifE 
paste, which is to be rolled out to the required thickness, 
and cut to the size of the part to be destroyed, the skin 
being pre\'iously removed by a blister. Another caustic is 
made with 2 jjarts of chloride of zinc, 1 of butter of anti- 
mony, and 5 of flour. 

Sulphuric Caustic is made by triturating hay saffron wdth oil 
of vitriol, so as to form a ductile mass. Bouchaedat 
recommends solidifying the acid by ivory or lamp black. 

Solidified Nitric Acid is merely lint soaked with strong 
nitric acid, squeezed, and formed to the required shape. 

Filho's Caustic is made by melting together in an iron ladle 
2 parts of caustic potash and 1 of lime over a quick fire, 
and pouring it into leaden tubes of the desired size. The 
air must be excluded when not in use, by beeswax, or 
other means. 


These should be applied moderately warm (about 120° P.) 
by means of flannel dipped in the liquid, and frequently 
renewed from time to time, keepmg the parts covered. 

Umollient. 1. Coarse bran 2 double handfuls, water 6 quarts, 
boil and strain, 


2. Mallow-leaves 8 oz., water 4 quarts ; boil and strain ; 
6 poppy-heads may be added. 
Anodyne. 1. Boil 24 poppy-heads and 2 handfuls of hem- 
lock in G quarts of water for 2 hours, and strain. — White. 

2. Ik'Uadouna 2 handfuls, 6 poppy-heads, water 3 quarts ; 
boil and sti'ain. — MoiEOUD. 

3. Dried worm\\'Ood and chamomile, of each 4 oz., bay- 
leaves 2 oz., rue 3 oz. ; boil in a gallon of water. 

4. Take wormwood, chamomile, mallow (or either of 
them), cut them to pieces, and put 2 handfuls into a 
bucket, pour scalding water on them, and cover with a 
cloth. — B. Claek. 

Discutient and Astringent. Vinegar or verjuice 1 quart j 
make it hot, and add 2 oz. of Goulard's extract of lead ; 
apply warm; in strains of the sinetvs of the legs. — Taplin. 


1. Acetate of lead, and sulphate of zinc, of each, 3 dr. to 
1 dr. ; dissolve them separately in ^ pint of boiled water ; 
mix, and filter. 

2. Sugar of lead 10 to 20 grains, water, 8 oz. — Morton. 

3. Extract of lead 1 dr., spirit 2 tb's., water 8 oz. — 

4. Sol. Acetate of ammonia (B. P.) 3 oz., rose-water 
6 oz. — Blaine. 

5. Sugar of lead 2 drs., vinegar § oz., soft water 16 oz., 
rose-water 4 oz. — Blaine. 

6. Infuse 1 oz. of foxglove in 2 pints of boiling water, 
and strain. — Youatt. 

7. Tincture of opium 2 drs., water 8 oz., extract of lead 
1 dr. — White. 

8. Brandy 1 oz., vinegar 1 oz., tincture of opium 2 drs., 
rose-water 8 oz. — Blaine. 

9. Extract of henbane 1 dr., water 8 oz. — White. 

10. Decoction of poppies 8 oz., saffron | dr., uifuse the 
saffron in the hot decoction. — Lebas. 

11. Lapis di\inus, 3 drs., soft water | pint. — Clatee. 

12. Common salt i dr., water 6 oz. — Youatt. 

13. For Watery Bloodshot Eyes. Burnt alum 1 oz., 
calcined white vitriol 1 oz., boiling water 3 pints. — 


14. Emollient. Infusion of marsbmallow leaves or 
flov/ers 1 quart, starch (rubbed smooth with a little 
water) ^ oz. ; mix and boil. To be used warm. — MoiEOUD. 

15. Astringent. Almn 2 drs., whites of 2 eggs, water 
J pint ; mix in a mortar. — BOFEGELAT. 

16. Tincture of digitalis J oz., soft water 8 oz. — 

17. To remove Opacity of the Cornea. Nitrate of silver 
10 grs., distilled water 1 oz. 1 or 2 drops to be dropjjed in 
the eye. — Youatt. 

18. For Cloudiness of tlie Eye. Sublimate 4 grs., spirit 
of wine 20 drops ; rub together, and add soft water 4 oz. 
A few drops to be introduced into the eye 3 or 4 times a 
day. — Clatee. 

19. Tincture of aloes 1 oz., rose-water 8 oz. — Lebas. 

20. Stimulating. Infusion of elder flowers IGoz., brandy 

2 oz. MOIEOI'D. 

21. Lapis inirabilis i oz., water 4 to 8 oz. Tlie Lapis 
mirahilis is thus made : 'N^liite vitriol 2 lbs, rock alum 

3 lbs, tiue bole \ lb, litharge 2 oz., ^vater 3 quarts ; boil 
together to dryness. — Sollexsell. 

22. Alum Collyrium. Decoction of marshmallow 16 oz., 
alum 2 drs., camphorated spirit 1 dr. ; mix. To be used 
towards the decline of inflammation. — SteausS. 

23. Tannin Collyrium. Dissolve 1 dr. of tannin in 13 
bz. of water, and add 3 oz. of cherry-laiirel water. 

24. Sulphate of zinc 8 grs., water 4 oz. In chronic in- 
flammation. — Clatee. 

25. In Specific Ophthalmia. Tincture of opium 2 drs., 
extract of belladonna 1 dr., with distilled water 1 pint. 


Styptic Stone. Sulphate of iron 8 oz., sal ammoniac, sul- 
phate of zinc, and oxide of copper, each 1 oz. ; mix, and 
melt together with a gentle heat. About the size of a 
nut of this compound to be dissolved in a quart of warm 
water and applied \\ith compresses renewed every 3 or 4 
hours : for saddle-galls, kicks, sprains, bruises, ulcers, and 
as a collyrium. — KxArP. 

Lapis Divinus. Sulphate of copper, alum, nitre, of each 


3 oz. ; mult together, and stir iu 1 tli'. of camphor : used 
in eye-icaters and lotions. 

Wound Stone. Aluiu, sulphate of zmc, of each 3 oz., verdi- 
gris and sal aminoniac, of each, 1 dr. ; melt together, and 
add J dr. of powdered saffron : detergent and drying. 

Clark's Conglutimim. Sulphate of zinc 4 oz., water a pint. 

Solution of Alum. Ahim 1 oz., water 16 oz. Dissolve. — V.C. 

Solution of Sulphate of Zinc. Sulphate of zinc 1 oz., water 
3 oz. — V. C. In quitters. 

Solution of Sulphate of Copper. Sulphate of copper 1 oz., 
water 4 oz. — V. C. 

Compound Solution of the same. Sulphate of copper 3 oz., 
alum 3 oz., water 2 Its., sulphuric acid IJ- oz. 

Solution of Bichloride of Mercury. Sublimate, and hj-dro- 
cliloric acid, each 1 part, spirit or water 7 parts. — V. C. 

Goulard Water. Extract of lead 1 oz., camphorated spirit 
2 oz., rain water a quart. — Taplix. V. C. uses extract of 
lead and rectifie<l sjiirit, each 2 drs., soft water 1 pint. 

Tincture of Catechu. See Pocket Form. Used externally /or 

Tincture ofEuphorbium. Euphorbiuni 1 oz., rectified spirit 6 oz. 

Alkaline Tincture of Euphorbiuni. Euphorbium 8 oz., solu- 
tion of subcarbouate (carbonate) of potash 3 pmts : used 
as a caustic and stimulant, particularly in curbs after the 
inflammation has been subdued. 

Compound Tincture of Cantharides. Powdered flies 4, 
euphorbium 1, proof spu'it 24 parts. — Lebas. 

Styptic Tincture. Tincture of myrrh, spirit of camphor, 
and Friar's balsam, equal parts. — Taplix. 

Mgyptiacum. (Veterinary.) Sulphate of copper in po^\•der 
12 oz., vmegar 4 oz., treacle 48 oz. ; boil together to a 
proper consistence. — B. Claek. 

Mgyptiacum ivith Turpentine. Honey 28 oz., pyi-oligneons 
acid 14 oz., powdered \-erdigris 10 oz. ; boil together in a 
copper vessel till the mixture has a reddish-purple colour 
and the consistence of thin honey ; add Venice turj^entine 
28 oz., and keep it on a slow fire, stirring constantly for 
a quarter of an hour. — Leloup. 

Liniment of Verdigris. V. C. Verdigris in fine powder 
9 oz., almn 6 oz., treacle Ij lb. Boil until the compound 
assumes a brown colour. 



Liniment of Sulphate of Copper. Powdered sulpluito of 
copper 1 part, treacle 4 parts. Siimiier in a pipkin over a 
slow fire until the whole assumes a reddisli-brown colour. 
In canker, severe thrush, iSfc. — Morton. 


These are useful in reducing inflammation and relieving 
pain. They should not be used too hot, nor applied too 
tightly, especially to the feet. 


1. Bran moistened with hot water, and as much linseed 
meal added as will give it tenacity. — V. C. 

2. Boil a quart of bran for 10 minutes with enough 
water to make a thin mash, then add to it 4 oz. of linseed 
meal : apply it in a flannel bag. — Blaine. 

3. Fine bran 3 parts, linseed meal 1 part, hot water q. s. 


1. Oatmeal \ pint, linseed meal ^ pint, charcoal 4 oz., 
beer grounds q. s. 

2. Carrots scraped, or carrots boiled, with charcoal 
powder q. s. Antiseptic. — Blaine. 


■ 1. Linseed meal, oatmeal, boiling water, q. s. ; mix, and 
ferment with a tablespoonful of yeast ; in old grease with 
an offensive smell. — Blaine. 

2. In gangrene. Add 2 oz. of turpentine to the last. — 


1. Boil ])oppy-hoads in water, strain, and add linseed 
meal to stiffen it.— You ATT. 

2. Sprinkle the surface of a simple poultice \\ith lau- 

CLEANSING POULTICES. Mashed turnips, not pressed, 
with enough linseed meal, or oatmeal, to give them con- 
sistence ; or, the charcoal poultice above. 



1. Boil 2 lbs. of chopped onions in water, and add to it 
the crumb of a 4-lt) loaf. — Hinds. 

2. Sorrel boiled and squeezed 4 parts, onions baked in 
ashes 1 part, basilicon ointment 1 part ; mix, and aj)ply 
warm. — Vatel. 


1. Rye meal 8 oz., prepared chalk 2 oz., vinegar 10 oz. ; 
mix, warm, and stir, till no more gas is disengaged ; apply 
warm. — Solletsell. 

2. Linseed meal 12 oz., powdered hemlock 4 oz, muriate 
of ammonia 4 oz., vinegar q. s. ; to indolent glandular 
tumours. — Lebas. 


1. To a linseed-meal poultice add 1 or 2 drs. of Goulard's 
extract of lead.— Yofatt. 

2. Bread and Ijarley meal equal parts, Goulard water 
q. s., lard 4 or 6 oz. — Taplin. 

CHLORINE POULTICE. Chloride of lime i oz., water 
1 pint, linseed meal q. s. : to grease, when offensive. — 


1. The herb cleavers (or goose-grass) beaten to a paste. 

2. Mash bread and boiled turnips with stale beer, and 
stir in 1 oz. flour of mustard, turpentine 2 oz., linseed 
meal 2 oz., lard G oz. ; night and morning. — Taplin. 


1. Mustard flour and Imseed meal, equal parts ; mix 
with suflicient hot vinegar to give a proper consistence. 

2. Flour of black mustard 3 lbs., hot vinegar, or water, 
q. s. — MoiEOUD. 


1. Fresh horseradish root, grated, and immediately 
applied. — Moieoud. 

2. Stronger. Old yeast 2 lbs., flour of black mustard 
1 lb, euphorbium powder 4 oz., vinegar q. s. ; mix, and 
apply cold. 




1. Simple Cerate. Olive oil 1 pint, beeswax 4 oz. 

2. Spermaceti Ointment. Lard 12 oz., white was 2 oz., 
spermaceti 1 oz. 

BLISTERIXG OIXTMEXTS. Tlie Spauisli flies should be 
finely powdered, and tlie heat moderate. 

1. Lard 4 oz., common tvirpentine 1 oz., p. flies 1 oz. ; 
melt the lard and turpentine, and stir in the powdered 
flies. V. C. Mr. Youatt substitutes resin for the tur- 

2. Venice turpentine and resm, of each 1 ft, palm oil or 
lard 2 lbs. ; melt together, and gradually Stu- in 1 ft of 
powdered flies. — BLAiyE. 

3. Palm oil 4 fts., resin 1 ft. ; melt together, and stir in 
1 ft of powdered flies. — Clateb. 

4. Mild. Lard 4 oz., Venice turpentine 1 oz., p. flies 
6 drs. — White. 

5. Stronger. Mercurial ointment 2 oz., oil of bays 2 oz., 
Barbadoes tar 1 oz., oil of rosemary 2 drs., p. flies 1 oz. — 

6. Strong. Oil of turpentine 1 oz., oil of \-itriol 2 fluid 
drs. ; mix in a basin, and add melted lard 6 oz., oil of origa- 
num 1 oz., powdered flies 1 to 2 oz. — White. 

7. Strongest. Strong mercurial ointment 4 oz., oil of 
origanum i oz., finely powdered euphorbium 3 drs., p. flies 
+ oz. — White. 

8. Blaixe's Mercurial. Common blister (Xo. 2, above) 
4 oz., sublimate in fine powder \ dr. ; for splints, spavins, 

9. For common purposes. Lard 6 oz., Venice turpen- 
tine 4 oz., beeswax 2 oz., yellow resin | oz., oil of ori- 
ganum ^ oz., powdered cantharides 3 oz. It may be 
softened in winter by rubbing it with a little turpentine. 
— White. 

10. Powdered flies 5 drs., lard 4 oz., oil of turpentine 

1 oz. — HlXDS. 


11. Mustard Blister. Best flour of mnstard 8 oz., 
water to form a paste. — Yoijatt. Others add 2 oz. of oil 
of turpentine, and 1 oz. pure water of ammonia. 

12. Mylabris in fine powder (see Mat. Med.) 1 dr., pre- 
pared lard -i oz. Digest together over a water-bath for 
3 hours, occasionally stirring, while hot, filter through 
paper, and allow to cool. 

Note. — The hair should be clipped closely, or shaA'ed off, the 
part fomented with warm water, and the blistering oint- 
ment well rubljed in. In inflammation of the lungs, &c., 
blistering is more successful after bleeding. In 2-4 hours, 
a little olive or neatsfoot oil should be applied, and re- 
peated night and morning. The head should be tied up 
for the first two days, and the litter removed from the stable. 
If strangury is produced give plenty of linseed tea. The 
simplest blisters are perhaps the best for common pur- 
poses. Sublimate blemishes. Siveatincf dotcti is effected 
by milder stimulants ; for this purpose, the liquid blister 
(see Liniments, under " Medicines for Horses ") is lowered 
by some mild oil, &c. 

DETERGENT ODsTMENTS, for cleansing foul and indo- 
lent ulcers. 

1. Suet 4 oz., Venice turpentine 6 oz., red precipitate, 
finely powdered, 2 oz. — White. 

2. Citrine omtment, alone or with \ its weight of Venice 

3. Svilphate of zinc 1 dr., sulphate of copper 1 dr., oil 
of turpentine 2 drs. ; grind smooth, and mix it with 4 oz. of 
melted tallow. See also Digestive Oixtme>'TS, No. 4. 

4. Yellow basilicon 2 oz., black basilicon 1 oz. ; melt 
together, remove from the fire, add 1 oz. of lurijentine, 
and i oz. finely powdered red precipitate. — Taplin. 

5. Verdigris Ointment. Verdigris in fine powder 1 
part, common turpentine 1 part, lard 12 parts; mix. — 

DIGESTIVE OINTMENTS, to promote a discharge from 
unhealthy and indolent ulcers. 

1. Resin 16 oz., linseed oil 12 oz. ; melt together with 
a gentle heat. — Clark. 


2. Strained turpentine, honey, of each 2 oz. ; yolks of 
4 eggs, myn-li I oz., aloes 1 oz. ; mix. — Solleysell. 

3. Equal parts of common turpentine and lard melted 
together. — White. 

4. To 1 ft of the last add 1 oz. of finely powdered ver- 
digris. — White. 

5. Yellow wax 3 oz., common turpentine 3 oz., black 
pitch 1 oz., resin 6 oz., linseed oil 16 oz. ; melt together 
with a gentle heat, then add oil of turpentine 4 oz., and 
stir till cold. 

6. Olive oil 1 pint, yellow wax and black resin, of each 
4 oz.. Burgundy pitch and turpentine, of each 2 oz. ; melt 
the other ingredients, and add the turpentine when it is 
removed from the fire. — Taplin. 

7. Common turpentine 1 part, lard 3 parts ; melt toge- 
ther.— V. C. 

8. (Basilicon.) Eesin 5 oz., yellow wax 2 oz., lard 
8 oz. ; melt together. 

9. (Black Basilicon.) Pitch, M-ax, resui, of each 11 oz., 
olive (or rape or linseed) oil a pint. 

EYE OINTMENTS. The powder should be very fine, and 
the whole rubbed smooth. 

1. Nitrate of silver 5 to 10 grs., lard 1 oz. ; rub till per- 
fectly smooth. The size of a pea to be introduced between 
the lids, in chronic ophthalmia. — MoHTOX. 

2. Calamine 5 oz., tutty 5 oz., sulphate of copper ^ dr., 
svdphate of zinc i oz., alum ^ oz., camphor 2 drs., fresh 
butter 3 oz. ; mix, and apply warm, with a featlier, to 
watery, inflamed eyes. — Bracken. 

3. Ointment of nitrated quicksilver 1 dr., zinc ointment 
1 oz., camphor 1 dr. 

4. In inflammation of the eyelids. Verdigris 1 part, 
Venice tm-pentine 1, lard 12. — Morton. 

5. For zvounds in the eye. Tutty ointment 1 oz., honey 
of roses 2 drs., calcined white vitriol 20 grs. : apply with a 
feather night and morning, and sponge daily with warm 
milk and water. — Bracken. 

6. For removing opacity of the cornea. Iodine 2 grs., 
iodide of potassium 20 grs., lard or butter ^ oz. 


EUPHORBIUM OINTMENT. Eupliorbimn 1, lard 8 parts ; 
mix. — Delafosse. 

AND CONFIRMED GREASE. The inflammation should 
be first subdued by poultices. The milder preparations 
(which are here placed first) should be employed in 
the first instance, and afterwards those for coufinned 

1. For scurvy heels. Goulard's extract 5 dr., lard 1 oz., 
mix. The heels should first be gently rubbed with soap 
and water. — Clater. 

2. For scurvy or cracked heels. Sugar of lead ^ oz., 
oxide of zinc ^ oz., lard or palm oil, 4 oz. 

3. Melt together 3 oz., white diachylon, 4 oz. olive oil ; 
mix and when nearly cold, add 3 drs. of sugar of lead in 
fine powder. First wash the heel, then apply the Astrin- 
gent Lotion No. 9, and afterwards this ointment ; or elder 
ointment 4 oz., camphor 6 drs., laudanum 2 drs., extract of 
lead 2 drs. ; mix. — Taplin. 

4. Melt yellow wax 2 oz., with sweet oil 8 oz., and add 
sugar of lead \ oz. 

5. Healing ointment for crached heels. Lard 4 lbs., resin 

1 ft; melt together, and stir in 1 ft true calamine. — 
Clatee. See also SoFTENiwa and Coolixg Ointments 

6. For craehed heels and grease. Alum 1 oz., turpen- 
tine 1 oz., lard 3 oz. ; melt the turpentine and lard, and 
stir in the powdered alum. — V. C. 

7. For grease, Venice turpentine 4 oz., wax 1 oz., lard 
4 oz. ; melt together, and add sugar of lead 1 oz. (or alum 

2 oz.) in fine powder. — -White. 

8. Lard, honey, common turpentine, each 8 oz. ; melt 
together, and add powdered alum 6 oz., white vitriol 2 oz. 

9. Common turpentine 1 ft ; melt, and add powdered 
alum 1 J fts., bole 2 fts. ; stir till cold ; spread on browii 
paper, and tie over with list. 

10. Lard 5 ft, honey ^ ft, common tm'pentine 5 ft ; 
melt, and add p. alum 1 ft, white vitriol 2 oz.; stir till 

11. For confirmed grease. Common verdigris 5 oz., 


alum, sulphate of zinc, sugar of lead, of each 5 oz. ; tar 
6 oz. — Blaine. 

12. Citrine ointment 3 oz., lard 2 oz., turpentine 2 di's., 
saturated solution of nitrate of copper 2 drs. — Blaine. 

13. Jigyptiacum 8 oz., lard 4 oz., siilphate of zinc in 
poM'der 1 oz. ; rub together till perfectly mixed. — Las- 


14. Prepared verdigris 1 oz., lard 4 oz., honey a sufficient 
quantity. — DelA¥OSSE. 

15. Choride of lime 1 to 2 parts ; lard 3 parts ; mix. 
To remove the fetor, in grease. — Moeton. 

HAIE, and to remove the blemish froni broken knees. 

1. Camphor ^ dr., oil of rosemary 1 dr., weak mercurial 
ointment 1 oz., ivory-black and bole to colour. — White. 

2. Poplar-bud ointment and honey, applied twice a day 
for 15 or 20 days.— Pte. 

3. Calamine 2 drs., prepared charcoal 1 dr., oil of tur- 
pentine 1 dr., lard 4 drs. ; rub well together v>'ith 1 dr. of 
lalister ointment.— Clatee. 

4. Liquid blister (No. 3, 6, or 7) 1 dr., ivory black 1 dr., 
camphor 1 dr., palm oil 1 oz. 

5. Citrine ointment 1 oz., camphor 1 dr., colour as 

HELLEBOEE OINTMENT. Powdered white hellebore 
1 part, lard 8 parts ; an irritating dressing for rowels and 
setons. — V. C. 

HOOF OINTMENT. Tar and tallow, equal parts, melted 
together. — White. 

IODINE OINTMENT (Simple). Iodine 1 part, lard 8 
parts; mix. — V. C. 

FAECY OINTMENT. Iodine 1 dr., lard 1 oz., mercurial 
ointment 1 oz., mix. Useful when the complaint is con- 
fined to one leg ; from 5 to 10 grains of iodide of potas- 
sium being given daily, with a miivral tonic. 

IODINE OINTMENT (Compound). Iodine 1 dr., iodide of 
potassium 2 drs., lard 2 oz. — V. C. 


uierciiry 1 part, lard or palm oil 7 j^arts ; mix ; the size 
of a nut to be rubbed on daily; in thorouglipin. 

For Strangles. Iodide of mercury 1 dr., lard 1 oz. — 


1. Sulphur 4 oz., soft soap 4 oz., oil of bays 4 oz., train 
oil q. s. 

2. Sulphur 1 oz., train oil 1 oz., Venice turpentine 2 oz. 


3. Train oil 3 oz., sulphur 1 oz., oil of turpentine 6 oz. 
— White. 

4. Sulphur 8 oz., common tvu'pentine 2 oz., strong mer- 
curial ointment 2 oz., linseed oil 1 pint ; rub the flowers 
of sulphur with a fourth part of the oil, then rub in the 
turpentine and ointment, and gradually add the rest of the 
oil ; half to be rubbed in daily for three days ; on the sixth 
day, v.ash off with soft soap and warm water. — CxATER. 

5. Oil of turpentine 3 oz., oil of vitriol 1 oz. ; mix 
cax;tiously, avoiding the fumes, and add melted lard 8 oz., 
train oil 4 oz., oil of turpentine 2 oz., flowers of sulphur 
or sulphur vi\'um 4 oz. ; stir till cold ; apjily daily for 3 
or 4 times, and give an alterative powder twice a day. — 

6. Oil of bay 16 oz., .strong mercurial ointment 6 oz., 
oil of turpentine 2 oz., soft soap 4 oz. ; mix and apply in 
the sun ; but it is not quite safe. — Beacke>". 

7. Oil of turpentine 4 oz., oil of tar 4 oz., train oil 8 oz., 
sulphur 4 oz. 

8. Sulphur vivum 8 oz., powdered stavesacre 1 oz., 
mercurial ointment 2 oz., tvirpentine 2 oz.j lard or train 
oil 8 oz. — Blaine. 

9. Sulphiir 4 oz., white hellebore ^ oz., oil of tar 3 oz., 
train or linseed oil 12 oz. — Spoo>'EE. 

10. Soft soap and tar, equal parts. 

11. Weak mercurial ointment \ lb, sulphur ^^\'^ml 4 oz., 
white hellebore 3 oz., black pepper 3 oz., oil of tar 1 oz., 
olive oil enough to make it soft : use daily for 7, 10, fir 14 
days. — Taplin. 



(Scurvy eruptions.) 

1. Citrine ointment 2 oz., tar ointinent 1 oz. ; mix. 

2. Lard 2 oz., finely powdered red precipitate 2 drs. — 

3. Sugar of lead 1 part, tar 2, lard 6 ; mix, give a diu- 
retic ball occasionally. — Yoi'Att. 

4. Lard 2 oz. ; melt, and stir in Goulard's extract 1 oz. 
— White. 

5. Quicksilver 1 oz., common turpentine 3 oz. ; mix. — 

6. Sublimate 10 grs., mercurial ointment 1 oz. ; mix. 

7. Iodide of potassium 1 dr., lard 2 oz., Goulard's extract 
4 drs. ; mix. 

8. Camphor 1 dr., sugar of lead ^ dr., mercurial oint- 
ment 1 oz. ; mix, and apply after washing with soap and 
water. — Blaine. 

9. Naphthalin 1 dr., cod-liver oil 1 oz., zinc ointment 
1 oz. 

MARSHMALLOW OINTMENT. The following is often 
substituted for the Pharmacopoeia preparation : Rape oil 
1 ft, yellow wax 6 oz., palm oil ^ ft, common turpentine 
1 oz. 

MERCURIAL OINTMENT. This is prepared in the usual 

way ; but Venice tiirpentine is often iised to kill the 

quicksilver more speedily, as it does not interfere with its 

veterinary uses. 
Strong Merctirial Ointment. 1. Quicksilver 16 oz., Venice 

turpentine 2 oz. ; rub together till the metal is killed, 

then add 16 oz. of lard. 

2. Quicksilver 16 oz., liquid styrax 5 drs., lard 3 oz. ; 

triturate until the metal disappears, and add 12 oz. more 

lard. — Cressent. 
Weaker Mercnrial Ointment. 1. Sti'ong mercurial ointment 

1 part, lard 2 parts. 

2. Quicksilver 2 oz., balsam of sulphur \ oz. ; rub 

together till the globules disappear, and add 6 oz. of lard. 

— Taplin. 
Compound Mercurial Ointment. Mercurial ointment 1 part, 

soft soap 2 parts, — V.C. 


RESOLVENT OINTMENTS, for indolent tnniom-s of the 
withers, spavins, windgalls, farcy buttons, splints, &c. 

1. Strong mercurial ointment 4 oz., cantharides in powder 
i oz., oil of rosemary 2 drs. — White. 

2. Biniodide of mercury 1 part, lard or palm oil 7 parts; 
rub together in a mortar; the quantity of a nut to be 
rubbed on daily till a scurf is produced : for spavin and 
thoroughpin. — Spooner. 

3. Blister ointment 2 oz., strong mercurial ointment 
1 oz., soft soap i oz., oil of bays 3 drs., yellow wax 3 drs.; 
melt the wax by a gentle heat, add the other ingredients, 
mix by stirring, remove, and stir till cold. — Lebas. 

4. Common turpentine 12 parts, corrosive sublimate 
1 part ; mix. — Giraed. 


silver 5 to 10 grs., lard 1 oz. — MoRTOX. 

CREASOTE OINTMENT. Creasote 1 part, lard 8 parts.— 
V. C. 

MILD CITRINE OINTMENT. Ointment of nitrate of 
quicksilver 1 part, lard and oil, of each 2 parts. In tarsal 

and ulcers on tlie heel, &c. 

1. Spermaceti ointment 4 oz., olive oil 1 oz., sugar of 
lead 2 drs., oxide of zinc 1 oz. — White. 

2. Extract of lead i- dr., lard 1 oz. ; mix. — Clater. 

3. Marshmallow ointment 4 oz., extract of lead 3 drs., 
elder ointment \ oz., calamine 1 oz. 

OINTMENT FOR SIT-FASTS, and all hard tumours. 
Strained ammoniacum 4 oz., mercurial ointment 8 oz., oil 
of turpentine 10 oz. — Hinds. 

GALLS. (See Lotions, Vet. Formulary.) 

1. Camphor 2 dr., oil of rosemary 1 dr., elder ointment 
or lard 3 oz. . 


2. Marsliuiallow ointment 4 oz., extract of lead 1 oz. — 


1. Sulphuric acid 1 dr., lard 1 oz. ; mix. 

2. Sulphuric acid 1 fluid oz., lard 8 oz., oil of turpentine 
1 oz. 

Resolye>-t Ointments, above.) 

TAR OINTMENT. Equal parts of tallow and tar, melted 


1. Common verdigris j oz., calamine j oz., sulphate of 
zinc 1 dr., tar 3 oz. — Blaixe. 

2. Blue vitriol 2 oz., white vitriol 1 oz., rubbed do^xii 
and mixed with lard 2 its., tar 1 ft ; a pledget of tow 
covered with it to be introduced into the cleft of the frog 
every night, and renewed in the morning. — Youatt. 

3. Thrush Paste. — Alum, blue vitriol, white vitriol, of 
each 1 oz. ; rub them into a fine powder ; melt 2 lbs. of tar 
with 1 ft of lard, and when getting cool, stir in the 
powder. — Clater. 

4. Verdigris 1^ oz. (or burnt ahmi 8 oz.), red lead 8 oz., 
treacle 4 lbs. ; boil to a proper consistence, and add 1 oz. of 
nitrous acid. — Feeon. 

5. Barbadoes tar 4 oz., suli^huric acid ^ oz. — Spoonee. 
G. In Canke?\ Tar 4 parts, nitric acid 1 part ; mix. — 


OINTMENTS FOR FARCY BUDS. 1. Sublimate 1 oz., 
white arsenic i oz., yellow arsenic ^ oz., euphorbium ^ oz., 
oil of bays 4 oz. ; mix. — Lamotte. 

2. (Topiqtie I'errat.) Corrosive sublimate 1 oz., white 
and yellow arsenic each ^ oz., oil of bays 4 oz. ; mix with 
a gentle heat. 

TURPENTINE OINTMENT. Common turpentine 1 part, 
lard 3 jmrts; melt together. — V. C. 


VERDIGRIS OINTMENT. Vci-Lligris in powder 1 part, 
common turpentine 1 part, lard 12 parts : for foul ulcers 
and tarsal opMhalmia. — Moeton. 

of ammonia 2 drs., powdered savin 1 oz., lard 1^ oz. ; to 
be applied daily. — Blaise. 


1. Emetic tartar 2 drs., olive oil 1 dr. ; rub together till 
smooth, and add lard 1 oz. 

2. Iodide of potassium 1 dr., palm oil 1 oz. ; rub toge- 
ther till quite smooth. — Clatee. 

ASTRINGENT PASTE, for broken kiiees and for wounds 
after the iuflamniatiou has subsided. 

1. Powdered alum aud pipeclay, mixed with water to 
the consistence of cream. For broken knees it may be 
coloured \nth bole and lamp-black. — White. 

2. Paste for Open Knee- Joint. Flour and stale beer, 
boiled to the consistence of paste, and coloured as above. 
To be spread thick aU round the joint, and covered with a 
pledget of tow, and ^ sheet of bro^^^l paper ; aud the leg 
of a cotton stocking ckawii over the whole. The stocking 
to be covered with the paste, and enveloped with 2 calico 
bandages regularly applied. — Tuenee. 


1. Cow-dung beaten v.ith a fom'tli part of clay. — 


2. Soft soap 4 oz., Barbadoes tar 16 oz., linseed meal 
2i lbs.— White. 

3. Tallow and tar, equal parts, melted together. 

4. Common tar 2 parts, soft soap 1 part, linseed meal 
q. s. To be spread over the solo of the foot \ of an inch 
thick, covered with a layer of tow, aud a leather sole over 
all.— V. C. 


1. Equal parts of wax, olive oil, lard, veal suet, tur- 
pentine, and honey ; melt the wax and lard with the oil 


by a gentle heat, remove from the fire, and add the honey 
and turpentine, stirring till cold; when intended to em- 
hellish the hoof as well as to soften it, it may be coloured 
with lamp-black or ivory-black. — Bouegelat. 

2. Tallow 4 lbs., beeswax 4 oz., tar ^ ft ; melt slowly, 
remove from the fire, and when they begin to cool, stir 
together. A portion of pitch may' be added when in- 
tended to fill fissures, &c. — Beacy Clark. 

yellow resin 2 oz., common turpentine 1 oz., tallow i oz. ; 
melt together ; fill the cracks with the composition, and 
turn the horse out to grass. 


tar 1 pyit, fish oil 2 pints.— Clateb. 


The usual method of applying charges is to soften the com- 
pound by heat, and apply it with a large spatula to the 
part, as warm as the animal can comfortably bear it, and 
while warm, to cover it with cut tow. Charges are used for 
old sprains of the loins, strains of the back sinews, wind- 
galls, &c. Cold charges are spread on cloth or leather, 
and renewed as they become di-y. 

1. Simple Charges. Pitch 4 oz., turpentine 1 oz. — 

2. For Strains of the Loins. Pitch 4 lbs., turi)entine 
6 oz., olive oil 4 oz.; melt together.— B. Claek. 

3. Burgundy pitch 4 oz., wax 4 oz., yellow resin 4 oz., 
connnon turpentine 1 oz. ; melt together, and when it 
begins to thicken, stir m 1 oz. of bole. — White. 

4. Burgundy or connnon pitch 5 oz., tar 6 oz., wax 1 oz. ; 
melt together, and when they are becoming cool, stir in 
i dr. of powdered cantharides. — YotTATT. 

5. Pitch 3 fts., tar 1 ft, beeswax \ ft ; melt together. — 


6. Resin 2 oz.. Burgundy pitch 4 oz.,Barbadoe8 tar 2 oz., 
wax 3 oz., red lead 4 oz. — White. 


7. Pitch 8 oz., suet 4 oz., oil of turpentine 3 oz. ; tinc- 
ture of cantliarides 3 oz. — Delafosse and Lassaigne. 

8. Cold Charge. Eole \ ft, white of egg and vinegar, 
to form a soft paste, to Ije applied on doubled cloth or 
leather, and removed as it dries ; for sjjrains in the back 
slneivs. — Bracken. 

9. Bruised leaves of elder, or cabbage, or mallow. — 
B. Claek. 

10. Mercurial Charge. B. pitch 1^, wax I5 ibs. ; melt, 
and add, while cooling, 9 oz. of mercurial ointment pre- 
viously mixed with 6 drs. of iodine. — Mr. S. Fisher. 

11. Soot Charge. Common tui'pentine 4^ oz., soot 
3 oz. ; mix. — Delafond. 


ASTRINGENT POWDERS; chiefly used for sprinkling 
greasy or ulcerated heels, after the inflammation has been 
sulxlued by poultices, — and in joint wounds. 

1. Calamhie (true) 4 parts, alum 1 part; mix. — 

2. Burnt alum, dried sulphate cf iron, and myrrh, 
equal parts. — V. C. (Comp. powder of alum.) 

3. Alum 1 dr., charcoal i oz., chalk 2 oz. — Blaine. 

4. Sulphate of zinc, chalk slightly calcined, white pepper, 
in equal parts. — B. Clark. 

5. Alum 4 oz., bole 1 oz. — White. 

6. Oak bark 1 oz., verdigris 2 drs. — BlAINE. 

7. White vitriol 2 oz., oxide of zinc 1 oz. — White. 

8. Prepared chalk 4 oz., sulphate of zinc 1 oz., charcoal 
1 oz., Armenian bole 2 oz. — Spoonee. 


cleansing foul ulcers and repressing fungvis or proud 
flesh. They should all be very finely powdered and well 

1. Equal parts of calcined white vitriol and alum. — 

2. Bole 2 drs., blue vitriol or verdigris 1 oz. — White. 

3. Red precipitate I oz., acetate of copper | oz., cala- 
mine ^ oz. — Blaine, 


4. Red precipitate j oz., burnt alum 2 clrs. 

5. Blue vitriol 1 oz., alum 1 oz., white lead 1 oz. 

6. Equal parts of verdigris and sugar of lead. — Clater. 

7. Ahim, dried sulphate of iron, and myrrh, equal 
parts : in Joint wounds. 

8. Alum, sulphate of iron, of zinc, and of copper, of 
each 1 oz., muriate of ammonia ^ oz., camphor and 
saffron, of each, I5 dr. — Bouchaedat. 

STYPTIC POWDER. Alum, with an equal or double 
weight of flour. — White. 

STYPTIC STONE. See Sundry Solutions, under " Medi- 
cine for Horses," further back. 

SNEEZING POWDERS. The mgredients to be very finely 
jjowdered and mixed. 

1. Asarabacca 4 drs., white hellebore 1 dr., mix, and keep 
in a battle for use. — Bracken. 

2. SnufE 1 oz., hellebore 1 dr., euphorbium 10 to 20 grs. 
— Peck. 

3. In Incipient Cataract. Turpeth mineral 2 drs., 
asarabacca 4 drs. ; mix, and ajiply as much as will lie upon 
a sixpence, daily. — Bracken. 



Note. — The peculiar structure of the digestive organs in 
cattle renders it proper to give their medicines in a liquid 
form. For the same reason, drenches should be given 
very slowly, so as to enter at once the third or fourth 
stomach. It is only in cases of hoven or blown, that it is 
desirable to introduce medicine into the first stomach or 

For treatment of the Cattle Plague q/'l865, see p. 125. 

given when fever exists, or is threatened; to prevent 
downfalls of the udder ; after calving, to prevent milk- 
fever ; to remove undue accumulations in costiveuess ; in 
the first stage of red- water, and jaundice; and in all 
infiauunatory complaints. 

1. Epsom salts 8 oz., sulphur 4 oz., ginger 2 drs., warm 
water a pint, linseed oil 12 oz. — Spoojn'eb. 

2. Epsom salts 6 or 8 oz., castor oil 8 oz., gruel Ij pint, 
ginger ^ oz. 

3. Glauber's or Epsom salts 16 oz. (or in bad cases with 
fever, 2i oz.), caraways 1 oz., ^varm gruel a quart. — 

4. Castor oil from 16 to 24 oz., with gruel ; but it is 
uot to be depended on. 

5. To No. 3, add 2 or 3 drs. of gamboge, or 4 drs. of 

6. .Sulphur 8 oz., ginger ^ oz., warm gruel a quart : in 
rheumatism, or joint-fellon. — Clater. 

7. Common salt 6 oz., flour of mustard a tablespoonful, 
grated ginger or ground pepper, of either, a teaspoonful, 
gin i pint, water 2 pints. 




8. Common salt 1 ft, warm water, or gruel, q. s. Tlie 
last three are only proper where there is not much fever. 

9. In Red-toate)\ Sulphate of magnesia 8 to 16 oz., 
sulphur 2 to 6 oz., carbonate of ammonia ^ oz., ginger 
i oz., warm water q. s. ; a fourth of this every 6 hours till 
the bowels are sufficiently acted on. — Spoonee. 

10. When the last does not operate. Calomel 20 grs., 
yeast ^ pint. — Haeeis. 

11. Aloes 4 to 6 dr., common salt 4 to 6 oz., ginger 
1 to 3 drs., water a q\iart, anodyne tincture 2 oz. : in red- 
water. — White. 

12. Cordial Purgatives. Aloes 4 drs., Epsom salts 4 oz., 
ginger 1 dr., carminative tincture 2 oz., water 1 quart. — 

13. In the commencement of j)uerperal or milk fever. 
Epsom salts 6 or 8 oz., powdered croton seeds 20 to 30 grs., 
ginger 4 drs. ; in 3 or 4 pints of gruel : rej)eat in 6 hours, 
if required, without the croton seeds. — Blaine. 

14. In locked jaw. Barbadoes aloes IJ oz., powdered 
croton kernel 10 grs., boiling water q. s. ; given when cool. 
— Clateb. 

15. Mild laxative and tonic. Epsom salts ^ ft, sulphur 
4 to 6 oz., ginger J oz., gentian \ oz., warm water q. s. — 

16. In flatulent colic with costiveness. Aloes li oz., 
carbonate of potash 3 drs., ginger ^ oz., warm water 1 pint, 
linseed oil 8 oz. — White. 

17. Palm oil 16 oz., Glauber's salts 12 oz., boiling water 
q. s. — Pece. 

18. Laxative drink for cows that are kept on hay. Aloes 
4 drs., ginger \\ drs., water a quart, Epsom salts 6 oz., car- 
bonate of soda \ oz. J for one dose. — Youatt. 

FEVER DEENCHES, for fevers, colds, influenza, &c. 

1. Tartar emetic 1 dr., digitalis \ dr., nitre 3 drs.; mix, 
and give in a quart of gruel : in simple colds or catarrh. 
— Clatee. 

2. Antimonial powder 2 drs., opium a scruple ; rub 
together, and mix with thick gruel : after bleeding, in 
inflammation of the bladder. — White. 

3. In influenza, or epidemic {epizootic) colds. Niti'e ^ oz., 


salt of tartar 1 oz., camphor 2 drs., valerian, liquorice, 
turmeric, of each 1 oz., mustard 2 oz., juniper berries 1 oz., 
gruel a quart. — Skeeeett. 

4. For the same. After bleeding and a laxative, give 
antimonial powder 2 drs., camphor 1^ drs., ginger 3 drs., 
laudanum ^ oz., in gruel. — White. 

5. In had colds attended icitJi fever. Nitre 1 oz., camphor 
^ dr., tartar-emetic \ dr., in gruel. — Peck. 


1. Antimonial powder J dr., camphor 1 dr., Peruvian 
bark 1 oz., gruel, or decoction of arrowroot, or starch, q. s. 
for 2 doses. — Peck. 

2. In the decline of fevers and influenza. Emetic tartar 
i dr., nitre 2 drs., gentian 3 drs., chamomile 1 dr., ginger 
2 dr. ; pour on them a pint of boiling ale, and give when 
cool. — Clatee. 

3. Emetic tartar ^ dr., gentian 2 drs., digitalis 5 dr., 
nitre \ oz., spirit of nitric ether 4 drs., gruel q. s. 


1. Cascarilla 3 drs., ginger 3 drs., carbonate of soda 2 drs., 
in gruel. — White. 

2. Gentian \ oz., ginger 1 dr., Epsom salts 2 oz., warm 
gruel a pint. — Clatee. 

3. Tartarized iron 1 dr., gentian 2 drs., ginger 1 dr., 
gruel 1 pint, after laxatives, in indigestion. 


After bleeding give — 

1. Calomel 1^ drs., opium ^ di'., ginger 2 di's., thick gruel 
q. s. Six hours afterwards, give Epsom salts 1 lb, sulphur 
6 oz., linseed oil i pint, gruel q. s. — Spoonee. 

2. Epsom salts 1 tb, caraway \ oz., Barbadoes aloes 
i oz. ; in a quart of warm gruel. — Clatee. After the 
yello\\niess appears, give — 

3. Half of No. 2, with 20 grs. of calomel morning and 
night. — Clatee. 

6. Mr. FiNLAY Dun's treatment is — Cathartics. Salinesi 
Aconite. Chloride of Ammonium. Laxative diet. 



1. Opmni 10 grs., calomel 10 grs., thick gruel q. s., at 
night, and the tonic drink (No. 2) in the morning. — 


2. Mr. Sjiooner says salts in 5-ilj doses, with a little 
ginger, are generally sufficient. 

3. Chloride of sodium § oz., carbonate of soda i oz., 
turmeric 2 oz., Glauber's salts 6 oz., powdered gentian 
and chamomile 2 drs., gruel q. s. 

4. Castile soap i oz., Venice turpentine i oz., ginger 
3 drs., gentian 1 oz. ; rub tlie soap and turpentine in a 
mortar, and gradually add a pint of water, and afterwards 
the ginger and gentian. — White. 

5. Castile soap 1 oz., salt 1 oz., Venice turpentine 1 oz., 
yolks of two eggs; mix togethei", and gradually add a 
strong decoction of barberry-bark. 

6. Powdered cummin seed, aniseed, and turmeric, each 
2 oz., grains of paradise and salt of tartar, each 1 oz., 
mix. Slice 1 oz. of Castile soap, to mix with 2 oz. of 
treacle. Pour a qiiart of boiling ale upon all the ingre- 
dients, and administer when lukewarm. To be repeated 
two or three times a day. 

CLEANSING DRINKS, for cows after calving. These are 
often applied for, Imt are condemned as useless or hurtful 
by veterinarians of the new school. The following are 
some of the forms in use ; probably a gentle laxative 
would be. in most cases preferable. 

1. Spermaceti, Irish slate, and birthwort, in po^\der, 
of each 1 oz., powdered aniseed 2 oz., liquorice xwwder 
2 oz. ; in linseed tea. 

2. Aniseed, myrrh, birthwort, allspice, cummin seed, of 
each 1 oz., in a quart of gruel. — M'Ewek. 

3. Juniper berries 3 oz., birthwort 2 oz., fenugreek 1 
oz., spermaceti 2 oz., antimony 1 oz., saffron i oz., in a 
quart of warm ale. — Downing. 

4. Resin, soap, of each J oz., spermaceti ^ oz., aniseed, 
caraway seed, of each 1 oz., ginger i oz., treacle 4 oz., 
warm gruel a quart. 

5. 1 oz. spermaceti, 1 oz. Iju'thwort, 2 oz. powdered 
bay-berries, 1 oz. myrrh ; in juuiper-bcvry tea. 


oz., aniseed 1 oz., olive oil 6 oz., gruel a pint, or q. s. 

DEEXCH FOR STRANGURY. After laxatives and a 
elystei', give camphor 2 drs., spirit of nitrons ether § oz., 
tincture of opium -^ oz., nitre 1 oz., gruel a pint. — White. 

tension of the paunch). It appears doubtful whether any 
liquid enters the paunch in these cases. More dependence 
is now placed on the introduction of a tube, constructed for 
the purpose. 

1. Ginger i oz., spirit of nitric ether 2 oz., oil of pep- 
permint 30 drops, ^^■arm water a pint. — White. 

2. Liquid ammonia, or spirit of hartshorn, ^ oz. to 1 oz. 
(Ij oz. — White), cold water 3 pints. — Moiroud. 

3. Chloride of potasli 4 drs., water 4 oz., ether 3 drs. 
The solution of chlorinated soda may be substituted for 
chloride of potash (Eau de Javelle). — Chaelot. 

4. Aloes 3 drs., pimento 2 drs., oil of turpentine, 2 oz., 
spirit of hartshorn 1 oz., in gruel or warm water. — Blaine. 

5. Chloride of lime 2 drs., water a quart. Administer 
it by means of a stomach-pump, and repeat in an hour if 
required. — .YorATT. 


1. Sulphur 8 oz., ginger -^ oz. ; in gruel, evei-y third day 
if necessary. — Clatee. 

2. Antimouial powder 2 drs., Dover's powder -j dr., ani- 
seed 1 oz., thick gruel a \nnt ; night and morning, the 
bowels having been opened by No. 1. — Clatee. 

3. Rhododendron leaves 4 drs., water a quart ; boil to 
a pint, strain, and add powdered gum guaiacum 2 drs., 
caraway-seeds and aniseed, each 2 drs., warm ale j pint. 

1. Camj)hor 1 dr. (rubbed with spirit), powdered opium 1 
dr., thick gruel J pint. 


Purgatives. Belladonna and chloral hydrate. Cool air. 


Warm clothing. Perfect quiet. Soothe any wound. 

indigestion, and colic without inflammation. 

1. In indigestion. Salt 3 or 4 oz., carbonate of soda 
2 ctrs., ginger \ dr., anodyne carminative tincture (see 
Tinctures, Solutions, Vet. Formulary) 2 oz., water 10 or 12 
oz. — White. 

2. The same. Aloes 4 drs., common salt 4 oz., ginger 
2 drs., anodyne carminative tincture (see Tinctures, Solu- 
tions) 2 oz., q. s. 

3. In Colic. Salt 4 oz., aloes 3 drs., ginger 1 dr., opium 
J oz., water 1 pint, peppermint water 1 pint. 

4. Carminative. Oil of turpentine 1 oz., tincture of 
o])ium 6 drs., spirit of nitric ether 2 oz., water 1 pint. — 

5. Warm Cordial. A bottle of red wine, extract of 
juniper 1 oz., powdered cinnamon ^ oz. — Lebas. 

6. 3£ild. Peppermint 2 oz., chamomiles i oz., hot 
water 5 pints ; infuse, and give while warm. 

7. Chamomile 2 oz., aniseed 1^ oz. ; infuse in hot water, 
and strain ; when cold, add ether 2 oz. — Vatel. 


Bloody Urine (Hajmaturia) and Red- water, although often 
confounded, are different diseases, and require a different 
treatment. Hematuria is distinguished by the presence 
of actual blood in the urine, in a state of coagulation, and 
by great tenderness across the loins. It generally occurs 
in oxen of good condition. It is to be treated by gentle • 
purgatives, stimulating applications to the loins, emollient 
drinks and opiates. [Spoonee.] Give one of the follow- 
ing di'enehes : 

1. Epsom salts 6 to 8 oz., water a quart, castor oil 4 to 
6 oz. — White. Or, 

2. Linseed oil 1 pint, gruel 1 pint, caraways 2 drs., 
Epsom salts 8 oz. (in warm water i pint), tincture of 
opium 2 drs. Or either of the laxative drenches for red 
water, below. 

3. After the above, when the pain and difficulty have 


abated, but the water continues bloodir, give — Catechu 
2 drs., opium | dr., alum 3 drs., gum arabic i oz., water 
^ pint ; simmer for a few minutes, and add ^ pmt of ale. 
Eepeat if required. 

4. In obstinate cases. Oil of jmiiper J oz., oil of tur- 
pentine 1 oz., laudanum 1 oz., in a pint of linseed tea ; at 
lirst twice, and afterwards once a day. — Rush. 

5. Three quarters of a pint of black beer, and 2 oz., 
Irish slate. — Knowlson. 


This commonly attacks milch cows, and appears generally 
to arise from the nature of the pasture. Moderate bleed- 
ing is recommended, but is less necessary than in hsema- 
turia. Laxatives should then be given. Mr. Finlay Dun 
says blood-letting is decidedly injurious, and he also 
discountenances the employment both of diuretics and 

1. Epsom salts 8 to 12 oz., sulphur 2 to 4 oz., carbonate 
of ammonia | oz., ginger ^ oz., warm water 4 pints ; give 
a fourth part every 6 hours till the bowels are acted on. — 
Spoonee. Or, 

2. Glauber's salts 12 oz., carbonate of soda \, oz., nitre 
\ oz., sugar 1 oz., powdered caraways \ oz., in a quart of 
gruel. Or the Purging drenches. No. 1, 2, or 3. After 
the bowels are well opened, give astringents or mild 

3. The laxative drench. No. 11, page 110. — White. 
This is White's drench for red-water. No. 1. To be fol- 
lowed by drenches of whey. 

4. Astringent. Powdered oak-bark i oz., catechu 2 di's., 
opium 10 grs., gruel 1 pint. — Clatee. 

5. Catechu 2 drs., mucilage 4 oz., lime-water 6 oz. — 

6. Laudanum \ oz., sugar of lead J dr., catechu 4 drs., 
gruel 1 quart. — White. 

7. After laxatives. Ginger, gentian, each 1 dr., spa-it of 
nitrous ether 1 oz., gruel q. s. ; twice a day. — Spoo>:ee. 

. 8. Powdered oak-bark 1 oz., charcoal 1 oz., bole 2 oz., 
iu a quart of new milk. — Pie. 


9. Catechu li oz., alum I5 oz., diapente 2 oz., Locatelli 
balsam 2 oz., warm gruel 3 piuts. — M'Ewex. 

10. Dragon's blood 2 oz., rust of iron 1 oz., nitre 3 oz , oil 
of turpentine 2 oz. ; mix ; for 2 doses, in gruel. — Downing. 

11. Sulphuric acid 1 dr., tincture of opium i oz. 
treacle 4 oz., warm gruel 4 quarts ; daily, for a week. — 

sulphate of magnesia, of each 2 oz., ipecacuanha 5 dr., 
sulphate of iron 6 grs. — Biaine. 

FOR CHRONIC DIARRHCEA. Calomel i dr., aloes 1 dr., 
gentian 2 drs., opium 5 grs. decoction of chamomiles 1 pint, 
— Blaine. 

ASTRINGENT DRENCHES, for dysentery (scouring rot) 
or lax. 

1. After purging drenches : prepared chalk 2 oz., oak- 
bark 1 oz., catechu i oz., opium 2 scruples, ginger 2 drs,, 
warm gruel 1 quart. — Clatee. 

2. Two quarts of alum whey. 

3. First give blue pill 2 or 3 dr.s., rhubarb 3 drs., castor 
oil 4 oz., gruel 1 pint, well stirred before giving it ; rejjeat 
this 3 or 4 mornings ; then give — thick starch (made with 

4 oz. of starch) 3 or 4 pints, tincture of opium 2 drs., 
ginger 3 di's., catechu J oz. — White. 

4. Mutton suet 1 lb, new milk 2 quarts ; boil, and add 
opium i dr., ginger 1 di'. — Clatee. 

5. Cordial Astringent Drench. (After the laxative 
drench No. 2.) Catechu \ oz., allspice t oz., caraways 

5 oz., ale \ pint, water i pint. — White. 

6. Decoction of sloes, with prepared chalk. — TrssEE. 

7. Decoction of wormwood a quart, gum Arabic 2 oz., 
aromatic confection 1 oz., catechu 2 drs. ; with linseed tea, 
repeated every G days for three times. — Rawlings. 

8. Sheep's lieart, liver, and lights, all chopped iip to- 
gether. — Scmnee. 

HOOSE or CATARRH. [See Medicines for Calves, 
further on.] 

1, Bruised liquorice 2 oz. ; boil in a quart of water to 


a pint, strain, and add powdered squill 2 drs., prmn truaia- 
cum 1 dr., tincture of tolu 4 drs., honey 2 oz. — Clateb. 

2. Balsam of suli)liur 2 oz., Barbadoes tar 1 oz., yolks 
of 2 eggs, honey 4 oz., salt of tartar ^ oz., oil of aniseed 

1 dr., elecampane 1 oz., gruel 1 quart : in chronic coughs. 

3. Fresh squill 2 oz., garlic 2 oz., raiegar 24 oz. ; digest 
for a day ^^■itll a gentle heat, strain and press, and boil 
the liquor with 24 oz. of treacle : for 6 doses, in chronic 

4. For recent coughs. Digitalis 20 grs., emetic tartar 
■f dr., niti'e 3 drs., squill 1 dr., opium 20 grs., gruel 1 pint. 

5. Boil 4 oz. Iceland moss and 1 oz. liquorice root in 4 
quarts of water for a quarter of an hour, and strain ; add 
to the liquor 1 oz. nitre, cream of tartar 2 oz. In hoose 
from cold, if inflammation of the lungs and fever be 
present, bleed before giving the drink, at the commence- 
ment of the inflammation only. See also Fever Drench 

If the disease be connected with worms in the air pas- 
sages, give the following : 
Worm Drench. — For cough from worms : Oil of turi)entine 

2 oz„ sweet spirit of nitre 1 oz., laudanum ^ oz. ; mix, and 
give in a pint of gruel. — Clatee. 

DRENCHES FOR THE EPIDEMIC, affecting the feet 
and mouth, and attended with a low fever. 

IMr. FiXLAT Dux recommends the following treatment : 
Soft laxative food, brought to the patient ; rest ; cleanli- 
ness ; comfortable, soft lodging ; hydrochloric acid and 
treacle, and Condy's fluid for mouth, udder, and feet ; lead 
acetate solution. Milk cows frequently; sjqihon. 

For treatment of the Cattle Plague of 1865, see further on. 

1. Glauber's salts 1 ft, treacle 4 oz., sulphur 4 oz., 
aniseed \ oz., cream of tartar 2 oz., warm water 3 pints ; 
give it new-milk warm. The above is for a full-grown 
beast. The mouth to be washed with a strong solution 
of blue vitriol, burnt alum, and vinegar. If the feet 
crack, apply a mixture of equal parts of hydrochloric acid 
and water. 

2. Some cattle-masters give common salt in gruel, vith 
great success. — Blaine, 


3. After a mild dose of salts — sweet spirit of nitre 1 oz., 
ale yeast 6 or 8 oz. — Blaine. 

4. Epsom salts 8 oz., sulphur 2 oz., nitre i oz., ginger 
g: oz. ; half of this to be given m. warm water, with 1 oz. 
of sweet spirit of nitre. Repeat daily. "Wlien the bowels 
are properly relaxed, and the fever reduced, but much 
weakness remains, give the following : 

5. Tonic Drench. Gentian 4 drs., ginger 2 drs., sulphate 
of iron 2 drs., sweet spirits of nitre 1 oz., warm water q. s. ; 
wash the mouth with one of the lotions for canJcer (Vet. 
Formulary) ; dress the feet, after paring and poulticing, 
with equal parts of tincture of myrrh and butter of 
antimony, and afterwards apply the astringent powder (see 
Vet. Formulary).— Spoonee. 

6. Linseed oil a pint, oil of tm'pentine 8 oz., aloes | oz., 
guiger g- oz., laudanum 1 oz. ; mix. For 2 doses, to be 
given with gruel. 


1. Sweet spirit of nitre i oz., laudanum ^ dr., solution 
of chloride of lime 2 drs., prepared chalk 1 oz., mis, and 
give in a pint of warm gruel. — Clatee. 

2. Cascarilla powder 2 oz., spirit of nitrous ether J oz., 
liquid acetate of ammonia 4 oz., beer yeast 8 oz. ; every 4 
hours. — Blaine. 

3. Opiate confection 1 oz., liquid acetate of ammonia 
2 oz., water, 1 quart ; for one dose. — Vatel. 

4. Tonic. Calumba 2 drs., canella 2 drs., ginger 1 dr., 
sweet spirit of nitre i oz., thick gruel 1 pint. — Spoonee. 

5. Ceylon Memedi/. A small piece of lard the size of a 
walnut. Said to be used with perfect success. 

6. To Prevent Murrain. Myrrh 1 oz., Epsom salts 2 oz., 
sulphur 1 oz., liver of antimony \ oz., diapente 1 oz. ; in 
rue tea. — Downing. 

7. Sulphite of soda 1 oz. in 3 galls, of water. The 
animals are to be allowed to drink ad libitum. — Sir J. 

MOUTH DISEASE.' Dissolve 1 ft of sulphate of copper 
in Cj of soft water, wash the animals' mouths with this, 


with a spousre attached to a stick, then put 2 or 3 hirge 
tablespooufuls of oatmeal and powdered aliun, equal parts, 
into their mouths, near the root of their tongue. Wash 
their feet, especially between the claws, with the copper 
solution, and let them stand on dry straw. — Mr. Scott. 


Warm tar-water is much recommended hy some. It 
should be given in doses of 3 quarts 3 or 4 times a day, 
gradually dimuiishing the quantity. 


1. Common turpentine i oz., ginger 2 drs. ; mix with a 
little treacle, and add gradually spirits of nitrous ether 

1 oz., gruel a pint. — Clater. 

2. Tonic Diuretic. Common turpentine 4 drs., ginger 

2 drs., gentian 2 drs., tartrate of iron 1 dr. ; I'ub together 
with a little treacle, and add gradually 1 oz. of sweet 
spirit of nitre. 

BULLING DRENCHES. Tliese are strongly condemned 
hy modern veterinary writers; those drenches, at least, 
which contain cautharides. 

1. Aniseed, grains of paradise, bay berries, of each 1 oz.j 
cautharides in fine powder 20 to 30 grs. ; to be given in a 
quart of milk. 

2. Black hellebore ^ oz., capsicum 2 drs., birthwort ^ oz., 
bay berries 1 oz., cautharides 20 grs. ; in a quart of warm 
ale. — Downing. 

3. A quart of milk from a cow in season. — Clatee. 

4. Powdered cautharides 20 grs., aniseed 2 oz., black 
hellebore i oz.; m ale, gruel, or milk. — Peck. 

DRYING DRENCHES, for drying a cow's milk. Bleed the 
night before, and give the drink, warm, in the morning. 
The bleeding is questionable treatment. 

1. Boil 6 drs. of alum in milk, and strain. — White. 

2. Akmi 6 lbs., bole 2 lbs., cream of tartar or red tartar 1 
lb ; mix. Give from 6 to 9 oz., in stale beer ; or in gruel 
with i pint of vinegar. 

3. Roche or common alum 4 oz., dragon's blood ^ oz., 
turmeric 1 oz., in a pint of rennet water, and a pint of 


vinegar.— Downing. [These large doses of aluin, though 
often given, are not regarded as necessary or proper by 
modern veterinary writers.] 

pints, spirits of hartshorn 1 oz. ; mix. 

ALUM WHEY. Boil i oz. o£ alum in 2 quarts of milk for 
ten minutes, and strain. 

of Pimento. Sec Medicines toe Horses (Tinctures). 


1. Sulphur 4 oz., black antimony 1 oz., jEtliiops mineral 
■J oz., nitre 2 oz. ; mix, for 4 doses : to be given daily in 

2. Alterative Tonic. Add to the last 2 oz. gentian and 
1 oz. ginger; and make 6 doses. 


1. Antimonial powder a scruple, camphor i dr., nitre 1 
oz. ; mix : give twice a day in gruel. — Peck. 

2. Peruvian bark 16 oz., nitre 24 oz. ; for 16 doses. 


1. Black mustard \ oz., flowers of sulphur 1 oz., aro- 
matic powder (see Veteeinaey Powdees, further back) 
1 oz., fenugreek 4 oz., common salt 16 oz. ; a large piece 
on a slice of bread. — Matthieu. 

2. Cow Spice. As Horse Spice, No. 2 (see Veterinary 
Powders muler Rledicines for Horses, further back). Or, 

3. Powdered turmeric, liquorice, aniseed, and diapente, 
each 1 oz. 


1. Salt 1 lb, warm water a gallon. 

2. Linseed oil 8 oz., Epsom salts 8 oz., gruel 3 quarts. 


1. Bruised garlic 4 cloves, salt a tablespoonful, ground 
pepper 1 oz., honey 4 oz. Boil for a short time in a glass 


of vinegar, immerse it in a piece of linen, and roll it up. 
Keep it in tlie iinimal's mouth for an hour, night and 
morning. Antiputrescent ; in epizootic maladies, and in 
ulcers of ihe mouth. — J. Eobinet. 

2. Bruised mustard and pepper, each \ oz., rolled up in 
linen, and sprinkled with vinegar : to he kept in the mouth 
not more than half an hour, morning and evening, in 
epizootic diseases. 


the fatal form of this disease which prevailed some years 
ago, the following treatment is said to have proved effec- 
tual : — Bleed freely ; then administer § pint of brandy 
every 2 hours. Mr. Jeckyll gives, in pleuro-pneumonia, 
when a tonic is indicated, 5 oz. of the following solution 
every 8 hours : — Sulphate of copper 1 part, water 4 parts ; 
dissolve, and add annnonia until it begins to precipitate. 

Mr. FiNLAY Dun says bloodletting is quite inadmissible. 
He prescribes 25 to 30 drops of Flemming's tincture of 
aconite four times a day. 


1. Vaccination. This has been recommended on the 
theory that the Cattle Plague is analogous to or identical 
with Smallpox. Vaccination with the lymph of Cow 
Pock may then be resorted to as a prophylactic. It may be 
])ractised on the ndder or vulva of a cow. It has already 
been resorted to very extensively, but with doubtful suc- 
cess. (January, 1866.) 

(Wliether the plague be Smallpox, or a form of enteric 
fever, or a disease sui generis, the precaution of separat- 
ing infected animals from the remainder of the herd is 
equally necessary. The diseased carcase must be buried 
or destroyed at a distance. The most scrupulous cleanli- 
ness must be observed in the yards and sheds, and provi- 
sion made for ventilation and abmidant supply of water, 
with the counteraction of all noxious smells and emana- 
tions by means of carbolic acid. When the cattle have 
sickened with the disorder, it cannot be checked, bii.t, like 
other contagious diseases, must run its coiu'se. 'J'be treat- 
ment can only be palliative. Among innumerable recipes we 


select the following as the most likely to be useful. Theix* 
application must be guided by the circumstances of the cases.) 

2. The Laxative Treatment. Linseed oil 6 to 12 oz., 
^^itll tiu'pentine 1 to 2 oz. ; the dose to be repeated once or 
twice. This dose, as the others, may be given in warm 

3. The Astringent Treatment. Applicable in later 
stages, when there is often much diarrhoea. Chalk and 
opium (Dr. Letheby) j or laudanum 2 oz., comp. infusion 
of catechu 1 pint, in a warm mash, with 2 or 3 tablespoon- 
fuls of charcoal. — Malton AoRicrLTURAL Association. 

4. The Saline Treatment. Useful in moderating the 
fever, and generally in mild cases. Table salt ^ ft, Epsom 
salts i ft, brimstone \ ft, ground ginger 2 oz., nitre 2 oz., 
old ale 1 quart (Dr. Allnatt) ; or chlorate of potash 2 drs. 
to i oz., thrice daily. — Mr. F. Buckland. 

5. The Mixed Saline Treatment. Adopted in imita- 
tion of Dr. Stevens' treatment of cholera. Chloride of 
sodium 3 oz., nitre 2 oz., carbonate of potash 3 oz., chlorate 
of potash 2 oz., sulphate of magnesia 4 oz., old ale 2 quarts. 
(Dr. Allnatt.) It would be as well to divide the dose into 
3 or 4. Bicarbonate of soda 1 oz., common salt 1 oz., 
chlorate of potash \ oz., Rochelle salt 1 oz. ; in a gallon of 
water : 1 pint every second hoiir or oftener. — Dr. Tuckee. 

6. The Diaphoretic Treatment. Useful as the last, in 
mild cases. Sweating to be jjromoted by rubbing, wrap- 
ping in blankets, or vapour baths. Sweet sjsirit of nitre 
1 to 2 oz., and spirit of Mindererus 1 to 2 oz., in 2 or 3 
quarts of linseed meal gruel. Will also act as a diuretic. 
— Malton Association. 

7. The Stimulant Treatment. 16 oz. of Unseed oil 
and a " mutchkin " of whiskey. (Professor Dick.) Large 
draughts of old ale recommended by some. 6 drs. of car- 
bonate of ammonia 3 times a day. (Professor Dick.) 12 
to 15 grs. of camphor, with 20 grs. of carbonate of ammonia 
in gruel, thrice daily. — Dr. COPLAND. 

8. The Tonic Treatment. A dr. each of the tincture of 
perchloride of iron and dilute hydrochloric acid in a 
quart of linseed tea or gruel, thrice daily. (Dr. Copland.) 
i oz. of sulphate of iron, twice daily. (Dr. Tucker.) 
IJ oz. of powdered cinchona. (Dr. Smart.) Strong 


hydrochloric acid 2^ oz., strong nitric acid li oz., sulphate, 
or chloride of iron 1| oz., water to make a quart ; one ounce 
of this in a gallon of water for a dose. — Malton Associa- 

9. Arsenical Treatment. Adopted by the homceopathists, 
with their usual want of success. -jL to ith of a grain of 
arsenic for a dose, every 2 hours, to alternate with ^Lth gr. 
of phosphorus. Vapour-baths also recommended, and im- 
mense quantities of old ale given. — Dr. Kidd. 
^ 10. Sloppy food. Chlorate of potash, sulphite of soda. 
Sulphurous acid inhalation and sponging. Carbolic acid, 
internally and externally. Tonics, stimulants : mineral 
acids and bitters. Separate healthy from sick. Disin- 
fectants. — FiNLAY Dun. 

N.B. — However useful to the individual, these remedies 
are of little avail in preventing the spread of the disorder. 
With regard to this plague, and that of late years, the 
foot and mouth disease, both eminently contagious, the 
well-being of the community demands the most ruthless 
use of the poleaxe in all suspected cases. The stamping 
out of the disorder by the slaughter of all diseased animals, 
and the prohibition of importations from infected districts 
abroad, which is done by an Order of Council, are the 
securest means of checking these destructive epidemics. 


_ 1. Epsom salts 1 oz. to 2 oz., according to the age and 
size of the calf; dissolve in ^ pint of gruel, and add 
20 grs. of ginger, and 3 drops of essence of peppermint. — 

2. Salts 1^ oz., castor oil 2 oz., ginger 10 grs., caraway 
2 di-s., gruel ^ pint. 

3. In costiveness, and accumulation in the paunch and 
stomach. Dissolve 2 oz. of Epsom salts in 2 or 3 quarts of 
water, or 4 oz. in a gallon, according to the age of the calf, 
and throw it in gently by means of a stomach-pump. 

4. Laxative. Epsom salts 2 or 3 oz., carbonate of soda 
2 drs., water 6 or 8 oz., ginger 1 dr., mix. After it has 
operated, give the cordial, No. 3, below.— White. 



1. Youatt's Cordial. Prepared chalk 2 oz., catechu 
1 oz., ginger ^ oz., opium 1 dr., peppermint water 1 pint ; 
dose for a calf, from 2 to 4 tablespoonfiils. 

2. Prepared chalk 2 di's., opium 10 grs., catechu ^ dr., 
ginger ^ dr., essence of peppermint 5 drops; mix, and 
give twice a day in | pint of gruel. — Clatee. 

3. Caraway 4 oz., ginger ^ dr., suhcarbonate of soda 1 
dr., brandy or gin 1 oz., water 8 oz. — White's Cordial. 

4. Half a bottle of Dalby's carminative. 

5. Suet boiled in milk ^ pint, opium 5 grs., alum 5 grs., 
prepared chalk i oz. ; mix. 

6. If No. 2 fails : Dover's powder 2 scruples, aromatic 
powder 1 dr., kino | dr. ; give it night and morning, with 
1 oz. of arrowroot boiled in a pint of water. — Clatee. 

INFLAMMATORY DISORDERS. Bleed ; give 2 to 6 oz. 
Epsom salts. [Give to a calf of six months old i the dose 
for cattle; at a year and a half, ^ the dose. — Sroois'EE.] 


Oil of vitriol 15 drops, tincture of opium J oz. — Pece. 

(carbonate) of potash 2 oz., fresh lime-water 8 oz. To cor- 
rect acidity in the stomach, give 1 or 2 teaspoonfuls in 
gruel ; the first dose to be given A\ith an ounce or two of 
Epsom salts in ^ a jiint of thin gruel. If the disorder is 
attended with griping pains, add a teaspoonful of anodyne 
carminative tincture. — White. 

ALUM WHEY. See page 124. 


Aniseed i ft ; fenugi'cek w ft, linseed meal 1 ft ; make it 
into a paste with milk, and cram them with it. 

Fattening Toivder. Common salt \\'\i\\ a little carbonate of 
soda ; a small cpantity added to the food promotes fatten- 
ing, and prevents scouring, &c. 


1. \ pint lime-water every morning, and a tablespoonful 
of salt every afternoon, to each calf .— Matee. 


2. Linseed oil 4 oz., oil of turpentine 1 oz., oil of cara- 
ways 20 drops ; repeated once or twice at intervals of 
10 days. This dose for calves of 6 to 10 months old. — 

3. A tablcspoonful of oil of turpentine, a little sweet oil, 
and 6 or 8 oz. of warm water. — White. 

€%Utml liplitatians for ^mt €Mt 

LOTIONS OR WASHES. (See also Embrocations.) 


1. Alum 1 oz., water 8 oz., tincture of myrrh 1 oz. 
honey of roses 1 oz. 

2. Equal parts of tincture of mjTrh and water. — 

3. Alum i oz., water 1 pint, tincture of myrrh 1 oz. 

LOTION FOR COW-POCK. Sal ammoniac i oz., white 
vinegar ^ pint, camphorated spirit 2 oz., Goulard's extract 
1 oz. ; mix. — Clatee. 


1. Extract of lead i oz., vinegar 4 oz., soft water 1 pint. 
— White. 

2. Acetate of ammonia 4 oz., water I pint, spirit of cam- 
phor ^ oz. 

DISCUTIENT LOTION, for dispersing tumours. Bay salt 
4 oz., vinegar 1 pint, water 1 quart, oil of origanum 1 dr.; 
rub the oil with the salt, and gradually add the others. 


1. Bay salt 4 oz., oil of origanum 1 dr. ; rub together, 
and add vinegar ^ pint, spirit of wine 2 oz., water 1 

2, Common salt 1 oz., sal ammoniac 1 oz., water 1 pint. 


LOTIONS FOE FOUL IN THE FOOT. After poulticing, 
and removing loose horn, apply — 

1. Eutter of antimony, or 

2. Strong solution of alum. 

3. Solution of sulphate of copper. 

4. (\Mieu tlic above are not sufficient.) Dissolve 2 drs. 
of corrosive sublimate in 12 oz. of water.— White. 

5. One fluid drachm of carbolic acid in from 6 to 12 oz. 
of water. — Trsox. 


1. Tincture of myrrh and aloes. 

2. For proud flesh. Strong solution of sulphate of 

3. For offensive wounds: chloride of lime 1 oz., water 
1 X)int ; mix well, and strain. 

LOTION FOR BULL-BURNT. Goulard's extract 1 oz. 
spirit of wine 2 oz., water ^ pint. 

the bladder, apply a saturated solution of salt in water. — 


LOTION FOR THE MOUTH, in ulceration during the 
epidemic. Alum 1 oz., sulphate of zinc 5 oz., warm water 
1 pint, treacle i ft. — Spoonee. 


1. Stavesacre seeds 4 oz., water 4 pints; boil to 2 pints, 
and apply it daily. — Peck. 

2. Sublimate 2 drs., spirit of wine 2 oz., water 1 pint. — 

3. Stavesacre 4 oz., white hellebore root 2 oz., water 
1 gallon ; boil to half ; apply with a sponge. 

LOTION FOR MANGE. Corrosive sublimate 2 drs., muri- 
atic ajid i oz., water 12 to 16 oz. ; mix. In obstinate 
cases only. — White. See Linime?its, 



1. White vitriol a scruple, spirit of wine 1 dr., water a 
l)iut. — Clatee. 

2. Sugar of lead 10 to 20 grs., soft water 8 oz.— V.C. 

3. Sedative Eye Drops. Powdered digitalis 1|- oz. ; 
infuse in a pint of Cape wine for a fortnight, and filter : a 
few drops to be introduced into the eye twice or thrice a 
day. — Spooxee. 

4. Extract of lead 2 drs., wine of digitalis (ahove) 2 drs., 
tincture of opium 2 drs., water a pint. 


STRONG EMBROCATION, for deep-seated strains, &c. 

1. Oil of origanum ^ oz., oil of turpentine i pint, sweet 
oil 1^ pint, powdered cantharides 1 oz. — Ciatee. 

2. Olive oil 4 oz., oil of tm-pentine 1 oz., water of am- 
monia 1 oz. (For sti'ains and bruises, after the inflam- 
mation has subsided.) — White. 

CROTON LINIMENT. Bruised croton seeds 1 part, oil of 
turpentine 8 parts. Macerate for 14 days, and strain. It 
irritates the skin powerfully ; for general purposes it re- 
quires to be diluted with olive oil. — Moeton. 

MUSTARD EMBROCATION. Flour of mustard 4 oz., oil 
of turpentine 2 oz., water of ammonia 2 oz. — White. 


1. Olive oil 2 oz., strong water of ammonia 1 oz., marsh- 
mallow ointment 1 oz. 

2. Neatsfoot oil 4 oz., camphorated oil 1 oz., oil of 
turpentine 1 oz., laudanum 1 oz., oil of origanum 1 dr. — 

3. Sweet oil 4 oz., oil of turpentine 2 oz. Mix. — 

EMBROCATIONS FOR GARGET, or Downfall of the 

1. Oil of elder 4 oz., water of ammonia \ oz., Mlnde- 
rerus spirit 1 oz., camphorated oil 2 oz. 


2. Olive oil 3 oz., oil of turpentine 1 oz., cami^lior 2 drs. 
— White. 

3. Soft soap 8 oz., oil of bays 8 oz., oil of turpentine 
8 oz., spirit of camphor 4 oz. (See also Ointments, 

DRIFFIELD OILS. Barbadoes tar 1 oz., linseed oil 1 ft, 

oil of turpentine 3 oz., oil of \'itriol 1 oz. 
LIXIMEXT FOR ^lANGE. Sulphur vivum or flower of 

sulphur 4 oz., train oil 12 oz., oil of turpentine 4 oz. ; mix. 

1 oz., sweet oil 1 oz., water of ammonia 2 oz. — White. 

BLISTERING LINIMENT. Cantharides bruised 1 oz., 
oil of turpentine 8 oz.; digest 14 days, and strain. To be 
applied by friction on the skin. — Youatt. 

LIQUID CAUSTIC. Butter of antimony alone, or mixed 
with an equal quantity of tincture of myrrh. 

LIQUID SNUFF. Alum, sulphate of zinc, capsicum, of 
each 1 oz. ; camphor 2 drs. ; pulverize, and macerate in 
32 oz. of strong vinegar and 1 oz. of turpentine ; shake 
up when used, and introduce a teaspoonful into the nos- 
trils, to promote a discharge for the relief of inflammation 
of the chest. — Matthieu. 



1. Resin cerate 1 oz., cantharides finely powdered 3 drs., 
oil of turpentine 2 drs. ; for setons. — Clatee. 

2. Lard 12 oz., resin 4 oz. ; melt together, and when 
STifficiently cool, add oil of turpentine 4 oz., powdered can- 
tharides 5 oz. ; stir till cold : to be rubbed in after remov- 
ing the hair. — Clatee. 

OINTMENT FOR MANGE, LICE, &c. (See also Lotions, 

1. Sulphur 1 ft, common turpentine 4 oz., mercurial 
ointment 2 oz., linseed oil a pint. Melt the tuqjentine 
with the oil, and when nearly cold, stir in the sulphur, 
and afterwards the mercurial ointment. — Ygfatt, 


Note. — Cattle are easily salivated, and greatly weakened 
by it. Mercurials should therefore he used with great 

2. Sulphur 1 ft, strong mercurial ointment 2 oz., com- 
mon turpentine \ lb, lard Ij ft. — Clater. 

3. French Liniment. Olive oil a pint, sulphur 4 oz., 
heat till the oil hecomes coloured by the sulphur ; remove 
from the fire, and when nearly cold, add 4 oz. of oil of 
turpentine, apply with a feather. 

4. Lard 2 fts. ; melt and add oil of turpentine 8 oz., 
sulphuric acid 2 oz., sulphur vi\'um 8 oz. ; stir till cold. 

5. Mange Liniment. Sulphur vivum finely powdered 
4 oz., train oil 12 oz., oil of turpentine 4 oz. ; mi.x. — 

IODINE OINTMENT, for Empyema. Rub together l^ dr. 
of iodine, and 1 dr. iodide of potassium, with a icw drops 
of watei', then add 3 oz. of strong mercurial ointment and 
i oz. of powdered camphor. To be rubbed over the chest 
every night till it causes an exudation, then occasionally, 
to keep it up. 

GARGET OINTMENT, for Downfall of the Udder. 

1. Soft soap 1 ft, mercurial ointment 2 oz., camjjhor 
(powdered with spirit) 1 oz. ; mix : give first a laxative, 
then a fever or diuretic drink. 

2. Green elder ointment 2 oz., water of ammonia \ oz. 

3. Beat fox-glove leaves with twice their weight of 
whey butter ; to every pound add 1 oz. of sal annnoniac, 
1 oz. of turpeiitine, and i oz. of bole ; mix and apply 2 or 
3 times a day. — Downing. 

4. Spirit of camphor 1 oz., mercurial ointment 1 oz., 
elder ointment 8 oz. — Youatt. 

5. Li obstinate cases. Iodide of potassium 1 part, lard 
7 parts. To be rubbed in once daily. — Spoonee. 

FOOT OINTMENT (for all domestic animals). Eipial parts 
of tar, lard, and resin, melted together. 

parts of basilicon and citrine ointments. — Clatek. 



yellow resin ^ lb ; melt together, and when it begins to 

cool, add calamine in powder | ft. 
APPLICATION TO WOUNDS. Mix the whites of eggs 

with flour to a proper consistence. Applied over the part, 

it soon dries, and shields it from the air. 

DIGESTIVE OINTMENT. 1. Lard, common turpentine, 
of each 4 oz. ; melt, and add 1 oz. powdered verdigris. — 

2. Boil leaves of black hellebore with an equal weight of 
lard, until the leaves are crisp ; strain, and add an equal 
weight of common turpentine. [A similar ointment made 
with i\'y leaves is likewise very stimulating.] 


1. Melt 4 oz. of lard with 4 oz. of common turpentine, 
and add 1 oz. of finely po\vdered sulphate of copper, stir- 
ring until cold. — White. 

2. Melt together equal weights of soft soap and common 
turpentine. — Skeeeet. 

of potasium j oz., hot water i oz. ; dissolve, and mix 
with 2 oz. of lard. 

CHARGE FOR OLD STRAINS. Burgundy pitch 4 oz., 
common pitch 4 oz., wax 2 oz., tar 6 oz. ; apply hot, and 
cover with cut tow. 


1. Common. A piece of cord or coarse tape ; or liorse 
hair and tow, platted together. 

2. Irritating. Root of common dock ; or of black 

3. Cotton cord soaked in Morton's cantharidal solution 
(see Liniments and Embrocations for Horses. Vet. 



of white, groon, and blue vitriol, flour, and bole ; beaten 
up with fresh nettles and a little vinegar. 

phate of copper I oz,, prepared chalk 2 oz., powdered alum 
i oz., bole 1 oz. ; rub together. — Spooneb. 




These are best given in a liquid form, and should be care- 
fully and slowly administered. Sheep generally require 
one sixth (or from one eighth to one sixth) of the doses 
given to cattle. 


1. Epsom salts 2 oz., powdered caraway \ oz., warm 
thin gruel sufficient to dissolve the salts. The editor of 
Clatee says that this is the best purging drink that can 
be used. For Lambs give a fourth of this, and repeat in 
6 hours if necessary. 

2. Epsom salts 1| oz. or 2 oz., ginger 1 dr., treacle 1 oz., 
hot water 4 oz. 

3. Castor oil 2 oz., ginger and salt of tartar, of each 2 
scruples, moist sugar a spoonful, gruel q. s. — M'Ewen. 

4. Epsom or Glauber's salts from 1 to 2 oz., common 
salt a teaspoonful, boiling water sufficient to dissolve the 
salts, and a little gruel. A teaspoonful of tincture of 
ginger or of pimento, or of anodyne carminative tincture 
(see Miscellaneous liquid Medicines, Vet. Formulary, fur- 
ther back), may be added. 

5. Sulphur 5 oz., Epsom salts 1 oz., common salt a tea- 
spoonful, thin gruel 5- pint. 

6. Linseed oil 2 or 3 oz., croton oil 2 or 3 drops, warm 
gruel q. s. 

7. For Lamhs. Epsom salts 2 to 4 drs., ginger ^ dr., in 
gruel. — Spoonek. 

8. For Sheep on the first attack of Smallpox. Epsom 
salts 2 oz., ginger 2 dr., in chamomile tea or infusion of 


gentian (or with 1 dr. of powdered gentian or chamomile). 
— Waenecke. 

FEVER DRENCH. Powdered digitalis 20 grs., emetic tartar 
10 grs., nitre 2 drs. Twice a day, mixed with gruel. — 


1. General Tonic. Gentian 2 drs., calmnba 1 dr., ginger 
^ dr., all in powder ; tinctm-e of orange peel 1 dr., gruel 
4oz. ; for one dose. — Clater. 

2. In the last stage of Fever. Gentian 1 dr., ginger 
20 grs., spirit of nitrous ether 1 dr., tincture of cardamom 
20 drops, in gruel. 

3. For Debility and Indigestion, after a purgative. 
Gentian, caraway, each 1 oz., calumba and ginger, of each 
•| oz. (all sliced or bruised), boiling water a quart ; infuse 
till cool, and strain. Give a tablespoonful daily, with the 
same quantity of gruel. — Clater. 

DRENCHES FOR RED- WATER. The pasture should 
be changed for shorter, the animal bled, and the bowels 
kept open with the above purging drinks. If these 
means do not remove the disease, give one of the follow- 
ing drenches : — 

1. Epsom salts 6 oz., nitre 2 oz., bole i oz., hot water 
3 i)ints, oil of turpentine 4 oz. ; mix, and give 3 or 4 
tablespoonfuls (from a horn that will measure that 
quantity), shaking the bottle well before each dose is 
poured out. 

2. Powdered catechu 30 grs., alum 20 grs., ginger 20 
grs., decoction of oak-bark 4 oz., for a dose. 

3. Olive oil 1 oz., oil of turpentine 1 oz., thick gruel 
\ pint. 

*^* Mr. FiNLAT Dun condemns bloodletting in Red-water. 

FOR EXTERNAL RED- WATER. (Vesicles on the skin, 
containing a reddish fluid.) 

1. Sulphur 2 to 3 drs., in gruel, oiice or twice a day. If 
it continue, give — 

2. Epsom salts 1 oz., gruel sufficient to dissolve it. — 
Sir James Mackenzie. 



[The Purging Drink, No. 6, or a fonrtli of No. 1, should 
be given before the Astringent Drinks.] 

1. Prepai'ed chalk 2 oz., catechu 1 oz., ginger ^ oz., 
opium 1 dr., peppeniiint water a pint. Dose, for lambs, 
a tablespoonful night and morning. — YorATT. 

2. Prepared chalk 5 oz., ginger i dr., catechu 1 dr., 
opium 2 grs., in gruel ; once or twice daily. 

3. A tablespoonful of Calves' Cordial (see Jledicines for 
Calves, further back). 

4. Compound powder of chalk with opium 2 drs., gen- 
tian 1 dr., essence of peppermint 3 drops ; in a little thin 
starch morning and niglit. — Clatkr. 

5. Ginger 2 drs., caraway -4 drs., prepared chalk 4 drs. ; 
mix : give a teaspoonful in gruel. — White. 

6. In tehite skit. A teaspoonful of White's Alkaline 
Solution (p. 128) in a little gruel ; and afterwards No. 7. 

7. Epsom salts 3 dri ., common salt, a scruple, powdered 
ginger a scruple, thin ^ruel 4 oz. Repeat if necessary. 


1 oz., sulplnir 2 drs., nitre i dr., ginger 15 grs., in warm 
water. Repeat half this, with a teaspoonful of svrcct 
spirit of nitre, daily. — Spooxee. 

DRENCH FOR COW-POX. Mi.x: 3 parts of flowers of 
sulphui", 1 of common salt, and 1 of honey, into an elec- 
tuary; give i of this daily, in gruel. Keep the mouth 
and nose clean with vinegar and water. See also Purging 
Drench, No. 7, above. 

DRENCH FOR INFLUENZA. Epsom salts i oz., chamo- 
mile tea 4 oz. Afterwards give half doses of the Fever 
Drench, above. — Daebt. 


1. Glauber's salts 1 oz., hot water 1 oz., peppennint- 
water 4 oz., tincture of ginger 1 dr., tincture of gentian 

2 drs. ; every six hours till the bowels are opened, and half 
the quantity the next 4 mornings. — Ciatee. 

2. Common salt 1 oz., solution oi" potash (White's) 


li dr., castor or olive oil 2 tablespoonfuls, water 3 oz. 
After letting out the air by a tube or probang). — White. 


Pearlash li dr., hot water 8 oz. To be given from a flat 
bottle the second ajid fourth morning after putting them 
to keep.— HoLDiTcn. 


bleeding, 2 oz. of Epsom and Glauber's salts, in warm 
water or thin gruel. 


1. Epsom salts 1 oz., hot water or thin gruel to dissolve 
it ; add castor oil 2 oz., laudanum 30 drops. "Wlien it has 
operated, give No. 2. — Blaine. 

2. Ipecacuanha 15 grs., prepared chalk 1 dr., opium 
2 grs. ; boiled starch or arrow-root 4 oz. Night and 

3. Linseed oil 2 oz., powdered opium 2 grs., linseed tea 
q. s. Afterwards give No. 4. — Satee. 

4. Opium 2 grs., ginger ^ dr, gentian ^ dr., linseed tea 
or gruel q. s. 

5. Epsom salts 1^ oz., hot water 4 oz. ; dissolve and 
add castor or olive oil IJ oz. — White. Afterwards give 
No. 6. 

6. Catechu i dr., allspice i dr., caraway 1 dr., water or 
beer 4 oz. ; simmer together. 


1. After bleeding : Epsom salts 1^ oz., warm water a 
pint. — Stevenson. 

2. After bleeding : common salt 1 oz., water ^ pmt, 
laudanum a teaspoonful. — White. 

3. Laudanum 2 drs., castor oil 3 oz., calomel 12 grs., 
treacle 3 oz. — Finlat Dun. 


Olive oil 4 oz., spirit of hartshorn i oz., gruel or arrow- 
root i pint. — White. 



1. A decoction of horsemint, or any other kind of mint. 

2. Bruised ergot of rye 1 dr., boiling water a pint ; 
infuse for a ^ of an liour, and give a third part. Repeat 
if necessary. 

Drenches and powders for the rot. 

1. Juniper berries 6 oz., gentian 1 oz. ; boil in 3 gal- 
lons of water for a quarter of an hour, strain, and add 
common salt 4 fcs., powdered ginger 4 oz., tartarized iron 
2 oz. ; stir, and let it stand till cool. Put it into wine- 
bottles filled two thirds full, and add to each, 1^ oz. oil of 
turpentine and 5- oz. sweet spirit of nitre. Give a table- 
spoonful night and morning, shaking the bottle before 
pouring it out. 

2. Common salt 8 oz., gentian powder 8 oz., ginger 1 oz., 
tincture of calumba 4 oz., water to make iip a quart. — 
Clatee. See the next. 

3. To a quart of No 2, add spirit of turpentine 3 oz. ; 
shake well together, and give 2 tablespoonfuls at night, 
before the night's food is given, and a tablespoonful of 
No. 2 every morning. 

Powders for the same. — A French recipe. 1. Dry bran 
10 fts, salt Y lb., aromatic herbs (as thyme, sage, juniper, 
rosemary, &c.) cut small, 6 oz., green anise and coriander, 
of each 5 oz. ; mix, and give morning and night every 
third day. The above quantity is for thirty sheep. 

2. Juniper berries 4 oz., bay berries 1 oz., grains of 
paradise i oz., bay salt li ft, loaf sugar ^ ft; powder all 
together, and keep the powder in a bottle for use. Give 
the sheep dry and sweet hay, sprinkled with the powder. 
— Laweence. 

CATARRH, HOOSE, AND COUGH. After bleeding 
from the neck, give E^jsom salts 2 oz., gruel or linseed 
tea, q. s. 

DRENCH FOR INFLUENZA. Epsom salts ^ oz., chamo- 
mile tea 4 oz. Afterwards, small doses of digitalis, opium, 
tartarized antimony, and vegetable tonics. — Dakby. 


i^tetnal 3p]^Iicati0tts for 3|eej). 


1. Strong. For cloudiness of the eye; corrosive sub- 
limate 4 grs., spirit of wine 5 oz. ; dissolve, and add water 
a pint.— Clatee. 

2. Tincture or wine of opium a teaspoonful, water | 

scab ointments will also destroy them, and are less hazard- 
ous, and less injurious to the wool.) 

1. Arsenical loash. Wliite arsenic 2 ft, salt of tartar 
^ it), water 12 gallons ; boil for half an hour. — Youatt. 

2. Arsenic 2 fts., soft soap 4 fts., water 30 gallons ; dis- 
solve. The sheep to be immersed in this liquid (the head 
only being kept out), and while in it, the fleece to be well 
rubbed. Wlien taken out, the fluid should be well pressed 
out of the fleece, and the sheep kept from cold and wet 
for a few days. — Clater. Mr. Spooxeb says 2 Its. of 
arsenic should make 48 gallons of the liquid. 

3. Arsenic 1 ft, yellow soap 6 fts., pearlash 12 oz. water 
30 gallons.— Matthews. 

4. Mercurial. Corrosive sublimate 1 oz., spirit of wine 
2 oz. ; rub together till dissolved, then add cream of tartar 
1 oz., bay salt 4 oz., dissolve the whole in 2 quarts of 
water, and apply it with a sponge wherever lice appear.— 

5. Tobacco 4 oz., water 1 gallon ; boil, and add soft 
soap 1 ft, sulphur vi^iim 1 ft ; when cold add a pint of oil 
of turpentine. 

6. Equal parts of decoction of tobacco and lime water. 
— Youatt. 

WASH TO KILL MAGGOTS. Shake up in a bottle to- 
gether, 1 quart of water, spirits of turpentine 1 oz., and 
corrosive sublimate 10 grains. Stop with a cork in which 
a quill is inserted. Wlien the maggots are observed, a 


small quantity of the mixture is to be shakeu on the spot 
through the quill, and the maggots will shortly creep out 
and die. 


1. One gallon of common tar, and 12 lbs. of any sweet 
grease, melted together. 

2. Oil of tar is used as a preventive of the Jli/ ; but 
fish oil is equally serviceable, according to Mr. Hogg ; and 
is less injui-ious to the wool. Oil of tar has sometimes 
destroyed sheep. 


1. White lead 2 fts., red lead i ft, sulphur IJ ft, oil of 
wormwood, animal oil (empyreumatic), or creasote i oz. ; 

2. "Wliite lead 2 fts., red lead 1 ft ; mix, and apply by 
sprinkling from a dredger, following a stick drawn 
through the wool. — Clater. 

3. Powdered colocynth 3 di-s., black brimstone 1 ft, 
tincture of assafoetida ^ oz. ; mix. 

4. White lead 4 parts, arsenic 1 part, sulphur 6, ver- 
millioii 2. — Spooxee. 

POWDER FOR THE EYES. Equal parts of sal ammo- 
niac, white sugar, and oxide of zinc, triturated together. 
It may be mixed either with rose water or honey. — 


epidemic afPecting them. The same as for cattle. See 
above, page 135. 


1. Quicksilver 1 ft, Venice turpentine i lb ; rub them 
together until the globules are no longer visible ; then 
add 4 pint of oil of turpentine, and 4 K)s. of lard. The 
mode of applying this ointment is as follows : — Begin at 
the head of the sheep, and proceeding from between the 
ears along the back to the end of the tail, divide the wool 
in a furrow till the skin can be touched; and let a finger 
slightly dij^ped in the ointment be drawn along the bottonj 


of the furrow. From this furro^\- similar ones must be 
dra^^^^ along the shoulders and thighs to the legs, as far 
as the wool extends. And if much infected, 2 or more 
should also be drawn along each side, parallel with that 
on the back ; and one down each side before the hind and 
fore legs. It kills the sheep-fag, and probably the tick 
and other vermin. It should not be used in very cold or 
wet weather. — Sir Joseph Banks. 

2. Tar oils. Tobacco juice. Stavesacre. — Finlay Dun. 

3. Sti'ong mercurial ointment 1 part, lard 5 parts ; mix. 

4. Quicksilver 1 lb, Venice tm'pentine i It, spirit of 
turpentine 2 oz., lard 4^ fts. ; to be made and used as No. 1. 
In summer 1 lb of resin may be substituted for a like 
quantity of lard. — Clateh. 

5. Strong mercurial ointment 1 lb., lard 4 lbs., oil of tur- 
pentine 8 oz., sulphur 12 oz. — White. 

6. Mild. Flowers of suli^hur 1 lb, Venice turpentine 
4 oz., rancid lard 2 lbs., strong mercurial ointment 4 oz. ; 
mix well. — Clater. 

7. Lard or other fat, with an equal quantity of oil of 
turjjentiue. — DAUBENToy. 

8. Without llerct'.ri/. Lard 1 lb, oil of turpentine 
4 oz., flowers of sulphur 6 oz. — White. 

9. Strong mercurial ointment 1 lb, lard 4 lbs., Venice 
turjientine 8 oz., oil of turpentine 2 oz. If mixed by 
heat, care must be taken to use no more heat than is 
necessary, and to add the oil of turpentine when the 
other ingredients begin to cool, and to stir till cold. — 


10. Corrosive sublimate 2 oz., white hellebore 3 oz., fish 
oil 6 quarts, resin i lb, tallow i lb. The sublimate and 
then the hellebore to be rubbed with a portion of the oil 
till perfectly smooth, and then mixed with the other ingre- 
dients melted together. — Stetexsox. 

11. The following once had considerable local celebrity, 
but it obviously requires to be used with caution. Dissolve 
2i oz. of corrosive sublimate in the same quantity of 
nmriatic acid, and be;it up the solution with 6 liis. of strong 
mercurial ointment ; put it in a large pan, and pour on it 
19i lbs. of lard, and Ik lbs. of common turpentine, melted 


together and still hot, and stir the whole continiially until 
it becomes solid. 

FLIES. The Fly Powder, No. 2, mixed with tar.— 

OINTMENT FOR SORE HEADS. Black pitch 2 fts, tar 

1 ib, flowers of sulphur 1 ft ; melt together, taking care 
that it does not boil. To be spread tliickly on leather 
while warm, and fitted to the head. 


1. Blue vitriol 1 oz., white vitriol 1 oz., burnt alum 

2 oz., bole i oz., honey to form a stiff paste. — M'Ewen. 

2. Sulphate of copper 2 oz., water 12 oz., dilute sul- 
phuric acid 2 drs. — White. 

3. Butter of antimony, alone, or mixed with tincture of 

4. Verdigris, bole, and sugar of lead, in equal parts, 
rubbed together into a fine powder. Sprinkle on the sore, 
cover ^\'ith tow, and bind do«ai with tape for 24 hoi;rs, 
using afterwards No. 2, or No. 3. — Clatee. 

5. Strong. Verdigris 1 oz., nitrous acid 2 oz., water 
4 oz. — White. 

6. Strongest. Red precipitate 1 oz., nitrous acid 2 oz. ; 
dissolve, and add water 2 oz., spirit of wine 1 oz. — 

7. Aloes 16 oz., weak spirit 32 oz., sulphuric acid 17 oz. ; 
mix. — DrviLLE. 

8. Dissolve sulphate of copper 2h oz. in 1^ pint of 
water, and add a solution of 3^ drs. of sulphate of iron 
previously calcined. Diffuse f oz. of slaked lime in water, 
and add to the mixed solutions ; then add 7 oz. common salt, 
1 oz. wood vinegar, and water to make up a quart. [Nearly 
the composition of a celebrated French nostrum.] 

9. LELOrp's Terebintliinated Oxymel of Copper. Honey 
14 oz., pyroligneous acid 7 oz., powdered verdigris 5 oz. ; 
boil it in a large copper pan until it assumes a reddish 
purple colour ; then add, (keeping the mixture on a slow 
fire,} 14 oz. Venice turpentine ; stir with a wooden spatula 


for J of an hour, and pour it into jars. To he applied 
twice, at 12 hours' interval, by means of a small piece of 
wood, after cleaning the part with an iron blade. 

10. White vinegar 78 parts, powdered sulphate of copper 
10 parts ; dissolve, and add 12 parts of sulphuric acid. 
Apply it with a feather. (A French remedy.) 

11. Detersive Ointment. Burnt alum 4 parts, verdigris 
1 part, camphor 1 part, green ointment of elder or poplar 
16 parts.— Lebas. 

12. Honey 4 oz., bmuit alum 2 oz., Armenian bole ^ lb ; 
mis with as much train oil as will convert these ingre- 
dients into a salve. The honey must first be completely 
dissolved in the oil made hot, then the bole stirred in, and 
lastly the alum. 

13. Carbolic acid 1 fl. dr., water 6 to 12 oz. 
Blacklock condemns all caustic applications, using 

only mild poultices and emollient ointments. 



ALTERATIVE MEDICINES, given in mange and other 
skin diseases, and in obstinate eostiveness. 

1. Sulphur i oz., ^thiops mineral 3 grs., nitre i dr., 
cream of tartar ^ dr. ; daily, in thick gruel or wash. — 

2. Black antimony i oz., sulphur 2 oz., nitre i oz.; 
mix; for 8 doses. 

FEVER MEDICINE. Digitalis 3 grs., antimonlal powder 
6 grs., nitre i dr. ; after bleeding, in a little warm swill, 
milk, or wash, morning, noon, and night. — Clatee. 


1. Epsom salts 1, 2, or 3 oz., in broth or swill. 

2. Sulphur 2 drs., daily ; full dose i oz., with milk or 
other food. This may be repeated for 2 or 3 days, in sur- 
feit from overfeeding. 

3. Jalap 1 dr. ; if insufficient, add 10 or 12 grs. of scam- 
mony, or 10 grs. of calomel. — White. 

4. Jalap i dr., sulphur 2 drs., antimony i dr. 

5. Jalap i dr., Epsom salts 1 ounce. 

6. Castor oil 1 oz. to 2 oz., with gruel. 

7. Castor oil 1 oz., gi-uel q. s., Epsom salts 2 oz., salt 
i oz. ; mix. 

8. Calomel 5 grs. This must not be repeated more 
than twice. 

CARMINATIVE DRENCH, for flatulent distension, from 
sour whey, &c. After using the probang, or where it 
cannot be had, give — 

1. White's solution of potash (see p. 128) 2 oz., ano- 
dyne carminative tincture 1 tablespoonful, water 8 oz. 

2. A tablespoonful of common salt in warm water, a 
teaspoouf ul of mustard or powdered ginger, and a glass of 


THRIVING POWDER, to promote fattciiin-,'. Powdered 
fenugreek, alone, or mixed with a fourth of liquorice 
powder; an ounce daily with the food. Cleanliness greatly 
conduces to the same end. 

REMEDIES FOR MEASLES. After bleeding by tail 
ear, palate, or vein inside the forearm, an inch above the 
knee, give one of the purging drinks, and turn the 
animal into the open air. 

REMEDIES FOR THE DISTEMPER, affecting the Mouth 
and Feet. The same drink, and astringent powder as fox' 

Castor oil 2 oz., with gruel ; afterwards 2 grs. white helle- 
bore powder twice or thrice a day. — CuPlss. 


1. Lard 1 lb, resin 4 lbs. ; melt together, and stir in -J- ft 
lapis talaminaris. — Clatee. 

2. Zinc ointment 1 oz., yellow basilicon 3 oz. 

3. Tar ointment mixed with a little soap. 


Sulphur 4 oz., Venice turpentine 1 oz., old lard 8 oz., 
mercurial oiirtment 1 oz ; the animal to be previously 
scrubbed all over with a good soap lather. [The above 
alterative powders should be given at the same time.] 

OINTMENT FOR SORE TEATS. Soft soap 4 oz., cam- 
phor (powdered with spirit) i oz., mercurial ointment 
oz. It must be carefully washed off. 


Medicines fou dogs. 

N.B. — The doses required, vary considerably, according to 
the strength and size of the dog, which should always be 
duly considered. 


1. Barbadoes aloes 8 oz., antlmonial powder 1 oz., 
ginger 1 oz., palm oil 5 oz. j beat together into a mass. 
Dose from i dr. to 2 drs., every 4 or 6 hours, till the bowels 
are relieved. — Youatt. 

2. The same, with the addition of 1 oz. of calomel. 
From 45 grains to 2 drs. for a dose. — Clatee. 

3. Aloes i dr. to 2 drs. made into a ball with syi'up of 

4. Aloes i dr. to 1^ drs., calomel 2 to 5 grs., syrup to 
form a^ball : in inflammation of the bowels, and in worms, 
— Blaine. 

5. Cape aloes ^ dr. to 1 dr., calomel 2 to 3 grs., oil of 
caraway 6 drops, syrup to form a ball. — M'Ewen. 

6. Calomel 12 grs., aloes 3 drs., opium 1 gr., syrup q. s. 
to form a mass, for 4, 6, or 8 balls j one every 4 or 5 hours 
till the bowels are relieved. — Blaine. 

7. Croton oil 1 drop, Castile soap 20 grs., conserve to 
form a ball. 

8. Castor oil 3 parts, syrup of buckthorn 2 parts, syrup 
of jDOppies 1 part ; dose from 1 to 2 tablespoonf uls. — Mr. 
Yotjatt's purge. [Mr. Clark says syrup of buckthorn 
for dogs, should be made with treacle, and the spices 

9. Epsom salts, from 1 to 4 drs., wTapped in tissue paper, 
dividing the doses into convenient-sized packets. 

10. In costiveness loith injlammation : J oz. to 2 oz. 
castor oil. — Mr. Spoonek. 

11. Jalap, powdered, 30 grs., calomel 8 grs. j make into 


a i)ill with gmn water, and administer every morning. 
In distemper. 


1. Sulphur 2^ lbs., nitre ^ lb, iEthiops mineral, 4oz., lin- 
seed meal | lb, palm oil 1 ft, or as much as may be required ; 
beat together, and keep in a jar for use : dose, from 2 
scruples to 1| or 2 drs.— Clateb. 

2. Ethiops mineral 20 to 40 grs., cream of tartar 20 to 
40 grs., nitre 5 to 10 grs. : night and morning, made into a 
ball with butter. — Spoonee. 

3. Tonic Alterative. Mercurial pill 1 dr., aloes 2 drs., 
myrrh, benzoin, balsam of Peru, of each 1^ dr. ; to be 
divided into 10, 15, or 20 pills : one every evening, for the 
yellows, after aloes and calomel. — Blaine. 

4. Alterative Poivder. vEthiops mineral 2 to 5 grs., 
cream of tartar 4 to 10 grs., tartarized iron 1 to 3 grs., 
once a day. — Cxatee. 

5. To give a fine skin. Give a tablespoonful of tar, 
made up with oatmeal. — Mayee. 


1. Catechu 1^ dr., sulphate of quinine 20 grs., opium 

5 grs., ginger 1 dr., conserve of roses q. s. to form a mass, 
to be divided into 8, 6, or 4 balls. — Blaine. 

2. Prepared chalk 2 oz., powdered gum arable ^ oz., 
powdered catechu i oz., powdered oak bark i oz., pow- 
dered ginger i oz., opium 15 grs., palm oil 1 oz. ; beat 
well together : dose, i dr. to 2 drs., morning, noon, and 
night, in the advanced stage of distemper. — Clatee. 

3. Opium 5 grs., catechu 2 drs., gum arable 2 drs., ginger 
"2- dr., syrup of poppies q. s. ; divide into 12, 9, or 6 balls : 
In diarrhoea. — 13laine. 

4. Myrrh 1 dr., ipecacuanha 1 scruple, opium 3 grs., 
chalk 2 drs., carbonate of iron 1 dr. : as No. 3. — Blaine. 

5. In obstinate cases : Alum 1 dr., chalk 2 drs., opium 

6 grs., resin 3 drs. : into 4, 6 or 8 balls. 

6. In diarrhoea, after 1 to 4 drs. of Epsom salts : Pre- 
pared chalk 1 to 3 scruples, catechu 5 to 10 grs., opium 4 
to 2 grs. ; twice a day. — Spoonee. 

7. Astringent Drink. Boil 1 oz. of logwood in a quart 


of milk to i a pint. A teaspoonful every morning, in 


1. After a few emetics. Calomel 3 grs., foxglove 3 grs., 
cream of tartar 1 dr., antimonial powder 12 grs., honey to 
form 6 boluses. One twice a day. — Blaine. 

2. Digitalis 20 grs., antimonial powder 40 grs., nitre 2 
drs., sulphur 3 drs., palm oil 3 drs., or q. s. Divide into 
10, 15, or 20 halls, according to the size of the dog ; give one 
morning and night, interposing an emetic every third or 
fourth day. — ClATEE. 

3. In old cases. P. squill ^ gr. to 1 gr., gum ammoniac 
5 grs., balsam of Peru 8 grs., benzoic acid 1 gr., balsam of 
sulphur to form a ball. 

4. Extract of hemlock \ dr., extract of henbane 10 grs., 
p. digitalis 20 grs., conserve of roses to form a mass. Di- 
vide into 6, 8, or 10 balls. One night and morning. — 


1. Turpeth's mineral 1 to 3 grs., assafoetida J dr., aloes 
20 grs., soap 10 grs., syrup of poppies to form a ball. To 
be preceded by an emetic, and given every third day. 

2. After bleeding (if required) and an emetic, give a 
physic ball; and afterwards the following:— 2 or 3 times a 
day : Antimonial powder 2, 3, or 4 grs. ; nitre 5, 10, or 
15 grs. ; ipecacuanha 2, 3, or 4 grs. ; form a ball. If the 
disease proceed to the debilitating stage, give the Tonic 
Ball No. 2; in the putrid or malignant stage give the 
Astringent Ball No. 1. — Blaine. 

3. After the Emetic Powder No. 1 (which should be re- 
peated every 3rd or 4th day) give the Cough Ball No. 2, 
from J dr. to 2 drs. in weight. And if the dog lose flesh, 

. give equal parts of the cough ball and the Tonic Ball 
(No. 1). In the more advanced stages give the tonic alone ; 
or the astringent hall if diarrhcea comes on. — Clatee. 

4. Give a third of a paper of James's powder, mixed 
with butter, and afterwards warm broth or milk. In 2 
hours, another third ; and if this neither vomit nor purge, 
give the other third at the end of 4 hoxirs.— Daniel. 


5. Blaine's Distemper Powders, which are sold in 
packets, with directions for use. 

6. Camphor 3 to 5 grs., charcoal 10 grs., opium 1 gr., 
aromatic confection q. s. to form a ball. — In the malignant 
stage, with diarrhoea. 

7. Antimonial powder 2 to 4 grs., nitre 5 to 10 grs., 
digitalis ^ to 2 grs. Afterwards the Tonic Pills No. 4. — 

Poudre Kusique : a French nostrum. Mix 45 grs. of 
nitre, 45 of sulphur, and 1 charcoal. Diidde into 3 
doses. Give 1 for 2 successive mornings, and the third 
on the 4th mornmg, mixed with lard or butter, or in 
milk. For a large dog a second packet (of 3 powders) 
may be required. — Habeet. 

Another French nostrum, Hemel's Powder, is of a 
similar kind. 

8. A strong solution of salt, to the amount of i pint 

9. Powdered tin, sulphur, gunpowder, of each 1 oz. ; 
lard sufficient to form a mass. The size of a nutineg to 
be given twice or thrice a week. 

10. Physic Ball No. 11. 

11. i oz. to 1 fl. oz. of cod-liver oil, twice a day, 
according to size. 

12. Emetics, gentle laxatives, milk diet, and from 5 to 
15 grs. of chlorate of potash, twice a day. — Finlay Dun. 


1. Castor oil i oz., oil of peppermint 1 drop, laudanum 
20 drops. If it does not open the bowels, give i dr. to 
li dr. of aloes. — Blaine. 

2. Castor oil 3 oz., syrup of buckthorn 2 oz., syrup of 
poppies 1 oz. Give from a teaspoonful to a tablespoonful. 
— Youatt. 

8. Ether i- dr., laudanum ^ dr., camphor 3 to 6 grs. 
castor oil (unless purged) 3 to 5 drs. — Blaine. 


Give Colic Mixture No. 3, and apply warm bath and 



1. Calomel 8 grs., carbonate of iron i dr., extract of 
hemlock 20 grs., conserve of roses, or palm oil, to form a 
mass for 12, 9, or 6 balls. — Blaine. 

2. Give the Alterative Balls No. 1, or the pills of nitrate 
of silver, as for St. Vitns's dance. — Clater. 

3. For epilepsy of suckling hitches. Ether 1 dr., lauda- 
num \ dr., strong ale 2 oz. ; give from a dessert-spoonful 
to 1 or 2 tablespoonfuls every 2 or 3 hours. — Blaine. 

4. For epilepsy attending distemper. The Tonic Balls, 
or the pills for chorea. — Clatee. 

5. After an emetic. Gentian 10 to 20 grs., ginger 3 to 
6 grs., carbonate of iron 2 to 4 grs., or fi'om an eighth to 
a fourth of a gr. of nitrate of silver, and ^ gr. of spiders' 
web once a day. — Spoonee. 

6. Ether 1 dr., laudanum i dr., camphor 6 grs., spirit of 
hartshorn 1 dr. ; iji a spoonful of ale : for small dogs give 
half the quantity. — Blaine. 


1. Calomel, emetic tartar, of each 1 oz. ; vermilion 10 
grs. ; rub together : dose, from 1 to 3 gi-s., dropped on the 
tongue, or mixed with a teaspoonful of milk. — Clatee. 

2. Emetic tartar, from 1 to 3 grs. 

3. Turpeth's mineral, from 1 to 3 grs. 

4. A teaspoonful of common salt. 


1. In inflammation of the lungs. After bleeding and 
purging, digitalis 12 grs., emetic tartar 3 grs., nitre 1 dr.; 
mix, and divide into 6, 9, or 12 powders. — Blaine. 

2. Ditto, icith much cough. Tincture of digitalis 1 dr., 
emetic tartiir 3 grs., nitre 1 dr., simple oxymel 2 oz. ; dose, 
1 or 2 drs. every 3 hours. — Blaine. 

3. In pleurisy, with incipient water in the chest. Digi- 
talis 6 grs., calomel 6 grs., tartarized iron 18 grs. ; into 6, 
9, or 12 doses. — Youatt. 

4. In inflammation of the liver. Digitalis 8 grs., anti- 
monial powder 16 grs., nitre 1 dr. : divide into 7, 9, or 12 
powders, or boluses. — Blaine. 

5; In chronic inflammation of the liver. Calomel 20 


grs., antimonial powder ^ dr., myrrh, gentian, aloes, of each 
2 drs. ; mix, and divide into 15, 20, or 25 balls. 

6. In inflaynmation of the bowels. After bleeding and 
a warm bath, give the castor oil mixture (see Pm-gatives, 
No. 8). — Clater. 

7. Bilious inflammation (with offensive, often black 
vomiting and purging) : Calomel 10 grs., opium 4 grs. : in 
4 or 8 pills — one 3 times a day ; afterwards the astringent 
remedies for dian-hcea. — Spoonee. 


1. After warm bath, and friction, give tincture of 
opium 20 drops, ether 20 drops, castor oil 5 oz. to 1 oz. — 

2. Calomel 2 to 4 grs., opium i gr., oil of peppermint 1 
drop, aloes 1 dr. ; form a ball with butter or lard : repeat 
it every 4 hours till the bowels are well opened ; and use 
the Embrocation No. 3. — Clater. 

3. After warm bath, &c., give 40 drops of laudanum, 
and a teaspoonf ul of hartshorn, in warm beer ; and rub 
with the Embrocation No. 1. — Mater. 


1. Gentian 1 oz., chamomile ^ oz., oak-bark ^ oz., 
ginger 5 oz., carbonate of iron ^ oz., palm oil 1 oz. ; beat 
them together to form a mass ; dose, 2 to 6 scruples. — 

2. Sulphate of quinine J dr., powdered chamomile 3 drs., 
balsam of Peru 1^ dr., camphor 1 scruple ; form a mass 
with conserve of roses, and divide in 12, 9, or 6 balls ; one 
every 6 hours, in the debilitating stage of distemper. — 

3. Chamomile 1 oz., rue j oz., ginger 5 oz. (all in 
powder) ; beat them into a mass with 7 drs. of palm oil, 
and divide into 12, 16, or 20 balls ; one night and morning 
in ffutta Serena. — Clater. 

4. Gentian powder 10 to 20 grs., ginger 5 grs., cascarilla 
10 to 20 grs. ; conserve of roses, or syrup, to form a ball. 
One twice a day. 


1. Carbonate of iron ^ oz., .^thiops mineral 1 dr.. 


gentian 1 oz., ginger ^ oz, levigated glass 1 oz., palm oil 
9 drs. ; beat well together ; dose, from f to 2 drs. — Clatee. 

2. As much very finely-powdered glass as will lie on a 
sixpence, mixed with butter. — Blaine. Mr. Yotjatt says 
from 5 dr. to 1 dr., powdered glass, with a little ginger, 
made into a ball with lard. 

3. Aloes, sulphur, prepared hartshorn, and juice of 
wormwood, made into a mass; the size of a hazel nut to 
be given three times a M'eek, fasting, wTapped in butter. 
— Daniel. 

4. Tin filings, or pevi'ter filings, | dr. to 1 dr., with 
butter or lard. 

5. Jalap 10 to 15 grs., calomel 2 to 3 grs. mixed with 
butter ; no cold liquid should be allowed. — White. 

6. Cowage i dr., iron filings 4 drs., conserve of roses q. s. 
to form a mass, to be divided into 4, 6, or 8 balls ; one 
every night and morning ; and afterwards the purgative 
No. 4. — Blaine. 

7. Epsom salts 1 oz., common salt 1 drachm ; give a 
smaU or large teaspoonful daily. 

8. Give green wahiut leaves boiled in milk. — Mater. 

9. From ^ dr. to 2 drs., according to size, of betel nut, in 
coarse powder, made into a ball. 

10. For Tape Worm. Oil of turpentine \ dr., mixed 
with yolk of egg ; for very large dogs 2 scruples. Some 
writers prescribe larger doses (1 or 2 drs.), but these some- 
times prove fatal. — Blaine. 

11. For 2 to 6 drs. of cusso according to size. 

12. For Tape Worm. Oil of turpenthie and olive oil, 
of each a oz. ; mix, and give carefully ; 3 or 4 hours after, 
1 oz. castor oil. See No. 9. — White. 

13. For Stomach Worms. Give the emetic powder 
(see further back) and afterwards a physic ball. 

14. Thread Worms. These are destroyed by an aloetic 


1. After bleeding — Calomel 2 to 3 grs., jalap 10 grs., 
scammony 4 grs. — White. 

2. Aloes 20 to 40 grs., calomel 2 to 4 grs. ; afterwards 
the tonic alterative balls. See Alteeatives, 



1. Nitrate of silver 8 grs., ginger 10 grs., sjrup to form 
a mass ; divide into 64 pills, and give one or two, morning 
and night. — Clater. 

2. Strychnia 1 gr., oxide of zinc 24 grs., assafoetida 24 
grs., conserve of roses, q. s. j mix very accurately, and 
divide into 12, 9, or 6 balls. 

3. Nitrate of silver 3 grs., carbonate of iron 2 drs., gen- 
tian 3 drs., conserve of roses to form a mass, for 12, 9, or 6 
balls. — Blaine. 


1. Digitalis 9 grs., squill 12 grs., cream of tartar 2 drs., 
mix, and divide into 9, 12, or 15 powders ; one night and 

2. Foxglove 12 grs., antimonial powder 15 grs., nitre 
1 dr. ; as the last. — Blaine. 

3. Foxglove 1 gr., nitre 10 grs., ginger 8 grs. ; night 
and morning j then iodide of potassium ^ gr. to 1 gr. — 



1. Extract of hemlock 1 to 3 grs., burnt sponge 10 to 
20 grs. ; make a ball, to be given once or twice a day. 

2. Iodine 12 grs., powdered gum 40 grs., syrup to form 
a stiff mass, divide into 48 pills, and give one or two, night 
and morning. — Clater. 

grs. ; pulverize, and add ginger 16 grs., syrup q. s. ; beat 
into a mass, and divide into 5 pills ; give one every hour, 
or to a small bitch, half of one. — Clater. 


1. Powdered leaves of the Scutellaria lateriflora if) grs., 
powdered belladonna 2\ grs.; to be given night and 
morning for 6 weeks, gradually increasing the dose. — 


2. Infuse a teaspoonf ul and a half of powdered Scutella- 
ria '\\\ a quart of hot water ; give half a pint morning and 


night, omitting the dose every third day, when a mild 
dose of sulphur must be given. — Dr. Spalding. 

3. Fresh leaves of the tree-box 2 oz., rue 2 oz., sage 
i oz., chop them fine, and boil them in a pint of w;ater till 
reduced to half a pint ; strain, and press out the liquid ; 
beat the herbs, and boil them in a pint of new miJk to 
half; strain, press the herbs, and mix the liquids. For 
a man, give a third of this quantity every other morning 
fasting ; double the above quantity makes 3 doses for a 
horse or cow ; two-thirds will suffice for a middle-sized 
dog, and a third for smaller dogs. It produces extreme 
nausea and distress, and has occasionally proved fatal to 
dogs. —Blaine. 

€x\m\iil gplitations. 


1. Bruised oak-bark 2 oz., catechu 1 oz., water 3 pints j 
boil to a pint, and strain. — Clatee. 

2. Tincture of myrrh and aloes 1 oz., alum ^ oz., water 
1 pint. 

3. For sore feet. The Lotion (No. 1), 4 oz., tincture of 
aloes 5 oz., water 1 pmt. 

4. Nitrate of silver 10 grs., water 1 oz. : to excite 
sluggish wounds. 

aiENTS FOE Cankee IN THE Eae, further on. 

1. Sulphate of zinc 20 grs., sugar of lead i dr., water 
4 oz. — White. 

2. Sulphate of zinc 20 grs., decoction of oak -bark 4 oz. 
— Blaine. 

3. Nitrate of silver 1 gr., rain-water 2 oz. 

4. Sugar of lead ^ dr., rose-water 4 oz. A teaspoonful 
to he introduced blood-warm into the car. 

5. Mild Canker Lotion. Infusion of foxtrlove leaves 


^ pint, Goulard's extract of lead i oz. ; mix. To be used 
as the last. — Clatee. 

6. Strong Canker Lotion. Goulaixl's extract 2 drs. 
white vitriol 1 dr., alum 2 drs., water | pint. 

7. Chloride of lime 20 to 30 grs., water ^ pint. 

LOTION TO ALLAY ITCHING. Dilute hydrocyanic acid 
1 dr., water a pint. — Youatt. 


1. Equal parts of zinc oiutmeut, and ointment of nitrate 
of quicksilver. — Blaine. 

2. Sublimate 3 grs., Turner's Cerate 1 dr., sulphur a 

3. "\\lute A-itriol, alum, each in fine powder, a drachm, 
lard 4 oz. To be rubbed gently into the crack. — Clateh. 

4. Stronger. Nitrate of silver 20 grs., lard 1 oz. Rub 
them well together. — Clatee. 

5. Levigated red precipitate i oz., lard 2 oz. — Mayee. 


1. Astringent Wash for Weak Myes. — Wliite vitriol 
4 grs., spirits of wine j dr., water 4 oz. — Clatee. 

2. Sugar of lead 30 grs., rose-water 6 oz. — Blaine. 

3. Laudanum ^ c^i'-j infusion of green tea 4 oz.— 


4. For naturally weak eyes. Laudanum 2 drs., water 
8 oz. To be iised every morning. — Clatee. 

5. Sugar of lead ^ dr., distilled water 6 oz., tiuctm-e of 
opium \ dr. In inflammation, after bleeding, physic, and 
warm fomentations. — Spoonee. 


1. Red precipitate, levigated, 10 grains, zinc ointment 
i oz. 

2. Ointment of nitrate of quicksilver 1 dr., sugar of 
lead 20 grs., spermaceti ointment 3 drs. — Blaine. 

3. Dissolve a di'achm of quicksilver in a drachm and 
half of strong nitric acid, and well mix the waiui solution 
with 6 oz. of melted lard. — H. Glayteb. 



N.B. — An alterative ball should be given daily and a 
physic ball occasionally. Bleeding is sometimes prescribed. 

1. For Scabhy Mange. Sulphur 4 oz., sal ammoniac 
\ oz., aloes 1 dr., Venice turpentine \ oz., lard 6 oz. : mix. 
After four applications wash well with soap and water. — 

2. Horse turpentine and palm oil, of each \ lb, train oil \ 
pint. Melt together, and while cooling, stir in 3 fts. of 
flowers of sulphur. — Clatee. 

3. Aloes 2 drs., hellebore \ oz., sulphur 4 oz., lard or 
train oil, 6 oz. — McEwen. 

4. Sulphate of zinc 1 di'., snuff \ oz., white hellebore 
\ oz., sulphur 4 oz., aloes \ oz., soft soap 6 oz.— Blaine. . 

5. Charcoal powder 2 oz., STilphur 4 oz., salt of tartar 
1 dr., Venice tui'pentine \ oz., lard 6 oz. 

6. For Red Mange. Add 1 oz. of strong mercurial oint- 
ment to 6 oz. of either of the above. 

7. Charcoal 1 oz., chalk 1 oz., sugar of lead 1 dr., white 
precipitate 2 drs., sulphur 2 oz., lard 5 oz. — Blaine. 

8. Wash for Red Mange. — Corrosive sublimate 20 grs., 
spirit of wine 2 drs.; dissolve, and add, milk of sulphur ^ oz., 
lime-water | pint. Apply by means of a spgiige. — Clatee. 

9. For Ulcerated Mange. Ointment of nitrated quick- 
silver 2 drs., sugar of lead 20 grs., flowers of sulphur ^ oz., 
lard 1 oz. ; mix. — Blaine. 

ARSENIC OINTMENT. Yellow sulphuret (sidphide) of 
arsenic 1^ gr., cerate, or lard \ oz. : in mange and other 
shin diseases. — Delafond. 

SURFEIT OINTMENT. After bleeding and purging, apply 
sugar of lead 1 dr., spermaceti ointment 2 oz. 


Ointment. — Sugar of lead 6 grs., tar ^ dr., elder ointment 

3 drs. — Blaine. 
Powders. — Nitre -^ dr., milk of sul]3hur 3 drs.; mix, and 

divide into 9, 12, or 15 doses. — Blaine. 


1. Palm oil 3 lis., resin 1 11) ; melt togethei', and when 


they begin to cool, add 1 lb of powdered calamine. — 

2. Oxide of zinc ^ oz., lard 1| oz., balsam of Peru 

potassium 1 dr., lard 7 drs. ; rub together till perfectly 

ointment 1 oz., simple cerate 1 oz. A small quantity to 
be rubbed over the region of the liver once a day till the 
mouth is sore. — Blaine. 


1. Oil of turpentme 2 oz., spirit of hartshorn 2 oz., 
- tincture of opium ^ oz., olive oil 2 oz. — Blaine. 

2. Cajeput oil 1 oz., soap liniment 2 oz. 

3. Spirit of turjjentine, spirit of hartshorn, camphorated 
spirit, of each 1 oz., laudanum ^ oz. — ClateEj, 


1. Common salt and cold \-inegar. 

2. Sal ammonial i oz., vinegar a pint. 

3. Oil of turpentine 1 oz., old beer i puit, brine i pint. 
For strains. — Mayee. 

4. Spirit of Mindererus 4 oz., Goulard water 8 oz. 

&c. — Bruised oak-bark 2 oz., catechu 1 oz., water 3 pints, 
boil to 1 pint, and strain. — Clatek. 


1. Equal parts of sal ammoniac and savine, powdered 

2. Sublimate 1 dr., hydrochloric acid 1 dr., spirit of 
wine 3 drs., water 2 drs. The warts to be touched with the 
liquid twice a day. — YorATT. 


1. Rub the skiu with the powdered resiii and bran. 


2. Let the dog sleep on deal shavings. 

3. Scotch snuff steeped m gin. — Metek. (This requli-es 

4. Oil of aniseed. — Finlay Dun. 

5. Persian insect powder. 


Astringent. Alum whey. 

Purgative. The purgative medicine No. 8 ; with gruel. 

For Worms. Solution of aloes 2 oz., linseed oil 1 oz. 

Anodyne. Boiled starch i pint, laudanum 5 to 10 drops. 
— Clatee. 


FOE • 



1. A saturated solution of common salt. Medium dose, 
half a teaspoonful. 

2. Antimonial powder 1 gr., with sopped bread, twice a 
day. — Clatee. 

3. GarHc, rue, hrickdust, and butter, beaten together, 
and a little crammed down thethroat. 

4. For wet roup in pigeons. Give 3 or 4 pepper-corns 
in 3 or 4 days. — Mooee. 

5. For dry roup. Give 2 or 3 pills of garlic every day. 
[Some recommend assafoetida to be mixed with the food of 
Poultry, whenever they manifest disease by drooping their 

OIL-VESSEL. Open the tumour, and squeeze out the 
collected oil. 


1. Pills of sulphur, turpentine, and wheat flour. — 
(' Veterinarian,' Oct. 1840.) 

2. Oil of turpentine 2 drs., Imseed oil 1 oz. ; or oil of 
turpentine 2 drs., flour enough to make it into 20 pills. 
For 20 doses, one every other day for 3 or 4 times. 

3. Tobacco smoke. 

Give a grain each of calomel and antimonial powder, 


1. Change the diet and give whole wheat or rice ; and 



if obstinate, cram clown small pieces of tlie following 
mass : — Chalk, p. caraway, and syi'up of poppies. — Clateb. 
2. Put chalk in their water, or give forge-water. 


If the obstruction is in the crop, endeavour to force the 
contents into the gullet and mouth by gentle pressure, 
AVhen partiaHy emptied give rue and butter. 

When the obstruction is in the bowels, give bran and 
pollard, mixed with a little greasy hot liquor, to which, if 
necessary, a little si;lphur may be added ; or give a tea- 
spoonful of the castor-oil mixture (see No. 8, Medicines for 
Dogs, Physic Balls). — See Chipping. 


1. Wash the mouth two or thi'ce times a day, with a 
mixture of equal parts of tuicture of myrrh and water. 

2. Rub the sore with common salt. 

3. Solution of chloride of soda 1 dr., water 1 oz., honey 
of roses 3 drs. 

CANKER IN PIGEONS. Apply bm-nt alum, mixed with 

seed, cimiin seed, fennel seed, of each 1 lb., assafcetida 
I5 oz., bay salt ^ lb., common salt ^ lb. ; knead them with 
fine clay and flour. Bake it in earthen pots, and set it for 
the birds to peck.-^MooEE. 

Genuine Salt- Cat. — Sifted gravel, brickmakers' earth, rub- 
bish of old walls, of each a peck, cumin seed 1^ lb,, bay- 
salt I lb. j mix. 

filings, nutmeg, and honey; mix, and give a small piece as 
often as necessary. 

CHIPPESTG, IN CHICKENS.— Remove the chickens to a 
warm place. Mix 1 oz. of castor oil with | oz. syrup of 
ginger ; mix a teaspoonful of this with a little thick gruel, 
and force a little down several times a day, so that it 
shall get half a teaspoonful of the mixture in the course of 
the day. 

FOR CHILL, IN TURKEY CHICKS. Give ground malt 


and barley-meal in equal quantities, adding a little pow- 
dered caraway or coriander-seed. 

hard, nettles, and parsley, all chopped up, and moistened 
with wine or water. 

MEGRIMS OR GIDDINESS. Castor oil 1 oz., syrup of 
gmger i oz., syi'up of poppies | oz. ; mix with gruel and 
force a little down occasionally — Clatee. 

CONVULSIONS OP DUCKS. Give to gro\vn-up ducks 
4 grains of pepper, mixed with fresh butter. 

FOR BLINDNESS. Foment with warm water, then drop 
a few drops of the following solution into the eyes : — 
laudanum 1 teaspoonful, water a teacupful. 


1. Laudanum, a few di'ops, added to a teacupful of 

2. Tinctxire of myi'rh and paregoric, each a teaspoon- 
ful, water i a pint. 

phate of soda, placed within reach of the hens, is said to 
be useful. Warmth, good feeding, with a little chopped 
meat in winter, are also recommended. To prevent their 
laying soft eggs, supply them with old mortar, bruised 
egg-shells, or chalk. 

THE HEAD. Burnt alum 2 drs., honey 1 oz. ; mix, and 
apply twice a day. 

VERMIN, TO DESTROY. Tobacco smoke, with good food, 
and cleanliness. 

MOULTING. It is usual to put saffron into the water of 
cage birds when moultmg; others recommend a rusty nail. 

FOR SNIFFLES IN RABBITS. Sulphate of copper 1 to 
2 grs., morning and evening, in bran. — Clatee. 

FOR ROT OR POT BELLY, Give them young green 
broomj and bread well toasted. — Mayee; 




This division consists of tliose medicinal compounds which 
are excluded from the Pocket Formulary, as belonging 
rather to empirical than to regular practice. It includes, 
in addition to those secret and patent remedies which are 
usually termed Quack Medicines, preparations of various 
drugs made according to private formulae ; some favourite 
domestic remedies ; and a few compounds, which, though 
not empirical, are better knowni by the names of indivi- 
dual practitioners than by any other title. The supposed 
composition of some of the secret remedies is given on 
the authority of Dr. Paris, the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy, and others; but without voucliing for their 

Abeenethy's Pills. The nostrum to which this distin- 
guished surgeon's name has been applied, is said to con- 
sist of 2 grs. of blue pill, and 3 of compound extract of 

Ague Drops (tasteless). A solution of arsenic, probably 
similar to the liquor potassa arsenitis (liquor arsenicalis, 
B.) of the Pharmacopoeia. 

Anderson's Pills. See Pilulse Andersonis, P. F. Other 
published formulse are — 

1. Barbadoes aloes 1 oz., jalaj) ^ oz., soap 1 dr., oil of 
aniseed i dr., tincture of aloes q. s. ; mix, and divide into 
4-grain pills. 

2. Barbadoes aloes 5 oz., water 1 oz.; soften by the 
heat of a water-bath, and add powdered jala]3, i)owdercd 
aniseed, and ivory-black, of each 1 oz., oil of aniseed 1 dr. 

3. Barbadoes aloes 16 oz., black hellebore, jalap, sub* 
carbonate of potash, of each 1 oi., oil of aniseed \ oi. 


sjTup of buckthorn q. s. to form a mass. To be divacled 
into 4-grain pills. 

4. Barbacloes aloes 24 oz., soap 4 oz., colocynth 1 oz., 
gamboge 1 oz., oil of aniseed i fluid oz. ; mix, and divide 
into pills of 3 grs. each. Phil. Coll. of Pharmacy. 

Anodyne Necklaces. Beads formed of the root of hen- 
bane, and used as necklaces, to allay the pain of teething. 

ANTiPERTtrssis. Dr. Paeis states that the basis of this 
nostrum is a salt of zinc. 

Aequebusade (acid). 1. Sulphuric acid i lb., vinegar and 
spirit of wine, of each 3 lbs., clarified honey 1 lb. — 


2. Distilled vinegar and rectified spirit, of each 10 oz., 

sulphuric acid (by weight) 1^ oz., sugar 22 oz. ; mix. 

For the aromatic spirituous arquebusade water, see 

Arquebusade Water, under PEEFrMEBY; also Spiritus 

Vulnerarius, P. F. 
Aromatic Vinegar. Strongest acetic acid 1 lb., camphor 

1 oz. ; dissolve, and add 1 oz. each of oil of lavender, oil of 

cloves, and oil of lemon. 
Aperient and Antibilious Pills. See Anderson's, 

Baillie's, Baeclay's, Dixon's, &c.. Pills. The following 

are useful forms — 

1. Compound extract of colocynth 60 grs., comp. rhu- 
barb pill 30 grs., soap 10 grs. In 24 pills. 

2. Compound extract of colocynth 2 di's., extract of rhu- 
barb 2 dr., compound soap pill 10 grs. ; mix, and divide 
into 40 pills ; 1, 2, or 3 for a dose. 

3. Compound extract of colocynth 8 oz., soap 1 oz., 
scammony 2 oz., extract of rhubarb 2 oz., oil of cassia 
5 drs., spirit q. s. to form a mass. Divide into 4-grain pills. 

4. Blue pill, comp(iund extract of colocynth, of each a 
scruple ; scannnony and Castile soap, of each 10 grs., oil 
of caraway 4 dro])s. Mix, and divide into 15 pills — 3 at 
bedtime. — Sir B. Brodie. 

5. Compound extract of colocynth 4 scruples, scam- 
mony a scruple, extract of rhubarb 12 grs., soap 6 gi's., 
oil of cinnamon 4 drops. Mix, and divide into 24 pills. 
— Mr. Vance. 

6. Mr. Vance's Stronger Pills, with Calomel. Com- 
pound extract of colocynth 4 scruples, scammony 2 scru- 


pies, calomel 24 grs., oil of cinnamon 6 drops, in 24 pills. — 
Dr. J. Johnson. 

7. Compound extract of colocynth 1 dr., calomel 15 grs., 
emetic tartar 1 gr., oil of cassia 5 drops. In 24 pills. — 
Dr. J. Johnson. 

8. Scammouy 10 to 15 grs., compound extract of colo- 
cynth 2 scruples, extract of rhubarb i dr., soap 10 grs. 
oil of caraway 5 drops. In 20 pills. One or two when 
required. — Sir C. Sctjdamore. 

9. Compound rhubarb pill ^ dr., ipecacuanha 6 grs., 
compound extract of colocynth 20 grs. In 12 pills. One 
or more at bedtime occasionally. — Dr. Baeon. 

10. The same as Pil. Coloc. et Hyoscyami, Ed. Ph. — Dr. 

11. (Strong.) Compound extract of colocynth 2 drs., 
aloes and mjTrh pill 2 drs., calomel 1 dr. ; mix, and divide 
into 40 pills. Two for a dose. — Dr. Lynn. 

12. Compound extract of colocynth 2 scruples, ipeca- 
cuanha 6 grs., soap 10 grs., extract of henbane 30 grs. In 
18 pills. Two at bedtime. — Dr. Copland. 

13. Dr. Neligan's Furgative Pills for general use. 
Comp. colocynth pill, and soap of jalap, of each 1 dr. In 
24 pills. Two when required. 

14. (Without aloes.) Simple extract of colocynth 24 
grs., extract of jalap 12 grs., blue pill 12 grs., ipecacuanha 
4 grs., oil of peppermint 3 drops. In 12 pills. 

Other formulae will be found in the Pocket Formnlary. 
Those which do not contain calomel should be preferred 
for general and repeated use. 

Atkinson's Infant Preservative. Carbonate of magnesia 
6 drs., white sugar 2 oz., oil of aniseed 20 drops, spirit of 
sal volatile 2| drs., laudanum 1 dr., syrup of saffron 1 oz., 
caraway water to make a pint. 

Atropine Paper. Green tissue paper imbued with a solu- 
tion of sulphate of atropia, so that a piece -^th of an inch 
square contains as much as a drop of a solution of 2 grs. to 
1 oz. of water. The paper is hung up and turned about 
while drying, A piece of the size named will dilate the 
pupil if placed on the sclerotic, and the lids closed over it, 
and tied with a handkerchief, — Mr. Stbeatfield, 


Bachee's Toxic Pills. Alkaline extract of black hellebore 
2 drs., extract of myrrh 2 drs,, powder of holy thistle 1 dr.; 
mix, and di%'ide into 4-grain pills. 

Dr. Baillie's Pills. Compound extract of colocynth li 
dr., extract of aloes 1^ dr., Castile soap i dr., oil of cloves 
15 drops : in 38 pills. 3 at bedtime occasionally. 

Dr. Baillie's Dinnee Pills. Aloes 20 grs., ginger ^ dr., 
ipecacuanha 8 grs., syrup q. s. Mix, and divide into 16 
piUs. One daily, before dinner. 

Bailey's Itch Ointment. Olive oil 1 lb., suet 1 lb., alkanet 
root 2 oz. Melt, and macerate until coloured ; then strain, 
and add 3 oz. each of alum, nitre, and sulphate of zinc, in 
very fine powder ; adding vermilion to colour it, and oil 
of aniseed, lavender, and thyme, to perfume. 

Baeing Powder. Tartaric acid 8 oz., bicarbonate of soda 
9 oz. arrow-root, or rice flour, 10 oz. Mix. Delfoet's 
is said to consist of alum 5 oz.,* bicarbonate of soda 2| oz., 
bicarbonate of ammonia ^ oz., arrow-root 4 oz. 

Balm of Gilead (factitious). 4 oz. of gum benzoin may be 
dissolved by heat in 1 lb. of Canada balsam, and to the 
mixture, when cold, i oz. each of the oils of rosemary, 
lemon, and cassia, added. 

Balm of Rakasiei. Oil of rosemary dissolved in common gin. 

Balsam. See Foed's, Hill's, Feyae's, &c. 

Baeclay's (Rev. D.) Antibilious Pills. Extract of colo- 
cynth 2 drs., soap of jalap 2i drs., extract of guaiacum 
wood 3 drs., emetic tartar 8 grs., oil of juniper, caraway, 
and rosemary, each 4 drops ; into 4-grain pills. 

Baeegian Balls. Extract of soap-wort (or of artichoke 
leaves) 3 oz., gelatine li oz., water 3 oz. ; heat together 
till dissolved, pour the solution into a warm iron mortar ; 
add 6 oz. of sulphuret of lime, and 1 oz. of salt, previously 
powdered and mixed. Stir constantly till a mass is ob- 
tained, and divide it into balls of 2i oz. each. Use one 
for a general bath, half of one for a foot bath. 

Bark, Essential Salt of. See Extractum Cinchonae Sic- 
cum, P. F. 

Barker's Tooth Tincttjre. An alcoholic solution of 
pyi'ethrum, coloured with tiuctui'e of red cabbage. 

Bateman's Pectoral Drops, 1. Compomid spirit of 
* Tlie employment of alum in bread-making ought to be disc'ountenanced. 


aniseed 16 fluid ounces, opium 1 dr., camphor 1 dr., oil of 

fennel 20 drops, cochineal 2 drs. 

2. Proof spirit 4 galls., red sanders 2 oz.; digest 24 

hours, filter, and add powdered opium 2 oz., camphor 2 oz., 

catechu 2 oz., oil of aniseed 4 fluid drachms ; digest for 

10 days. Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. The old 

wine gallon is here intended. 
Bateman's Itch Ointment. Carbonate of potash | oz., 

rose-water 1 oz., vermilion 1 dr., sulphur 11 oz., oil of 

bergamot i dr., lard 11 oz. ; mix. 
Bate's Anodyne Balsam. Soap liniment 2 parts, tincture 

of opium 1 part. 
Bate's Camphorated Eye-watee. Sulphate of copper 

15 grs., French bole 15 grs., camphor 4 grs., boiling water 

4 oz. ; infuse, strain, and dilute with 4 pints of cold water. 
Bate's Styptic Wash. See Liquor Aluminis Co., P. F. 
Bathing Spirits. Tliese resemble liquid opodeldoc (soap 

liniment), and are usually coloured by the addition of some 

dark tincture. See Feeeman's Bathing Spirits.' 
Bath Digestive Pills. Ehubarb 2 oz., ipecacuanha ^ oz., 

cayenne pepper \ oz., soap ^ oz., ginger ^ oz., gamboge 

i oz. ; mix, and divide into 4-grain pills. 
Bath Lozenges (in imitation of Davison's). Pure extract 

of liquorice 1 oz., powdered gum ai'abic 1 oz., white sugar 

1 lb., hot water q. s. to form a mass ; to be rolled into 

Battley's LiQroK Cinchon.e and LiQrOE Opii. See 

Pocket Formulary. 
Battley's Sen'na Powder. Senna leaves heated until they 

become light in colour, reduced to powder, and mixed with 

some finely powdered charcoal. 
Bafme de Vie. Socotrine aloes 2 drs., rhubarb 6 drs., 

saffron 2 drs., liquorice root 1 oz., proof spirit 8 oz. ; digest 

for 8 days, and filter. The original Swedish form is this : — 

aloes 9 drs., rhubarb, gentian, zedoary, saffron, theriaca, 

agaric, of each a drachm, proof spirit 2 pints. 
Baynton's Plaster. Simple litharge plaster 16 oz., yellow 

resin 6 drs. ; melt together, and spread on linen or calico. 
Beddoe's Pills; for Gravel, &c. Carbonate of soda, dried 

without heat, 1 dr., soap 4 scruples, oil of juniper 10 drops, 

syrup of ginger q. s. for 30 pills. 

druggists' nostrums, etc. 169 

Beetle Wafers. Eed lead, sugar, and flour ; made into 

Belloste's Pills. Quicksilver, scammony, and jalap, of 
each 1 lb., sugar 4 oz. ; mixed and made up into a mass with 
sherry wine. 

Besttjcheff's Nekvous Tincttire. a mixture of a strong 
solution of perchloride of iron with sulphuric etlier and 
spirit, exposed in long bottles to the rays of the sun until 
it has quite lost its brown colour. 

Betton's British Oil. Oil of turpentine 8 oz., Barbadoes 
tar 4 oz., oil of rosemary 4 drs. ; mix. See British Oils. 

Bewley & Evans' Chalybeate Wateb. Citrate of iron 13 
grains, carbonated water 6 oz., syrup of orange peel 1 oz. 

Biscuits, Apeeient. An ounce of powdered jalap, mixed 
with 16 oz. of the materials for gingerbread, or other kind 
of cake. See Gingerbread, Purgative. 

Black Drop. See Guttas Nig., Pocket Formulary. 

Black Draught. 1. Infusion of senna 10 di-s., sulphate of 
magnesia 3 drs., syrup of ginger 1 dr., aromatic spirit of 
ammonia 20 drops. 

2. Tartrate of potash 1^ dr., manna ^ di"., tincture of 
jalap i dr., aromatic spirit of ammonia 20 drops, extract 
of liquorice 4 grs., infusion of senna 11 di"s. See Mistura 
Seunae Comp., Haustus Aperiens, and Mistura Aperiens, in 
Pocket Formulary, for other formulsc. 

Blaine's Distemper Powders. The basis of these is said 
to be aurum musivum (sulphuret of tin) 

Blistering Paper. Melt canthai-adin 1 dr., white wax 
1 dr., olive oil 5 di's. Paint it with a brush on white bibu- 
lous paper, and hang it up to dry in a current of air. Take 
a piece of pink paper of form and size required, paint the 
imder coloured side with a weak solution of india rubber, 
cut the cantharadine paper to the size, less a margin, of the 
pink paper, and place it on while the india-rubber solution 
is still sticky. Before applying, the blister must be held 
over the steam of hot water. See Papier Epispastique. 

Blistering Tissue. Taffetas Vesicant. Powdered cantha- 
rides exhausted by ether, the tincture distilled to recover 
the principal part of the ether for the same use, and the 
residue heated in a water-bath till it ceases to boil. The 
green butyraceous oil which remains is to be melted with 


twice its weiglit of wax, and spread on waxed silk, or any 
convenient and adhesive material. An extract prepared 
by evaporating a tincture made with 4 parts of flies, 1 of 
strong acetic acid, and 16 of rectified sj)irit, is used for the 
same purj^ose. 

Mr. J. Deane, in a paper read before the Pharm. Soc, 
Feb. 2nd, 1876, advocated the use of acetic ether as the 
best solvent for the active principle of cantharides. 

Bochet's Steup, for scrofulous affections. Compound 
syi'up of sarsaparilla, with senna, and 1 per cent, of iodide 
of potassiiun. 

Brandish's Aleaxine Soltttion, or Caustic AiKAri. See 
Liq. Potassse Brandishii ii. Pocket Formulary. 

Beandish's Alkaline Tikctuee of Ehttbaeb. Coarsely 
powdered rhubarb 1 oz., alkaline sohition (Beandish's) 
32 fluid omices. The original formula directs only \ oz. 
rhubarb, but as smaller doses of the tincture than were 
given by Mr. B. are now usually prescribed, the quantity 
of rhubarb is here increased. Or an alkaline infusion of 
rhubarb may be made by pouring boiling water 38 parts on 
rhiibarb 3 parts, and carbonate of potash 1 part. 

Beitish Heeb Tobacco. Tlie principal ingredient in tliis 
compound is dried coltsfoot leaves, to which a smaller por- 
tion of thyme, wood-betony, eye-bright, and rosemary, are 

British Oils. Oil of turpentine, and linseed oil, of each 
8 oz. ; oil of amber, and oil of juniijer, of each 4 oz. ; true 
Barbadoes tar 3 oz. ; American petroleum (seneca oil) 1 
oz. ; mix. See Betton's Beitish Oil, above. 

BEODrM's NEETOrs CoEDiAL. Iron wine, compound spirits 
of lavender, tinctures of calumba, gentian, cinchona, and 
cardamoms, eqi;al parts of each. 

Beocchieei's Styptic Watee. Pieces of fresh pine, bruised 
in a mortar, and distilled with twice their weight of water, 
till half the water has come over. After staiiding in a 
wide vessel, any floating oil is to be removed from the sur- 
face, and the water kept for use. 

Buenett's (Sir William) Disinfecting Flttid. A neu- 
tral solution of zinc in commercial muriatic (liydrochloric) 

CACHOtr Aeomatis^, . See PEErrMEET, 


Cajepft Liniment. Soap liniment 7 oz., camphor i oz., 

oil of cajeput 1 oz. 
Camphor Liniment, EXTEMPOEANEors. Rectified spirit 

17 fluid ounces, strong water of ammonia 2i oz., camphor 

2 oz., oil of lavender 50 minims. 
Caeeon On. Lime-water, and linseed oil, equal quantities. 
Castillon's Powdeks. Sago meal, salep, tragacanth, each / ^ 

1 dr.; prepared oyster-shells a scruple; coloured with 
cochineal. A drachm to be boiled with milk; in bowel 
Cephalic Snuff. Dried asarabacca leaves 3 parts, mar- 
joram 1 part, lavender flowers 1 part ; rub together to a 
powder. Boeli's consists of 2 drs. valerian, 2 drs. of snuff, 

3 drops of oil of lavender, 3 drops of oil of marjoram; 
mix. This is said to relieve the eyes as well as the head. 

Chambeelaine's Pills. Common milk of sulphur and 
vermilion. Dr. Paris's statement that they contain sul- 
phate of lime M'ould probably surprise the proprietor, if 
not aware that a great part of the commercial milk of 
sulphur contains half its weight of that substance. 

Chamomile Drops. Dr. Paris states that the nostrum sold 
under this name is merely spirit flavoured with essential 
oil of chamomile. A strong tincture of the flowers would 
probably be more efficacious. 

Chamomile Pills. We are ignorant of the composition 
of Norton's chamomile pills. The following is a good 
form : Watery extract of aloes 12 grs., extract of chamomile 
36 grs., oil of chamomile 3 drops ; make 12 pills. Two 
every night, or twice a day. 

Chelsea Pensionee. Powdered rhubarb 2 drs., cream of 
tartar 1 oz., guaiacum 1 dr., sulphur 2 oz., 1 nutmeg grated 
fine, clarified honey 16 oz. ; mix : take 2 spoonfuls night 
and morning : for chronic rheumatism, &c. 

Cheltenham Salts (factitious). Sulphate of soda 16 oz., 
sulphate of magnesia 8 oz., muriate of soda (chloride of 
sodium) 1 oz., sulphate of iron 8 grs.; dissolve in 'the 
smallest quantity of hot water, strain, and evaporate to 
dryness by a gentle heat, or dry the salts separately, and 

Chilblains, Popular Remedies for. 1. Soap liniment 1 oz., 
cajeput oil i oz., tincture of cantharides i oz. ; mix, 


2. Sal ammoniac i oz., vinegar 5 oz., spirit of rosemary 
1 oz. ; mix. 

3. Oil of turpentine 1 oz., camphor i oz., Goulard's 
extract ^ oz. ; mix. 

4. Dr. Graves's Preventive. Sulphate of copper 10 
grs., water 1 oz. ; dissolve, brush over the parts with the 
lotion by means of a camel-hair pencil, and when dry 
apply a little simple ointment : repeat this for some even- 
ings in succession. 

5. Lejeune's Baisam. See further on. 

6. Sal enixum, alum, and sulphate of zinc, of each } oz., 
water a pint ; apply it frequently. 

7. Muriiitic acid ^ oz., Fryar's balsam 3^ oz., mix. 

8. Swediatje's Paste. Bitter almonds 8 oz., honey 6 
oz., powdered camphor ^ oz., flour of mustai'd i oz., burnt 
alum z oz., olibanum \ oz., yolks of 3 eggs; beat together 
to form a paste ; rub a portion of it on the part affected, 
moistened with water, night and morning, then wash with 
warm water, and dry with a cloth. 

9. Wahler's Ointment for Broken Chilblains. Black 
oxide of iron, bole, and oil of turpentine, of each 1 dr. ; 
rub together, and add the mixture to 1 oz. of melted resin 

10. Another ointment for the same. Locatelli balsam 1 
oz., citrine ointment 5 oz., balsam of Peru 20 drops; mix. 

11. Russian remedy. Dry the peelings of cvicumbers, 
and when required for use soften the inner part with 
water, and apply it to the part affected. 

12. Tincture of arnica, rose water, glycerine, of each 
3 parts, spirit of camphor 1 part. 

13. Dr. Dewar. Sulphurous acid, and glycerine, of 
each 1 part, distilled water 2 parts. 

Ching's Worm Lozenges. The yellow lozenges contain 
1 gr. of calomel in each, with sugar, and sufficient muci- 
lage (coloured with saffron) to form a paste. The brown 

f contain | gr. of calomel %\ith 3^ grs. of resinous extract of 
jalap, according to Gray ; or with 1 gr. of resin of jalap, 
according to Dr. Paris and others. 

Chlorodtne. The preparation sold under this name con- 
tains chloroform, morphia, Indian hemp, and prussic acid. 
Many formulpe have been published, The following is an 


improvement by Mr. Gkoves, on the recipe of Dr. Ogdex. 
Take chloroform 4 drs., ether 1^ dr., oil of peppermint 8 
drops, resin of Indian hemp 16 grs., capsicum 2 grs.; mace- 
rate for 2 or 3 days, and filter. Then dissolve hydrochlo- 
rate of morphia 16 grs. in 1 oz. of syrup, add perchloric 
acid and water J dr. each, assisting the solution by a water- 
bath ; then, when cold, add hydrocyanic acid (Scheele's) 
96 drops. Mix the solutions. See Pocket Formulary. 
Cholera Medicines. The following are some of the more 
popular remedies that have been used during the visita- 
tions of this disease. 

1. Liverpool Preventive Powders. Bicai-bonate of soda 
1 scrapie, ginger 8 grs. ; to be taken in a glass of water 
after breakfast and supper. These powders are said to 
have been used with good effect among the workmen in 
the mining and manufacturing districts, during a former 
visitation of cholera. 

2. Dr. Stevens' Saline Powders. Bicarbonate of soda 
i drachm, muriate of soda (chloride of sodium) a scruple, 
chlorate of potash 7 grs. ; mix, for 1 dose. 

3. Mr. Hope's remedy. Nitrous acid (red) 2 drs., pep- 
permint-water or camphor mixture 1 oz., tincture of opium 
40 minims : dose 1 to 2 teaspoonfuls in a cupful of gruel 
every 3 or 4 hom's. 

4. Spirit of wine 1 oz., spirit of lavender \ oz., oil of 
origanum \ oz., compound tincture of benzoin ^ oz., spirit 
of camphor ^ oz. ; twenty drops on moist sugar. To be 
rubbed outwardly also. 

5. American remedy. Equal parts of lard, maple- 
sugar, and charcoal, to be mixed, and the size of a nut 

6. Remedies recommended by the Board of Health, in 
premonitory diarrhoea : Chalk mixture 1 oz., aromatic 
confection 10 to 15 grs., tincture of opium 5 to 15 drops ; 
to be repeated every 3 or 4 hours, or oftener if the attack 
be severe, until the looseness is stopped. 

7. Dr. Graves' Astringent Pills. Acetate of lead 20 
grs., opium 1 gr. : in 12 pills. One every half hour till the 
watery discharges cease. 

8. Mr. Bvxron's remedy. Twonty-fivc minims of diluted 
sulphuric acid iu au Ounce of water, 


9. Dr. Beavens Preventative and IRemedy. 
The Preventative. Sulphite of magnesia 2 drs. ; sulphu- 
rous acid 2 oz., water 2 oz. ; tincture of capsicum J oz. Mix 

and dissolve. A teaspoonful night and morning. 

The Remedy. Sulphite of magnesia 2 drs. ; sulphurous 

acid 2 oz. ; tincture capsicum \ oz., water 2 oz., sulphate of 

morphia 2 grs. ; mix and dissolve. A teaspoonful every 

half hour until relieved. 

We have inserted the above, not to encourage quackery in 
reference to this terrible disease, but because the druggist 
may be called upon to supply these remedies, and expected 
to know their composition. For Elixir Woroneje, see P. F. 

Chieatta Pills ai^d Mixtuee. Dr. Reece's Pills. Ex- 
tract of chirayta 2 drs., dried soda (carbonate ?) 20 grs., 
ginger 15 grs. ; mix, and di\'ide into 36 pills. Two, twice 
a day. Mixture : Infusion of chirayta 8 oz., subcarbonate 
of soda 1 dr. ; two tablespoonfuls 3 times a day. 

CiTEATE OF Magnesia. See Effervescing Citrate of Mag- 

Cltttton's Febeifitge Spirit and Tinctuee. Spirit: The 
origmal formula is — oil of sulphur by the bell, oil of vitriol 
and sea salt, of each 1 oz. ; rectified spirit 3 oz. ; mix, 
digest for a month ; and distU to dryness. Tincture : 
Febrifuge spirit 8 fluid ounces ; angelica root, serpentary, 
cardamom seed, of each 1^ dr.; digest, and strain. Water 
acidulated with these and sweetened to the taste, forms a 
cooling diuretic and diaphoretic julep. Though never 
admitted into the Pharmacopoeias, these preparations are 
favorites with a few practitioners. 

Cocheane's Cough Medicine. An acidulated syrup of 

Colliee's (Dr.) Wine of Quinine. Dlsulphate of quinine 
18 grs., citric acid 15 grs., sound orange wine 1 bottle, or 
24 fluid ounces. 

Colliee's (Dr.) Ceeam of Taeaxacum. See Cremor Ta- 
raxaci, P. F, 

CoLLiNs's Disinfecting Powder. See Disinfecting and 
Deodorizing Compounds among the Trade Chemicals. 

Collodion. See Ti-ade Chemicals. 

Collodion (Styptic), Dr. Richaedson. A saturated solu- 
tion of tannic acid and gim cotton in ether. 


Dr. Patesi. Collodion 100 parts, carbolic acid 10 parts, 
tannic acid and benzoic acid, of each 5 parts. AppUca' 
tion to loounds. 
;jONSr5iPTioy, Popular Remedies for. 1. Euui ^ pint, 
linseed oil, honey, garlic (beaten to a piilp), and loaf 
sugar, of each 4 oz., yolks of 5 eggs ; mix : a teaspoonful 
night and morning. 

2. Breastplate. Dissolve 1 oz. of aloes in 12 oz. of a 
strong decoction of fresh rue ; fold a large piece of soft 
muslin m 8 folds, large enough to cover the chest and part 
of the stomach ; steep in the solution and dry it in the 
shade ; wear it on the chest constantly. 
Cough Linctcs. 1. Rose Linctiis. Confection of roses 
3 oz., paregoric elixir 1^ oz., diluted sulphuric acid 1 dr. ; 
mix : a teaspoonful now and then when the cough is 

2. Dr. Latham's Cough Linctus. Doteb's Powder 
^ dr., compovmd powder of tragacanth 2 drs., syrap of Tolu 
\ oz., confection of hips and simple oxymel, of each 1 oz.; 
a teaspoonful 3 or 4 times a day. For other formulae, see 
Linctus ; Linctus Papaveris ; Linctus Scillse, &c. ; P. F. 
Cough Lozenges. See Bath Lozenges, above; also Lo- 
zenges, below. 
CoEN Plasters. See Kennedy's Com Plaster, and Em- 
plastrum ^ruginis, Pocket Formulary. Most of the 
advertised corn plasters contain verdigris. A few addi- 
tional formula are subjoined. 

1. Galbanum Plaster 1 oz., prepared verdigris 1 scruple; 
melt, and mix. 

2. Galbanum 1 oz., black pitch \ oz., simple diachylon 
A oz., verdigris a scruple, sal ammoniac a scruple. Melt 
the first three together, and add the last two in fine powder. 

3. Plaster of amnioniacum with quicksilver 1| oz., soap 
plaster ^ oz., opium in fine powder ^ dr. 

Mechanical Corn Piasters. Any suitable adhesive plaster 
is spread on soft thick leather (buckskin), which is after- 
wards cut to a suitable size, and a hole punched in the 
centre. They are sometimes spread on amadou, or on 
■\-ulcanized India rubber. 

Corn Solvents. One of the preparations sold imder this 
name is probably a strong solution of carbonate of potash. 


A powder sold for the same purpose consists of carbonate 
of potash coloured with ochre or bole. A pinch is placed 
on the corn, and confined by means of a piece of adhesive 
plaster or rag. Sir Humphrey Davy's name has been 
given to a remedy which consists of carbonate of potash 
and salt of sorrel, similarly applied. The following is one 
of the advertised Corn and Bunion remedies : — Carbonate 
of soda 1 oz., finely powdered and mixed with ^ oz. of 
lard. Applied on linen rag every night : the outer skin to 
be pared off every 2 or 3 days. It may be varied thus : — 
Dried soda (carbonate ?) 4 drs., powder blue (smalts) a 
scruple, lard 4 drs. ; mix. 

Caustic for Corns. 1. Tincture of iodine 4 drs., iodide of 
iron 12 grs., chloride of antimony 4 drs. ; mix, and apply 
with a camel-hair brush, after paring the corn. It is said 
to cure in 3 times. 

2. Strong acetic acid in glass tubes is used for this 

Court Plaster. See Emplastrum IcthyocoUse, Pocket 

Custard Powder. See Dietetic Articles. 

Daffx's Elixir. This is similar to the compound tincture 
of senna ; but different makers have their peculiar formulae. 
The following are some of them. Avoirdupois weight 
seems to be intended : 

1. Senna leaves 3f lbs., jalap, aniseed, caraway seed, of 
each 20 oz., rectified spirit 18 pints, sugar 5 lbs. Infuse 
the senna 2 or 3 times in suflicient boiling water to yield, 
when strained with pressure, 4 gallons of the whole. Add 
to this the tincture made with jalap and seeds, digested 
Avith the spirit for a week. Poiu* off the clear liquor and 
add the sugar, and brandy colouring if required. 

2. Dicey's, according to Grat. Senna 5 oz., guaiacum 
shavings (some recipes add red sanders), dried elecamjjane 
root, seed of anise, coriander, and caraway, and root of 
liquorice, of each 2i oz., stoned raishis 8 oz., proof sj^irit 
6 lbs. 

3. Swinton's. Jalap 3 lbs., senna 2 oz., coriander seed, 
aniseed, liquorice root, and elecampane, of each 4 oz. ; 
spirit of wine and water, of each a gallon. 

4. Small senna 10 oz., bruised jalap, coriamler seed, and 


aniseed, of each 2^ oz., proof spirit a gallon. Digest 
8 days, frequently shaking, and strain. Pour on the re- 
maining ingredients 6 oz. of boiling water in which 2 
drs. of salt of tartar have been dissolved ; press strongly, 
and add the liquid to the tincture, with 3 oz. of treacle. 
Some recipes add rhubarb, in the proportion of about 
4 oz. to the gallon. 

Daley's Caeminative. 1. Carbonate of magnesia 1 oz., 
syrup of poppies 5 drs., tincture of wood-soot 1 oz., oil of 
caraway 25 drops, oil of peppermint 16 drops, water and 
spirit of wine, each J oz. Mix. 

2. Carbonate of magnesia 2 scruples, oil of peppermint 
1 drop, oil of nutmeg 2 drops, oil of aniseed 3 drops, tinc- 
ture of castor 30 drops, tincture of assafcetida 15 drops, 
tincture of opium 5 drops, spirit of pennyroyal 15 drops, 
compound tincture of cardamom 30 drops, peppermint 
water 2 oz. Mix. — Dr. Paris. 

Dandelion Coffee. The roots, collected at the end of tlie 
year, are dried at a gentle heat and reduced to powder. 
Some mix coffee with it. Otliers roast the root in the 
manner of coffee, but probably at the expense of its 
medical virtues. The better way is to dry and powder it, 
and direct it to be mixed with coffee when used. If consi- 
dered necessary to give it more colour and flavour, it may 
be previously mixed with a sufficient quantity of roasted 
chicory, which should not exceed one eighth of the whole. 

Darcet's Alkaline Lozenges, or Vichy Lozenges. Bi- 
carbonate of soda 2 drs., refined sugar 1-i oz., oil of pep- 
permint 4 drops, mucilage of tragacanth q. s. Mix, and 
divide into 60 lozenges. 

Dawson's Lozenges. See Bath Lozenges, above. 

Delamott's Golden Drops. Muriate of iron 1 oz., spirit 
of sulphuric ether 7 oz. ; dissolve and expose to sunshine 
in a closely stopped bottle till it becomes divested of 
colour. See Bestuchepf's Nervous Tincture. 

Derbyshire's Patent Embrocation for Preventing Sea- 
Sickness. Boil 2 oz. of opium, 2 drs. of extract of hen- 
bane, 10 grs. of mace, and 2 oz. of mottled soap, in 3 
pints of water for \ hour. Wlien cold, add 1 quart of 
rectified spirit, and 3 drs. of spirit of ammonia. 



Deshlee's Salve. This is merely resin cerate. 

Digestive Pills. See Bath Digestive Pills, DiyyES 

Pills, Baillie's Pills, Webster's, Lady, Pills, Dr. 

Reece's Chieatta Pills. 
DixNEE Pills. See Bath Digestive Pills, Webstee's, 

Lady, Pills, &c. The following are a few additional 

fonnulse : — 

1. Rhubarb 30 grs., aloes 60 grs., i]3ecacuanha 12 grs., 
tincture of ginger q. s. to form a mass ; to be divided into 
24 pills. 

2. Sir ChXbles Bell's. Rhubarb 50 grs., mastic 6 grs., 
sulphate of quinuie 4 grs. ; in 12 pills. 

Dixox's Antibilious Pills. Equal parts of aloes, scam- 
mouy, and rhubarb, with the addition of a small quantity 
of tartar emetic, and made up with Castile soap. 

Dovee's Powdees. The Pulvis Ipecacuanha} Compositus of 
the Pharmacopoeia. But the original powder consisted of 
nitre and sulphate of potash, each 4 oz., fused in a red- 
hot mortar, and afterwards reduced to powder, and mixed 
with 1 oz. each of ipecacuanha, opium, and liquorice. 

Dupuyteen's Pommade. See Haie Cosmetics. 

Duputteen's Eye Salve. Nitric oxide of mercury 10 grs., 
sulphate of zinc 20 grs., lard 2 oz. ; rub perfectly smooth. 

Duncan's Fluid Exteact of Senna. Senna 15 lbs. avoir- 
dupois, boiling water 4 times its weight or q. s. Exhaust 
the senna by displacement, concentrate the liquor to 10 
lbs. avoir. ; dissolve in it 6 lbs. avoir, of treacle, previously 
concentrated over a water-bath, till it becomes nearly dry, 
on cooling : add 24 fluid oz. of rectified spirit, and water 
q. s. to make up 15 pints o. m. Dose, 2 drs. Each oz. 
corresponds with 1 oz. avoir, of senna. 

Dr. Duncan's Lactucaeium Lozenges. As the Troclusci 
Opii (Pocket Formulary), substituting lactucarium for 

Duncan's Gout Remedy. A preparation of colchicum with 

opium, &c. 
Dutch (or Haeelem) Drops. The basis of this popular 
remedy is said to be the residue which is left in redistilling 
oil of turpentine. Tlie following is one of the imitations 
of it made in this country : Linseed oil 1 quart, resin 2 lbs., 
sulphur 1 lb. ; boil together over a slow fire ; when com- 


billed, remove from the fire, and add 1 pint of oil of tur- 
pentine and 50 drops of liquor of ammonia ; stir well 
together and bottle. 

Easton's Tonic Steup. See Pocket Formulary, Syr. Ferri 
Phosph. cum Quin. et Strychn. 

Eaton's Styptic. It is similar to that of Heltetxtis, 
which see below. 

Eau de Magnanimite. a tmcture of ants, with aromatics. 

Eaf Medicinaxe D'HrssoN. It is prepared, according to 
Dr. Williams, from the juice of colchicum flower with 
half the quantity of brandy ; mix, and after standing a 
few days, decant into small bottles. But it was more pro- 
bably made from the root, as prescribed in the following 
formulfe. — (In one of the French codices.) Ilaii Colchique 
d'Hiisson. Dry colchicum 60 parts in sherry 125 parts. 
20 drops for a dose. (According to Mr. Want.) — 4 ounces 
of the fresh root sliced, macerated in ^ pint of proof spirit. 

Eau de Cologne (Eau de Melisse), &c. See Peefumert. 

Eau de Javelle. Dry chloride of lime 2 oz., carbonate of 
potash 4 oz., water 2 pints : mix the chloride with 1^ pint 
of water, dissolve the potash in the remainder ; mix the 
solution and filter. 

Eau de Luce. See Peefumeet. 

Eau de Babel. See Acidum Sulphurieum Alcoholisatum, 
Pocket Formulary. 

Eau Sedative. Easpail. It may be imitated as follows : 
Spirit of camphor 1 part, sti-ong solution of ammonia 
7 piirts, distilled water to 100 parts. See Pock. Form. 

Edinbuegh Ointment. WTiite hellebore powder, sal am- 
moniac, and lard. 

Effeevescing Citeate of Magnesia. A granulated jn-e- 
paration, containing carbonate of magnesia and citric acid 
in equivalent proportions, and 15 per cent, of sugar. Mr. 
Dymond. Thrown into water, it effervesces, and citrate 
of magnesia is formed, analogous to Moxon's Magnesian 
Aperient. See below. The preparation commonly sold as 
citrate of magnesia contains no magnesia at all. It is 
made with bicarbonate of soda and tartaric acid. See 
Sodce Citro-tartras effervescens, B. P., and Magncsiaj 
Citras, Pocket Formulary. 

Elleeman's Deodoeizing Fluid. It consists chiefly of 


persalts of iron. See Disinfecti>-g a>'D Deodoeizino 

Elixib de Gaeus. See Pocket Formulary. 

Elixie Longje Vit^. Similar to Baume de Vie, above. 

Elixie of Hallee. See Elixir Acidum Halleri, Pocket 

Elixie Paregoeic. See Tinctura Campliorse Composita, 
Pocket Formulary. 

Elixie of Viteiol. (Mynsiclit's Elixir.) See Acidum 
Sulphuricum Aromaticum, Pocket Formulary. For com- 
juon sale, druggists frequently keep a more ready and 
economical preparation, of which the followmg is one 
form : Compound tincture of cardamoms 1 lb., tincture of 
cinnamon 3 lbs., cinnamon water 2 lbs. ; mix, and add 
gradually 1^ lb. of pure sulphuric acid. 

Eevalexta and Revalexta. See Dietetic CoiiPorNDS. 

Essences. Essences of flowers will be found under Peefxi- 
MEET. Essence of Celery, and other cuUnari/ essences, 
will be found, with allied compounds, in another place. 
A few concentrated infusions, and other strong prepara- 
tions of drugs, not sanctioned by the Colleges, but very 
generally used, may be noticed here. 

Essence of Yellow Baek. Resinous extract of bark ^ oz., 
sulphate of quinine 60 grs., rectified spirit 6 oz., tincture of 
orange peel 2 oz. See Ext. Cinchon. flav. Liq., B.P. 

Essences of Calumba, Rhubaeb, Senna. See Liquor 
Calumba?, Rhei, Sennae — Pocket Formulary. 

Essence of Camphoe. See Liquor Camphora?, Pocket 

Essence of Chaiiomile. As a substitute for the infusion 
it may be made as LiQroE Calcmb^, P. F. See Cha- 
momile Deops for another preparation of this drug. 

Essence of Eegot. See Essentia Secalis Cornuti, Pocket 

Essence of Gingee. Unbleached Jamaica ginger in coarse 
powder 5 oz., rectified spirit a ])int ; digest for 8 days and 
strain with pressure ; or it may l>e made by percolation. 
As there is no established form, it varies in strength as pre- 
pared by different makers, and often contains Cayenne 

ssence of CfBEBS. Mix powdered cubebs with ether, in 

druggists' nostrums, etc. 181 

a Wfll-stopped bottle ; in twelve hours put the paste into 
a percolator, ami add ether till the cubebs are nearly ex- 
hausted ; distil off the ether in a water-bath, and preserve 
it for the same purpose. Dissolve the extract which re- 
mains in three times as much brandy. One ch-achm is 
equal to 2 drachms of the powder. A* fluid extract is also 
made by concentrating the tincture. 

Essences of Mint, Peppermint, and Pennyboyal. The 
strength of these varies as prepared by different makers ; 
some use 1 part of the essential oil to 3 of rectified 
spirit, but more usually, we believe, 1 part to 7. They are 
sometimes coloured with the leaves of the plant, or of spinach. 

Essence of Mustaed. Rectified spirit of turpentine 16 
fluid oz., bruised black mustard seed 2 oz., camphor 4 oz., 
oil of rosemary i oz., annatto to colour. Or, essential oil 
of mustard 1 part, rectified s\nr{t 60 parts ; to be sparingly 
sprinkled on piline, and applied as a mustard poultice. 

Essence of Saesapaeilla. [See also Extractum Sarza? 
Liquidum, Liquor Sarza;, and Essentia Sarsaparilla?, in 
Pocket Formulary. The latter is an elegant and efiicacious 
preparation.] Jamaica sarsaparilla 16 oz., lukewarm dis- 
tilled water (100'^ to 112^ F.) sufficient to cover it. Mace- 
rate for 6 hours, and strain. Bi-uise the root, macerate it 
again in sufficient warm water, and repeat the maceration 
with fresh water until it ceases to be much coloured. After 
straining, let the mixed liquids be imn^ediately heated to 
180° F., allowed to cool, and filtered. Evaporate the whole 
of the filtrate by a water or steam-bath, at a heat not 
above 160°, until reduced to 14 or 15 fluid oimces ; add 2 
ounces of rectified spirit, and keep it in a close bottle in a 
cool place for a few days. Then carefully pour off the 
clear liquid from any sediment into a clean dry bottle. 
1 fluid ounce represents 1 oz. of the root, or 8 ounces of 
the decoction. 

Compound Essence of Saesapaeilla. Jamaica sarsapa- 
rilla 16 oz. ; proceed as above, but reserve the liquor of 
the last maceration for boiling the other ingredients; 
namely, guaiacum raspings, bruised liquorice root, sassa- 
fras, each 2 oz., mezereon f oz. Boil them in 4 or more 
pints of the weak infusion for ^ an hour, and strain; 
evaporate to 4 fluid ounces ; let it cool, stirring it occa- 


sionally, and add 2 oz. of rectified spirit in whicli a few 
drops of oil of sassafras have been dissolved. Evajiorate 
the sarsaparilla liquid to 11 ounces, and when cool add the 
other liquid. Proceed as for the former. One measure 
with 7 of water forms a near approximation to the Phar- 
macopoeia Decoction. 

Essences (concentrated infusions) of quassia, cascarilla, 
chiretta, gentian, &c., may be made as directed for Liquor 
Calumbse, P. P. Take 8 times the quantity of ingredients 
directed in the Pharmacopoeia for one pint of infusion, and 
infuse them in one pint of boiling water for the time pre- 
scribed ; strain with strong pressure, and again infuse the 
ingredients in nearly as much water as the liquor obtained 
is short of a pint. Strain again with pressure ; mix the 
products, which will measure 18 or 19 oz. ; add 2 oz. of 
rectified spirit, set aside for a few days in a well- closed 
bottle, and filter. Some substances, as chiretta, senna,- 
calumba, &c., yield their active principles to cold water, 
which some prefer in these cases ; but it is then necessary, 
before adding the spirit, to place the liquor (in a bottle) in 
a water-bath, and heat it to 180'^ F., in order to precipitate 
any albumen it may contain. "Wlien cold, filter and add 
the spirit. They may also be made by percolation. 

Vinous Essences (by fermentation). Dr. B. Lane. See 
Liquores Vinosi, Pocket Pormidary. 

Extracts, Medicinal. See Pocket Formulary. 

ExTEACTS OF Flowers. See Peefumert, in this volume. 

Extract of Malt. Evaporate sweet wort to the consis- 
tence of treacle. See Pocket Formulary. It is sold as a 
cough medicine. 

Faiethorn's (Dr.) Mild Provisional Pills. Sulphate of 
potash 1 scruple, extract of aloes 2 scruples, extract of 
senna 1 scruple, compovmd gamboge pill 50 grs., tartarized 
antimony 2 grs., compound powder of scammony 12 grs., 
Peruvian balsam 6 grs. ; in 30 jjills ; one, two, or more 
occasionally, M'hen required. 

Ford's Balsam of Horehotjnd. It contains the ingre- 
dients of paregoric elixir with sq\iills, honey, and a strong 
infusion of horehound and liquorice. 

Ford's Laudanum. A tincture of opium containing cin- 
uaniou and cloves. 


Fothergill's (Dr.) Pills. Diaphoretic antimony, aloes, 
scammony, and extract of colocynth. 

Franks' Solution. See Solution of Copaiva. 

Freeman's Bathing Spirits. Mix water and rectified 
spirit, of each 3 gallons ; dissolve in them soft soap 6 lbs., 
and camphor 8 oz. ; add Daffy's elixir, 8 oz. 

Fryar's Balsam. Compound tincture of Benzoin, L. P. 

Gazogene Powders. See Pulveres Effervescentes, P. F. 

Gelee pour le GoiTRE. See Liniment. loduretum Gela- 
tinosum, Pocket Formulary. 

Gingerbread, Purgative. Flour 14 oz., butter 4 oz., 
treacle 8 oz., p. ginger 1^ oz., jalap 2 oz., caraway i oz. 
Mix the powders, then add the butter, and lastly the 
treacle, previously warmed. Roll out, and divide into 
cakes of 5 oz. each, containing each 6 or 7 grains of jalap. 

Glycerine Jelly. Used as an application to chaps and 
roughened parts of the skin. It may be made of pure 
glycerine thickened with tragacanth powder, and scented 
with otto of roses. An imitation may be prepared in the 
following manner (Pharm. Journal) : Mix good soft soap 
^ dr. intimately ■^^^th purified honey 2 drs., gradually add 
pale olive oil 5 oz., stirring without intermission iintil all 
is taken up. Care must be taken not to mix in the oil too 
fast. Finally, perfume as desired. 

Glycerine Paste. A stiff glutinous compound, recom- 
mended by Dr. Tilt as a basis of plaster. It is made by 
boiling 100 or 150 grains of common starch in 1 oz. of 
glycerine. See Plasma, and Glycerinum Amyli, B. P. 

Godbold's Vegetable Balsam. An acidulated syrup, or 
oxymel, of various herbs. The following is an imitation : 
Dissolve by heat 1 lb. of lump sugar in white wine vinegar 
1 quart, in which 3 oz. of garlic have been steeped for 3 
days ; add tincture of Tolu 2 drs. 

Godfrey's Cordial. The active ingredient is opium, and there 
is a great diversity in the strength of the compound as pre- 
pared by different makers. Many accidents have arisen from 
its too general use as a stupef active for infants, but we believe 
its sale is now much less encouraged by druggists than for- 
merly. The following are some of the more usual formulae. 
1. Heat together 7 lbs. (avoird.) of treacle, and 8 lbs, of 


water till united ; when nearly cold add the following : 
rectified spirit 6 fluid ounces, oil of sassafras 40 minims, 
oil of aniseed 10 drops, laudanum 4 oz. Mix and make 
up the weight if necessary to 15 lbs. It contains ratlicr 
more than 9 minims (equal, according to some authorities, 
to 16 or 18 drops) of laudanum in each fluid ounce. 

2. Treacle 3^ lbs., water 6 lbs., spirit of wine 8 fluid 
ounces, laudanum 4 fluid ounces, oils of aniseed, sassafras, 
and caraway, of each ^ dr. Mix. Contains 12 or 14 
minims of laudanum in an ounce. 

3. Sliced sassafras 2 oz., opium cut small 1 oz., bruised 
aniseed 8 oz., boiling water a gallon. Infuse, strain, and 
make the infusion into a syrup with 14 lbs. of treacle. If 
the whole of the active principles of the opium are ex- 
tracted, this is much stronger than the preceding. 

4. Blake a syrup with 3 lbs. (avoird.) each of treacle and 
coarse sugar, and water sufl3cient to make up a gallon. 
Dissolve 24 drops of oil of sassafras, and 16 of oil of ani- 
seed, in 3 fluid ounces of spirit of wine ; add 10 fluid 
drachms of tincture of opium, and mix the whole with 8 
pints, o. m., of the .syrup. This is weaker than either of 
tlie preceding, containing only 5 minims of laudanum in 
a fluid ounce, or 1 drop in a drachm. 

5. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, to prevent 
the mischief arising from the varying strength of this 
compound, directs it to be prepared as follows : Dissolve 
2i oz. of carbonate of potash in 26 pints of water, add 16 
pints of treacle; heat together over a gentle fire till they 
simmer, remove the scum, and, when sufloiciently cool, add 
•J oz. of oil of sassafras dissolved in 2 pints of rectified 
spirit, and 24 fluid ounces of tincture of opium, previously 
mixed. The old wine measure is here intended. It con- 
tains about 16 minims of laudanum, or rather more than 
1 grain of opium in each fluid ounce. 

6. Sassafras 9 oz., seeds of coriander, caraway, and anise, 
of each 1 oz. ; infuse in 6 pints of water, simmer the mix- 
ture till reduced to 4 pints ; then add 6 lbs. of treacle, boil 
the whole for a few minutes, and when cold, add 3 fluid 
ounces of tincture of opium. Nearly the strength of No. 
1. — Dr. Paeis. 

[Tliese forms are inserted rather with a view to show 

i)RtrGGtSTS' i^'OSTEUMS, ETC. 185 

the dangerous nature of this compound than to encourage 
its use. No terms are sufficiently strong to express tlie 
culpal)ility of those who would place in the hands of 
ignorant persons, for administration to infants and chil- 
dren, compounds containing opium.] 

Godfrey's Smellixg Salts. Sesquicarbonate of ammonia 
resublimed with pearlash, and a little spirit. — Dr. Paris. 

Golden Spirit of Scurvy Grass. It is said to be coloured 
with gamboge. 

Golden Ointment. Singleton's ointment, q. v. The oint- 
ment of nitric o.xide of mercury is also called, golden 

Goulard's Extract of Lead. Liquor plumbi subacetatis, 
P. B. 

Gout Paper. See Charta Antirheumatica, P. P. 

Granville's (Dr.) Counter-irritant Lotions. See Lini- 
ment. Ammonise Compositum, Pocket Formulary. 

Graves' (Ur.) Gout Preventive. Orange peel 2 oz., 
rhubarb 1 oz., hiera picra 2 oz., brandy a quart. Digest 
for a week. 

Gregory's Powder. Calcined magnesia 2i oz., powdered 
Turkey rhubarb 1 oz., powdered ginger ^ oz. Mix. The 
above is Dr. Gregory's formula. Some recipes add pow- 
dered chamomile. Rhubarb 1 oz., ginger \ oz., p. cha- 
momile I oz., magnesia 2 oz. Mix. Some druggists pre- 
pare it with the heavy carbonates of magnesia, instead of 
the calcined. See Pulvis Rhei Compositus, B. P. 

Greenough's Tincture. See Tooth Cosmetics. 

Griffin's Tincture, for coughs. Oil of caraway and anise, 
each 2 drs., saffron \ oz., benzoic acid | oz., ojuum 5 drs., 
camphor i oz., spirit 6 oz., honey 6 oz. WHien mixed and 
dissolved, colour with burnt sugar. 

Griffith's Mixture. This is Mistnra Ferri Composita of 
the Brit. Pharmacopoeia. 

Grinrod's (Dr.) Remedy for Spasms. Sulphuric ether, 
aromatic spirit of annuonia, of each | oz. ; acetate of mor- 
phia i gr., camphor mixture 2 oz. Mix. A teaspoonful 
in a little water when required. 

GuESTONiAN Embrocation. Oil of turpentine 1^ oz., olive oil 
1^ oz., dilute sulphuric acid 3 fluid drachms.— Dr. Paris. 


Guthrie's Black Ointment. 10 grains of nitrate of silver, 
with 1 di'. of spermaceti ointment, and 10 drops of a solu- 
tion of acetiite of lead. 

Guthrie's Eye Ointment. A weaker preparation of the 
same kind ; used in ophthalmia, but caiises great pain. 
See Ung. Hyd. Nit., Pocket Formulary. 

Halford's (Sir H.) Gout Pills. Acetic extract of colchi- 
cum 2\ grs., Dover's powder 1^ gr., compound extract of 
colocynth 1^ gr., in each pill. One for a dose. 

HAERoaATE Salts (Dr. Duffin's). Sulphate of magnesia 
2 drs., bitartrate of potash 10 grs., sal polychrest (potassse 
suli^has cum sulphure. Ph. Ed.) \ dr. ; in a pint of warm 
water. For another formula see Mineral Waters (fac- 
titious) and salts for producing them, below. 

Helvetius' Styptic. Melt together equal parts of alum 
and dragon's blood ; when cold, powder the compound. 

Henry's Magnesia. A solution of Epsom salts is precipi- 
tated by one of carbonate of potash in the cold ; the pre- 
cipitate is M'ell washed, rose water being used for the last 
washing ; it is then made up while drying into large or 
small cubes. See Magnes. Carbonas levis, B. P. 

Hill's Balsam of Honey. Balsam of Tolu 2 oz., styrax 
2 drs., opium \ dr., honey 8 oz., spirit of wine 32 fluid 

Hoffman's Pills contain corrosive sublimate, about ^th of 
a grain in each. See Pocket Formulary. 

Houlton's Laudanum. Opium 2\ oz., distilled vinegar 32 
fluid oz. ; macerate 6 days with a gentle heat, and filter. 
Evaporate to an extract. Dissolve this in 5 fluid oz. of 
rectified spirit, and 35 fluid ounces of distilled water. 

Hooper's Female Pills. These, according to Dr. Paris, 
consist of RUFUs' Pill, sulphate of iron, canella, and a 
portion of ivory-black. Mr. Gray gives two formula? : 

1. Sulijhate of iron 8 oz., water 8 oz. ; dissolve and add 
Barbadoes aloes 40 oz., canella 6 oz., myrrh 2 oz., opo- 
ponax -2' oz. Makes a mass. 

2. Sulphate of iron 2 oz., powder of aloes with canella 
16 oz., mucilage of tragacanth and tincture of aloes q. s. 
to form a mass. Divide 60 grains into 18 pills. Ac- 
cording to a recent analysis, the iron is in a peroxidized 
state ; probably the sulphate is partially calcined. 


The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy gives the follow- 
lug formula : 

3. Barbadoes aloes 8 oz., dried sulphate of iron 2 oz. and 
li dr., extract of black hellebore 2 oz., myrrh and soap 
each 2 oz., canella 1 oz., ginger 1 oz., water q. s. to form a 
mass. Divide into pills of 2^ grs. each. 

Hooping Cough; popular remedies for. 1. Cochineal and 
salt of tartar mixture. This appears to have been first 
introduced by Dr. Lobb, in 1765, and is still a favourite 
domestic remedy. Salt of wormwood (subcarbonate (car- 
bonate) of potash) 20 grs., powdered cochineal 10 grs., hot 
water i of a pint ; triturate together, strain and sweeten 
with white sugar (or sugar candy). Dose, a teaspoouful to 
a tablespoonful, according to the age. 

2. Fumigating poivders. Styrax calamita and gum 
benzoin, of each a scruple, placed on hot cinders or a 
heated shovel, in the patient's room, every day. 

Husham's Tincture of Baek. The Compound Tinctiire 
of Bark of the London Pharmacopceia is precisely that of 
HuxHAM, except that he used brandy instead of iiroof 

Issue Peas. Those in general use are unripe oranges 
(orange berries) turned in a lathe. The unturned berries 
are also used. Peas are also turned from orris root. 
Niemann give the following composition for issue peas : — 
Yellow wax IJ. oz., powdered turmeric 1 oz., powdered orris 
i oz., Venice turpentine q. s. Tliese are more stimulating, 
and are used to increase the discharge. Tlie following, ac- 
cording to Dr. Gray, will open an issue itself : yellow wax 
6 oz., verdigis 2 oz., white hellebore 2 oz., oantharides 
1 oz., orris 1| oz., Venice turpentine q. s. 

James's Powder. It is not kno-mi in what respect the 
mode of preparing this powder differs from the Pharma- 
copceia process for antimonial powder. Dr. James's 
specification is vague and impracticable. 

James's Analeptic Pills. Equal parts of James's powder, 
RuFUs' pill, and gum guaiacum, made into pills with 
tincture of castor. Dr. Paris has ammoniacum in the 
place of guaiacum. Another formula is : compound iiowder 
of aloes, aloes and myrrh pill, and James's powder, in 


equal quantities, formed into pills with tincture of castor 
and sjrup. 

Jaeave, Spanish. See Ceri\'isia Sarzaj, Pocket Formulary. 

Jesuits' Drops. Walker's. Balsam of capivi 6 oz., gum 
guaiacum 1 oz., Cliio turpentine 5 oz., subcarbonate of 
potash i oz., cochineal 1 dr., rectified sjnrit 1 quart. See 
also Elixir Antiveuereum, Pocket Formulary. 

Kennedy's Corn Plaster. Yellow wax 1 lb., A%iice 
turpentine 2 oz., verdigris 1 oz., melted together, and 
spread on leather. 

Ketsek's Pills. Acetate of mercury, manna, gum arable, 
of each 1 scruple, rose water q. s. to form a mass, for 80 

King's Coedial. Dissolve in ^ pint of proof spirit 1| dr. 
each of the oils of caraway and cinuamon ; extract the 
stones from 3 lbs. of black cherries, and mash the fruit in a 
pan ; grate one nutmeg ; take 2 quarts of Madeira wine, 
2 quarts of brandy, and 1 gallon of syrup ; mix all toge- 
ther, and colour with red sanders wood. 

Kirkland's Neutral Ointment and Cerate. See Ung- 
ueutum Plumbi Compo.situm and Ceratvim Neutrale, P. F. 

Kitchinee's (Dr.) Peristaltic Persuaders. Turkey 
rhubarb in powder 2 drs., oil of caraway 10 drops, simple 
syrup 1 dr. by weight ; mix, and divide into 40 pills. 
Dose, 2, 3, or more. " From 2 to 4 will generally produce 
one additional motion within 12 hours. The best time to 
take them is early in the morning." 

Lamplough's Pyretic Saline. Mr. Bannistee, of the 
Somerset House Laboratory, analysed a sample of the 
preparation knowni under this name, and foinid it to 
contain 45*7 per cent, of tartaric acid, 52'4 per cent, of 
bicarbonate of soda, and 1"9 per cent, of chlorate of potash. 

Lartigue's Gout Pills. Compound extract of colocynth 
20grs., extract of colchicum 60grs., extract of opium 1 gr.j 
mix, and divide into 18 pills. Dose, one or more, accord- 
ing to their purgative effect. 

Ledoyen's Disinfecting Fluid. It consists of about 20 
oz. of nitrate of lead in a gallon of water. Its specitic 
gravity should be 1'40. 

Leech-bites, Astringent por. Dissolve 1 part of crystal- 
lized perchloride of iron in 6 parts of collodion very gra- 


dually. A drop or two of the product forms an admirable 
ha'mostatic. [French Journal.] Dry maticho leaves, rubbed 
to powder between the fingers, will be found an excellent 
styptic for this purpose. 
Lee's Wyndham's Pills. Gamboge 3 oz., aloes 2 oz., 
Castile soap 1 oz., nitre i oz., extract of cow-parsnip 1 oz. 
In pills of 5 grs. each. [Amer. Journ. of Pharmacy.] 
Lee's Antibilious Pills. Aloes 12 oz., scammony 6 oz., 
gamboge 4 oz., jalap 3 oz., calomel 5 oz., soap 1 oz., syrup 
of buckthorn 1 oz., mucilage 7 oz. ; mix, and divide into 
5-grain pills. 
Leroy's Puegatite. 12 3 

Scammony 12 drs. 16 drs. 24 drs. 

Vegetable tiirbith... 6 drs. 8 drs. 12 drs. 

Jalap 6 oz. 8 oz. 12 oz. 

Brandy 10 pints imperial. 

Digest for 12 hours, strain, and add the following syrup : 

Senna 6 oz. 8 oz. 12 oz. 

Water 24 oz. 32 oz. 48 oz. 

Infuse, strain with pressure, and add — 

Brown sugar 32 oz. 36 oz. 48 oz. 

Make a syrup. 

No. 4 is stronger than the above. 
Lejeuxe's Balsam foe Chilblains. Camphor 1 dr., tinc- 
ture of benzoin 5 drs. ; dissolve, and add iodide of potassium 
5 drs., extract of lead 10 grs., spirit of wine reduced to proof 
with rose water 2^ oz. ; dissolve 10 drs. of white soap in 
2^ oz. of the same diluted spirit by a gentle beat, mix the 
solutions whilst still warm, and add any perfume. Let it 
cool in wide-mouthed bottles, and cork. 
Liebeet's Cosmetic. For chapped nipples. Dissolve 10 
grains of nitrate of lead in 1 oz. of water. A pair of fine 
lead shields accompany the lotion, to be worn after apply- 
ing it. The nipples must be carefully washed before the 
child is put to the breast. 
Ligxum's Anti-scoebutic Drops. These contain bichloride 
of mercury, and should not, therefore, be used without great 
LiQUETiE Doeee. Peruvian bark, bitter orange peel, and 
cinnamon, of each 4 drs., saffron 2 drs., brandy 4 quarts, 
Malaga wine 2 quarts ; digest for 4 days, strain, and add 


2^ lbs. of sugar. [^Liqueurs wliicli are not medicated, but 
are merely alcoholic drams, do not come within the plan of 
this work.] 

Liquid Blister. Powdered cautharides 5 oz., and sul- 
phuric ether 15 ounces. — Toynbee. 

Liston's Isinglass Plaster. Soak 1 oz. of isinglass in 
2 oz. of water, and dissolve it in 2 oz. of rectified spirit 
and li oz. of water, by the heat of a water-bath. Brush 
it over the surface of oiled silk, properly stretched. An 
improved kind is made by brushing one side of the peri- 
toneal membrane of the cfEcum of the ox (prepared in the 
same manner as gold-beater's skin) with the same solution, 
and the other side with drying oil. 

Locatelli's Balsam. Melt together 4 oz. of yellow wax, 
1 lb. of common oil, and 1 lb. of Venice tm-pentine, 
placing with them 4 oz. of alltanet root wrapped in a 
linen bag. 

Locock's Wafers. These owe most of their activity to 
Morphia. They should, therefore, be used with caution. 

Long's (St. John) Liniment. See Linimentum Terebin- 
thino3 Aceticum, Pocket Formulary. 

Lozenges. See Ching's Lozenges, Dawson's, Daecet's. 
The medicated Lozenges which are sanctioned by dif- 
ferent Phamacopceias, and employed in practice, will be 
found under Trochisci and Pasta, in the Pocket Formulary. 
A few other formulae are here added : 

Absorbent Lozenges. Precipitated chalk 3 oz., hea^^ carbo- 
nate of magnesia, 2 oz., nutmeg in fine powder 1 dr., sugar 
12 oz., powdered gum 1 oz., water q. s. to form a stiff paste, 
which divide by a punch into lozenges of the usual size, 
and dry them gradually in a warm room. 

Aperient Lozenges. Calomel 60 grs., pure scammony 80 
grs., jalap 40 grs. (or jalapine 4 grs.), ginger 8 grs., cin- 
namon 4 grs., mucilage of tragacanth q. s. to form a stifE 
paste ; mix the other powders accurately together, then 
with the sugar, lastly add the mucilage, beat the whole 
into a uniform mass, and divide it into _ 40 equal lozenges. 
Each contains 1^ gr. calomel, 2 of scammony, and 1 of 

BlacJc Currant Paste. Soften 12 lbs. of picked black ciu'- 
rants by heating them in a water-l^ath in a covered 

druggists' TfOSTETTMS, ETC. 191 

earthen vessel, pulp through a hair sieve, and e^'aporate 
to a paste, incorporating with it 1 lb. powdered sugar ; 
roll it out into a sheet of proper thickness. Mr. Baetlett 
gives the following formula : 3 lbs. of powdered sugar, 3 
lbs. of extract of black currants (the inspissated juice), 

1 oz. of tartaric acid, 6 oz. of powdered gum ; mixed, 
rolled out, and cut, when dry, with a large pair of scissors 
into square pieces. 

Black Currant and Ipecacuanha Lozenges. Black cun'ant 
paste (as above) 8 oz., ipecacuanha 30 grs., tragacanth 90 
grs. ; in 240 lozenges. 

Cough Lozenges {with Lactucarium). Powdered lactucarium 

2 drs., extract of liquorice root 12 drs., ipecacuanha 30 
grs., powdered squill 15 grs., refined sugar 6 oz., mucilage 
of tragacanth q. s., mix, and divide into 240 equal 
lozenges. Each contains ^ gr. lactucarium, ^ gr. of ipeca- 
cuanha, -Jg- gr. of squill. 

For other Cough Lozenges, see Trochisci Anticatar- 
rhales, Glycyrrhizse et Opii, Lactucse, Morphise et Ipecac, 
Opii, Papaveris, Scillaj, Tolutani, &c.. Pocket Formulary. 

Digestive or Live-long Candy. 1. Powdered rhubarb, 60 
grs., heavy magnesia 1 oz., bicarbonate of soda 1 dr. finely- 
powdered ginger 20 grs., cinnamon powder 15 grs., pow- 
dered white sugar 2 oz., mucilage of tragacanth q. s. ; beat 
together, and divide into parallelograms of 20 grs. each. 

2. Caraioay Candy. Rhubarb 60 grs., powdered cara- 
ways 60 grs., oil of caraway 10 drops, ginger and cinna- 
mon, each 15 grs. magnesia 6 drs., carbonate of soda 1 dr., 
sugar 2 oz., mucilage q. s. — as the last. 

Edinburgh Lozenges. Extract of poppies 2 oz., powdered 
sugar 8 oz., powdered tragacanth 4 oz., water q. s. 

Fruit Lozenges. Black currant paste 8 oz., red currant 
paste (or the juice evaporated to a paste) 4 oz., syrup of 
raspberries 4 oz., soften by a gentle heat, and beat in a 
warm mortar with 2 lbs. of powdered sugar, and a drachm 
of powdered citric acid, and, if required, a little mucilage 
of gmn tragacanth."^ 

Marshmallow Lozenges. Marshmallow root powdered 2 oz., 
sugar 14 oz., mixed with some mucilage of tragacanth, 
and orange-flower water. 

Peppermint Lozenges. Rub together white sugar 6 oz., oil 


of peppermint 36 drops, and the whites of two eggs. 
Make into lozenges. See Pocket Formulary. 
Ltnch's Embhocation. Olive oil coloured with alkanet, 
perfumed, and rendered stimulating by essential oils. 

Madden's Essence. A strongly acidulated infusion of roses. 

Mahomed's Electtjaet. Grocer's currants 1 oz., powdered 
senna i oz., powdered ginger 30 grs., oil of croton 1 drop, 
syrup of roses sufficient to make an electuary; two tea- 
spoonsful every morning. — Bateman. 

Maht's Plaster (American). Boil 12 oz. of white lead, 
32 fluid oiuiccs of olive oil, and a little water, stirring 
constantly until incorporated. Add yellow wax 4 oz., 
lead plaster 18 oz., and when these are melted stir in 9 oz. 
of powdered orris. 

Maredant's Norton's Drops. Corrosive sublimate, gen- 
tian, ginger, and cochineal. 

Marshall's Cerate. Palm oil 5 oz., calomel 1 oz., acetate 
of lead 5 oz., ointment of nitrate of mercury 2 oz. ; mix. — 
Dr. Paris. 

Marshall's Eye-drops. These are said to consist of 2 grs. 
of nitrate of silver in 1 oz. of decoction of snails. 

Marsden's Antiscorbutic Drops, Morton's, Perry's, Lig- 
num's, and other antiscorbutic drops, contain corrosive 
sublimate. — Dr. Paris. 

Magnesia Fluid. A solution of cai-bonate of magnesia in 
water by means of carbonic acid gas, forced into it by 
pressure. Murray's and Dinneford's should contain 
from 12 to 15 grs. of the carbonate in each fluid oz. See 
Liquor Magnesise Carbonatis, Pocket Formulary. 

Mathiec's Vermifuge. Tin filings 1 oz., fern root f oz., 
worm seed | oz., resinous extract of jalap 1 dr., sulphate 
of potash 1 dr., honey to form an electuary. A teaspoon- 
ful every 3 hours for 2 days ; then substitute the following 
— jalap 2 scruples, sulphate of potash 2 scruples, scam- 
mony 1 scruple, gamboge 10 grs. ; made into an electuary 
with honey, and given in the same dose. 

Mineral Waters (Factitious), and Salts for prodttcinq- 
THEM. See further on. 

Montein's Barege Balls (for Sulphur Baths). Sulphate 
of lime 8 oz., common salt 2 oz., Flanders glue 1 oz., ex- 

l)llITG(arSTs' NOSTRUMS, EJTd, 103 

tract of soapwort 1 oz. ; make into 8 balls ; to be kept 
from the air. M. Mexiere recommends, extract of soap- 
wort ^ oz., water 6 oz., lime in powder 4 oz., sulphnr 
3 oz., gelatine 1 oz. ; dissolve the extract and gelatine in 
the water, add the lime and sulphur, heat gently, stirring 
it constantly, till the mass gets detached from the sides of 
the vessel ; then form it into balls of 1^ oz. each. 

MOEPHIA COLLODiox. One part of hydrochlorate of mor- 
phia to 30 parts of flexible collodion. Applied with a 
camel's-hair brush, ybr neuralgic pains. 

Moeeison's Pills. No. 1, consists of equal parts of aloes and 
cream of tartar ; No. 2, consists of 2 parts of gamboge 3 of 
aloes, 1 of colocynth, and 4 of cream of tartar,— made into 
pills with syrup. 

MoEEisoNs' Adhesive Paste, for ring-worm. See Pasta 
Adhesiva, ' Pocket Formulary.' 

Moseley's Pills. Turkey rhubarb 60 grs., Jamaica ginger 
24 grs., syrup and tincture of rhubarb q. s. to form a mass, 
to be divided into 24 pills. 

Moxon's Effeevescing Magnesian Apeeient. The fol- 
lowing have been proposed as imitations : 

1. Heavy carbonate of magnesia 2 lbs., bicarbonate of 
soda 1 lb., tartaric acid 1^ lbs., refined sugar -\ lb., essence 
of lemon 40 minims; the powders to be all separately 
dried at a moderate temperature. 

2. Sulphate of magnesia 1 lb., bicarbonate of soda 1 lb., 
tartaric acid \ lb. ; the ingredients to be well dried sepa- 
rately, at a moderate temperature. (' Pharmaceutical 

3. Carbonate of magnesia 1 lb., sulphate of magnesia 
2 lbs., bicarbonate of soda 2 lbs., potassio-tartrate of soda 

2 lbs., tartaric acid 2 lbs. ; to be separately dried, and mixed. 


MuNEo's Cough Medicine. 4 drs. of paregoric with 2 drs. 

of sulphuric ether, and 2 drachms of tincture of Tolu. 

Dose, a teaspoonful in some warm water. 
Mueeat's (Sir J.) Fluid Camphor. Each ounce contains 

3 grs. of camplior and 6 grs. of carbonate of magnesia, dis- 
solved by carbonic acid, and by pressure. 

Murray's Gout Specific. It contains iodide of potassium, 



sulphate of magnesia, and an aromatic tincture. (' Pharm. 

Mtjstaed Leaves. See EigoUot's Mustard Leaves. 

MusTAED Tissue. See Sinaiiine Tissue. 

Nepenthe. Supposed to be a watery solution of opium, 
resembling Battley's. See Extractum Opii Liquidum, and 
Liquor Opii Sedati\'us, Pocket Formulary. 

Neuealine. An anodyne application, for external use only. 
It is said to contain aconite. 

NoERis's Deops. a solution of tartarized antimony, with 
a tinctm'e of some vegetable substances, not ascertained. 

Noufflece's (Madame) Woem Medicine. Powdered fern 
root 3 drs., to be given in the morning (the patient being 
prepared by an emollient clyster, and a supper of panada) ; 
followed in 2 hours by a bolus of calomel, scammony, and 

Olliviee's BiscriTS. Beat up the whites of 2 eggs with 
16 oz. of water, add a solution of 76 grs. of corrosive sub- 
limate ; collect, wash, and dry the precipitate, l-7tli of a 
gr. of which is contained in each biscuit of 2 drs. 

Opodeidoc. Lin. Saponis. 

Oemskiek 'Me-dici'SE, to prevent hydrophobia. Elecampane 

1 dr., chalk 4 drs., Ai-menian bole, 3 drs., alum 10 grains, 
oil of aniseed 5 drops. 

Paeamoud. See Dietetic Compounds. 

Palmee's Aeeated Chalybeate. Mix 1^ parts of acetic 
acid with 40 of water, add 4 of proto-sulphate of iron, and 
20 of syi'up. Put into 4-ounce bottles, for No. 1 and No. 

2 respectively, as much of the above as contains 2 and 
4 grs. of sulphate of iron, and fill the bottles with a solu- 
tion of carbonate of soda or of potash strongly charged 
with carbonic acid gas. Tartaric acid may be substituted 
for acetic. 

Papiee Epispastiqtje d'Albespetees. The Pommade 
Epispastique of the French codex, spread on waxed paper. 
See tjnguentum Epispasticum, Pocket Formulary. 

Papiee Epispastique de Vee. This is of three strengths, 
distinguished by the colours white, green, and red. The 
composition is made by boiling cantharides for an hour 
with water, and lard, green ointment, or lard coloured 
with alkanet ; adding white wax to the strained fats, and 


spreading on paper, silk, or linen. No. 1 is made with 
10 oz. of cantliarides to 4 lbs. of lard ; No. 2, of 1 lb. of 
Hies to 8 lbs. of green ointment; and No. 3, of 1^ lbs. to 
8 lbs. of coloured lard ; and to each are added 2 lbs. of 
white wax. — Doevault. See BLisxERiNa Papbe. 
Papiee Pataed. Gout Paper. Euphorbinm 3 drs. can- 
tliarides 6 drs., powdered and digested with 4 oz. alcohol : 
and 3 drs. Venice turpentine added to the strained tincture. 
Fine paper is dipped into it and dried in the air. Mohe 
directs 4 drs. of cantliarides and 1 dr. euphorbimu to be 
digested in 5 oz. of highly rectified spirit ; filter and add 
\\ oz. Venice turpentine pre^dously liquefied with 2 oz. of 
resin. To be spread on the paper while warm. 
Pelletiee's .Stheeeal Opodeldoc. See Balsamum Aceti- 

cum Camphoratum, Pocket Formulary. 

Persian Insect Powdee. This is said to be the dried 

flowers of the Pyrethrum rosewm, or red flowered Pyretli- 

' rum reduced to powder. The flowers of the Pyrethrum 

caucasicum are also stated to be used for the same purpose. 

Peter's Pius. Aloes, jalap, gamboge, and seammony, of 

each 2 drs. ; calomel 1 dr. 
Piles, popular remedies for. Dr. Waedlewoeth's Pills 
contain 3^ grs. of pitch in each; 2 every night. For 
Electttaeies for piles see Conf. Senna, B. P., Confectio 
Kesinse B- P., Confectio Sulphuris, Electuarium Hsemor- 
rhoidale, all in Pocket Formulary. See also Waed's Paste, 
below. For Pile Ointments, see Ungueutum Galla^ 
Unguentum Gallae cum Opio, Unguentum Haemorrhoidale, 
Pocket Formulary. Sir H. HALrOED's Pile Ointment 
consists of equal parts of citrine ointment and oil of 
almonds triturated in a glass mortar till perfectly smooth. 
Mr. Ward's is— Powdered nut-gall 2 drs., camphor 1 dr., 
melted wax 1 oz., tincture of opium 2 drs. Mix. 
Pills. See proprietors' names in alphabetical order. A 
great variety of formulae for pills of every kind will be 
found in the Pocket Formulary. 
Pills, To coat with Gelatine . 1 See Pilulae, Pocket 

TO silver J Formulary 


M. DuEDEN recommends collodion as a covering for 
pills j others, a solution of gutta percha in chloroform : 


but the ready solubility of these materials iu the stomach 
may be questioned. M. Blaxchard uses balsam of Tolu 
dissolved in ether. Mr. Baildo>' recommends chloroform 
instead of ether. 

Plasma. Schacht. See Glycerinum Amyli, B. P. 

Plunket's Ointment toe Cancee. See Causticum Aiiti- 
cancrosum, Pocket Formulary. 

Pomade Divine. Beef marrow 3 lbs. ; put it into an 
earthern vessel, and cover it with cold water, and change 
the water daily for a few days, using rose-water the last 
day. Pour ofE and press out the water; add to the mar- 
row 4 oz. each of styrax, benzoin, and Chio turpentine, 

1 oz. orris powder, ^ oz. each of powdered cinnamon, 
cloves, and nutmeg. Set the vessel in hot water, and 
keep the water boiling for 3 hours; then strain. For 
Pomades for the Hair, see Haie Cosmetics, after Pee- 


Poetland's (Duke of) Gout Powdee. Equal quantities 
of the roots of gentian and birthwort, tops of germander, 
ground pine, and lesser centaury : all to be powdered and 
mixed together. 

Powell's Balsam foe Cough. Mix together 2 drs. of syrup 
of Tolu, 1 oz. of paregoric elixir, and 2 oz. of liquorice- 

Queen of Hungaey's Watee. Tops and flowers of rose- 
mary 2 lbs., rectified spirit 3 lbs. ; digest in a close vessel 
for 50 hours in a gentle heat, then distil by water- 

Quinine and Camphor Pills. See Pilula Quinias et Caui- 
phorse. Pocket Formulary. 

Radcliffe's Elixie. Aloes 6 drs., cinnamon, zedoary, and 
cochineal, each i dr., rhubarb 1 dr., syrup of buckthorn 

2 oz., proof spirit 16 fluid oz., water 5 fluid oz. — Dr. 
Paeis. According to Geat, it contains jalap, scammouy, 
and senna. 

Easpail's Camphoe Cigaeettes. These are merely cam- 
phor enclosed in a tube (a quill or pa]ier tube may be 
used), confined by blotting paper, and used cold. Another 
kind of camphorated cigars is made by saturating dried 
coltsfoot or other lea^•es with a strong solution of camphor, 
and rollintr them in the form of ciorars. 


i^EECE's Chieatta Pills. Extract of chirayta 2 drs., dried 

carbonate of soda 1 scruple, p. ginger 15 grs. Mix, and 

divide into 36 pills. Two twice a day. 
Segnauld's Pectoral Paste. Pectoral flowers (mullein, 

coltsfoot, catsfoot, and red poppies mixed) 16 oz., boiling 

water 3 lbs. ; infuse, strain, and add to tli£ clear liquor 6 

lbs. of clean gum Arabic ; dissolve by a gentle heat, and 

evaporate to a proper consistence, adding towards the end, 

6 drs. of tinctiu'e of balsam of Tolu. 
Reynold's Gout Specific. It is supposed to be a wine of 

Retalenta. It is said to be prepared from the seeds of the 

Ervum lens. See Dietetic Articles. 
Riga Balsam foe BsrisES. Mix 4 oz. of spirits of wine 

\^'ith 1 dr. of compound tincture of benzoin, and 2 drs. of 

tincture of saffron. 
Rigollot's Mustaed Leaves. An admii-able and cleanly 

substitute for mustard poultices. They appear to consist 

of flour of mustard attached to paper by some glutinous 

material. See Charts Siuapis, B. P. 
Robinson's (Dr.) Stimulating Puegative Pills. Watery 

extract of aloes 1 di'., balsam of Peru 10 grs., oil of caraway 

10 drops, scammony i dr. Mix, and divide into 20 pills : 

2 or 3 when required. 
Roche's Embeocation. Olive oil, with half its weight of 

oil of cloves and oil of amber. — Dr. Paeis. 
Rog£'s Magnksian Puegative. — Calcined magnesia 1 oz., 

carbonate of magnesia ^ oz., citric acid 3^ oz., sugar, 

rubbed with a few drops of essence of lemon, 6^ oz. To 

form Aerated Magnesian Lemonade, put i of the powder 

into a soda-water bottle nearly filled with water, and cork 

it securely. 
Rousseau's" Deops. See Vinum Opii Fermentatione Para- 

tum. Pocket Formulary. 
RusriNi's Styptic. It contains (according to Dr. A. T. 

Tliomson) gallic acid, sulphate of zinc, spirit, and rose- 

Ryan's Essence op Coltsfoot. Tincture of balsam of Tolu 

2 oz., compound tincture of benzoin 2 oz., spirit of wine 

4 oz. — Geay. 
RYJiEE'a Tincture. A tincture of capsicum, camplior, 


cardamom, rhubarb, aloes, and castor, in proof sjjirit, with 
a small quantity of sulphuric acid. — Dr. Paris. (The 
inventor states that it is impregnated with an aerial acid.) 

Salts, Mineral. See Waters, FACTiTiors Mineral, 
further on. 

Scott's Pills. See Anderson's Pills. 

Scott's Plaster. This appears to be a carefully prepared 
Emp. Plumbi, spread on calico. If it contain resin, the 
quantity is probably less than in Emp. Eesinse. 

Seidlitz Powders (iu separate powders). One contains 2 drs. 
of powdered Eochelle salts, and 40 grs. of bicarbonate of 
soda ; the other powder is p. tartaric acid 35 grs. 

Seidlitz Powder, in one bottle. Note. — The powders are 
all to be thoroughly dried separately, at a gentle heat — 
the potassio-tartrate of soda (Soda tartarata) at a tempera- 
ture not exceeding 110° F. ; the others not higher than 
120°. Take of potassio-tartrate of soda, dried, 15 oz., 
tartaric acid, dried, 5 oz. (or citric acid 4f oz.), dry 
bicarbonate of soda 6 oz. Mix, and keep in a well-closed 
bottle. Dose, 3 drs. Or, mix two parts of bitartrate of 
soda with one part of bicarbonate of soda. Keep dry. 
The above have no resemblance to the natm'al water of 
Seidlitz. See Waters (Mineral), page 198. 

SiNAPiNE Tissue. A substitute for mustard poultices. 
Sheets of paper impregnated with essence of mustard and 
tincture of capsicum. 

Singleton's Golden Ointment. Orpiment mixed with 
lard to the consistence of an ointment. 

" There appears to be some mistake in this statement, as 
that sold us under this name had nearly the same compo- 
sition as the ointment of nitric oxide of mercury of the 
Pharmacopoeia. It did not contain a trace either of 
arsenic or sulphur." — CoOLET. 

Soda Powders. These usually contain in one paper 30 grs, 
of bicarbonate of soda, and in the other 25 grs. of tartaric 
acid (or 24 of citric acid). For sherbet, lemonade, and 
ginger-beer powders, see Beterag-es, in another di^dsion 
of this work. 

Smellome's Eye-Ointment. Prepared verdigris 30 grs.; 
levigate with 30 drops of olive oil, and add 1 oz, of 
resinous cerate. 


Speediman's Pills. Rhubarb, aloes, myrrh, and extract of 
chamomile, of each 60 grs. ; oil of chamomile 12 drops. 
Mix, and divide into 4-grain pills. 

Solomon's Balm of Gilead. An aromatic tincture, of 
which cardamoms form a leading ingredient, made with 
brandy. — Dr. Pabis. It is thought to contain cantha- 

Solomon's ANXi-iMPETiaiNES is said to be a solution of 
corrosive sublimate. 

Smith's (Dr. Hugh) Stomachic Pills. Aloes, rhubarb, 
aromatic powder, gum sagapenum, of each 1 dr. ; oil of 
mint and oil of cloves, of each 10 drops ; balsam of Peru 
q. s. In 5-grain pills ; 2 to 4 every night. 

Solution of Copaiva. See Sol. Copaibas Alkalin. Pocket 

SpiLSBrRY's Anti-scoebutic Drops. Corrosive sublimate 
2 drs. (not 2 oz., as misprinted in the eighth edition of Dr. 
Paeis's Pharmacologia), precipitated sulphuret of anti- 
mony 1 dr., gentian 2 drs., orange-peel 2 drs., red sanders 
1 dr., proof spirit 16 fluid oz. ; digest and strain. — Dr. 
Paeis. We are informed that this incorrect. Another 
formula is — Levigated crocus metallorum 18 cb's., corrosive 
sublimate 1.35 grs., red sanders I2- drs., gentian 6 drs., 
orange-peel 6 drs., brandy 48 fluid oz. ; digest for 10 days, 
shaking frequently, and strain ; dose, 5 to 60 drops. 

Sqttiee's Elixie. Opium 1 oz., camphor 1 oz., spu-it of 
aniseed (compound) 4 pints, tincture of serpentaria 1 pint, 
water 4 pints, tincture of ginger \ oz. Some recipes add 
a little aurum musivum. 

Standeet's Red Mixture. Carbonate of magnesia 4 drs., 
powdered rhubarb 2 drs., tincture of rhubarb 1^ oz., tinc- 
ture of opium 1 dr., oil of aniseed 24 drops, essence of 
peppermint 30 drops, water 1^ pints ; mix. A popular 
remedy for bowel complaints in the West of England. 

Standeet's Stomachic Candy. Cardamom seed, ginger, 
rhubarb (all in fine powder), each 4 drs., lump sugar 4 oz., 
water 6 drs. ; boil together, stirring constantly till the 
sugar is dissolved, then pour it into a proper mould. 

Steedman'b Soothino Powdees. These appear, by analysis, 
to contain calomel, about 1 grain in each, also a trace of 
morphia, with sugar, 


Stbee's Opodeldoc. 1. Rectified spirit a quart, Castile soap , 
5 oz., camphor 21 oz., oil of roseniarv 2i drs., oil of origa- 
num 5 drs., sol. weaker ammonia -4 oz. ; digest till dissolved, 
and pour while warm into wide-mouthed bottles. 

2. Rectified spirit 8 pints o. m., white soap 20 oz., cam- 
phor 8 oz., water of ammonia 4 oz., oil of rosemary 1 oz., 
oil of horsemint 1 oz. : dissolve the soap in the spirit by a 
gentle heat, and add the other ingredients. Bottle whilst 
warm. — Phil. Coll. of Phaeiiact. 

SrorGHTOx's Elixie. 1. Gentian 36 oz., serpentary 16 oz., 
dried orange-peel 24 oz., calamus aromaticus 4 oz., rectified 
spirit and water, of each 6 gallons, old measure. 

2. Gentian 4 lbs., orange-peel 2 lbs., cochineal 2 drs., 
cardamom seed 1 oz., rectified spirit 8 gallons. 

Stoeet's Woem Cakes. Calomel 1 scrapie, jalap 1 dr., 
ginger 2 scruples, sugar 1 oz., cinnabar to colour, syrup 
q. s. to form 10 cakes. 

Steuve's Lotiox foe HoopiyG-CoroH. Emetic tartar 
60 grs., water 2 oz., tincture of cantharides 1 oz. 

Swaim's YEEMiFuaE. Worm seed 2 oz., valerian, rhubarb, 
pink root, white agaric, of each 1^ oz. ; boil in sufficient 
water to yield 3 quarts of decoction, and add to it 30 drops 
of oil of tansy, and 45 drops of oil of cloves, dissolved in 
a quart of rectified spirit. (American remedy.) 

SyDENHAii's Liquid LAUDA^■UM:. See Vinum Opii, Pocket 

Ta^'JOEE Pills. See Piluls Arsenici, Pocket Formulary. 

Thibaut's Balsam for wounds. Digest flowers of St. John's 
wort, one handful, in i pint rectified spirit, then express 
the liquor, and dissolve in it myrrh, aloes, and di'agon's 
blood, of each 1 dr., with Canada balsam ^ oz. 

TiNCTTJEE OF QciNiNE (Abosiatic). See Tinct. Quinise, 
Pocket Formulary. 

Tissot's Pfegatite Powdees. Jalap, rhubarb, senna, and 
soluble cream of tartar, equal quantities. Dose, 2 to 6 
drachms. Used in Normandy. 

Tuelington's Balsam. Rectified spirit 8 old wine pints, 
benzoin 12 oz., liquid styrax 4 oz., socotrine aloes 1 oz., 
balsam of Peru 2 oz., myrrh 1 oz., angelica-root i oz., 
balsam of Tolu 4 oz., extract of liquorice 4 oz. ; digest 10 
days ayid strain.— Peil. Coil. OF Phaem. The certified 


copy of the original recipe is more complex, containing 
three times as many ingredients. 

Valangix^s Solution of Solvent Mineral. Arseuious 
acid (which has been mixed with chloride of sodium, and 
resublimed) 30 grs., hydrochloric acid 90 grs., distilled 
water 1 oz. ; dissolve, and add distilled water to make up 
30 fluid oz. Dose, from 3 drops, increased very gradually 
to 10. See Liquor Arsenic! Hydrochloricus (L.), Pocket 

Venlo's Vegetable Syrup. It is supposed to be a decoc- 
tion of burdock, mint, dandelion, senna, &c., boiled with 
sugar, and a small portion of solution of sublimate 

Walker's Jesuit's Drops. See Jesuit's Drops, above. 

Warburg's Fevee Tincture. See Tinct. Warburgii, 
Pocket Formulary. 

Ward's Paste. The same as Confectio Piperis Nigri of the 
London Phtirmacopceia. 

Ward's White Drops. To 16 oz. of strong nitric acid add 
gradually 7 oz. of subcarbonate of ammonia ; let it stand 
2 or 3 hours ; then put it into a bolt-head which it will 
only half fill, and to each 16 oz. put 4 oz. of pure quick- 
silver, and digest by a sand heat till the solution is com- 
plete ; then gently increase the heat, and add a little more 
quicksilver at intervals till it will dissolve no more ; then 
evaporate it in a glass or earthern dish placed in sand, till 
a pellicle appears, and set it aside to crystallize. Dissolve 
1 lb. of the drained salt in 3 lbs. of rose-water by the heat 
of a sand-bath. 

Ward's Essence foe the Headache. Spirit of wine 2 lbs., 
roche alum in fine powder 2 oz., camphor 4 oz., essence of 
lemon ^ oz., strong water of ammonia 4 oz. ; stop the bottle 
close, and shake it daily for 3 or 4 days. 

Ward's Red Pill. Glass of antimony levigated with a 
fourth of its weight of dragon's-blood, made into a mass 
with wine, and divided into pills of a grain and a half 
each ; one pill is a dose, on an empty stomach. In foul- 
ness of the stomach and bowels, and obstinate rheumatic 

Ward's Dropsy Purging Powder. Jalap 1 lb., cream of 
tartar 1 lb., red bole 1 oz. ; mix ; dose, from 30 to 40 grs., 


ill brotli or warm beer, repeated for 2 or 3 days, or ofteiier 

if necessary. 
Waed's Sweating Powdee. Similar to Dover's Powder. 
"Ward's Washing Powdee. See Washing Compounds, 

Trade Chemicals. 
Waenee's CoEDiAL. Rhubarb 1 oz., senna ^ oz., safPron 

1 dr., liquorice ^ oz., raisins 1 lb., brandy 3 pints j digest 

for a week, and strain. 
Waets, to cube. Strong acetic acid, or dichloi^cetic acid, 

applied in tubes made for the purpose. Caution is required, 

that the sound flesh may not be involved. 
Waewick's (Countess of) Powdees. Scammony 2 oz., calx 

of antimony 1 oz., cream of tartar ^ oz. Mix. 
Webster's Diet Deine. A decoction of syrup of sarsa- 

parilla, betony, dulcamara, guaiacum, liquorice, sassafras, 

turmeric, and thyme. 
Webster's (Lady) Pills. See Pilula Aloes cum Mastiche, 

Pocket Formulary. 
Whitehead's Essence op Mustaed. See Essence of 

MtrsTAED for an imitation of it. 
Whitehead's Mustaed Pills. Dr. Paris says they consist 

of balsam of Tolu and resin. 
Whitelaw's Ethereal Tinctuee of Lobelia. See Tinc- 

tura Lobelias Etherea, Pocket Formulary. 
Wilson's Gout Tinctuee. A vinous infusion of colchicum. 
Wisdom's (Dr.) Ete-Watee. Bole 2 oz., sulphate of zinc 

i oz., camphor (dissolved in 1| oz. of rectified spirit) i oz., 

water a gallon. 
Weight's Peael Ointment. Wliite precipitate 8 oz., ex- 
tract of lead a pint ; rub together and add 7 lbs. of white 

wax melted Avitli 16 lbs. of olive oil. — Phaem. Jouenal. 
WoEM Lozenges. See Ching's Lozenges, and .Storey's 

WoEM Cakes, above ; see also Ti-ochisci Anthelmintici, 

and Trochisci Santonini, Pocket Formulary. 
Young's Pueging Deine. Carbonate of soda in crystals 

2^ drs., cream of tartar in crystals 3 drs., water 8 oz. ; put 

it into a stone bottle, and secure the cork. 



M^ tax |r0hmn| tijm. 


These require the aid of the powerful machine employed by 
soda-water manufacturers, to charge the waters strongly 
M'ith carbonic acid gas. The gas is made from whiting 
and diluted sulphuric acid, and is forced by a pumj) into 
the watery solution. Sometimes the gas is produced by 
the mutual action of the ingredients introduced into the 
bottle of water, which must be instantly closed ; but this 
method is found practically inconvenient, and is only 
adopted in the absence of proper apparatus. The quantity 
of gas introduced is directed, in the French and American 
pharmacopoeias, in most cases, to be 5 times the volume of 
liquid. For chalybeate and sulphuretted waters, the 
water should be previously deprived of the air it naturally 
contains, by boiling, and allowing it to cool in a closed 

There are various manufacturers of aerated-water 
machines, and of syphon bottles for holding these waters 
when made. The names and addresses of these makers may 
be found in any trade directory. 

Simple Aerated Watee. Carbonic acid gas ivater. Water 
charged with five or more volumes of carbonic acid gas, as 

Alkalinb Aeeated Watees. Aerated soda and potash 
waters should be made by dissolving a drachm of the car- 
bonated alkali in each pint of water, and charging it 
strongly with carbonic acid gas. But the soda water of 
the shops generally contains but little (or no) soda. 

Aeeated Magnesia Water, Tliis is made of various 


Murray's and Dikxefoed's Fluid Magnesia may be thus 
made : — To a boiling solution of 16 oz. of sulphate of 
magnesia in 6 pints of water, add a solution of 19 oz. of 
crystallized carbonate of soda in the same quantity of 
water ; boil the mixture till gas ceases to escape, stirring 
constantly ; then set it aside to settle ; pour off the liquid, 
and wash the precipitate on a cotton or linen cloth, with 
warm water, till the latter ptvsses tasteless. Mix the pre- 
cipitate, without di'ying it, with a gallon of water, and force 
carbonic acid gas into the mixture luider strong pressure, 
till a complete solution is effected. The Eau Magnesienne 
of the French codex is about a third of this strength ; and 
we have met with some prepared in this country not much 
stronger. See Liquor Maokesi^ Caebonatis, B. P. 

Carbonated Lime Water. Carrara Water. Lime water 
(prejiared from lime made by calcuiing Carrara marble) 
is supersaturated by strong pressure, with carbonic acid ; 
so that the carbonate of lime at first thrown down is re- 
dissolved. It contains 8 grains of carbonate of lime in 10 
fluid oz. of water. 

Aerated Lithia Water. This may be conveniently made 
from the fresh precipitated carbonate, dissolved m car- 
bonated water, as directed for fluid magnesia. Its ant- 
acid and antilithic properties promise to be useful. See 
Liquor Lithi.e Effertescbns, B. P. 


The following afford approximate imitations of these waters. 
The earthy salts, with the salts of iron, should be dis- 
solved together in the smallest quantity of water. The 
other ingredients to be dissolved in the larger portion of 
the water, and the solution impregnated with the gas. 
The first solution may be then added or be previously 
introduced into the bottles. The salts, unless it is other- 
wise stated, are to be crystallized. 

Baden Water. Chloride of magnesium 2 grs., chloride of 
calcium 40 grs., perchloride of iron 5 gr. (or 3 minims of 
the tincture), chloride of sodium 30 grs., sulphate of soda 
10 grs., carbonate of soda 1 gr., water 1 pint, carbonic acid 
gas 5 volumes. 


Carlsbad Wateh. Chloride of calcium 8 grs., tincture of 
chloride of irou 1 drop, sulphate of soda 50 grs., carbonate 
of soda 60 grs., chloride of sodium 8 grs., carbonated water 
1 pint. 

Egee. Carbonate of soda 5 grs., sulphate of soda 4 scruples, 
chloride of sodium 10 grs., sulphate of magnesia 3 grs., 
chloride of calcium 5 grs., carbonated water a pint. (Or it 
may be made without apparatus thus : — Bicarbonate of 
soda 30 grs., chloride of sodium 8 grs., sulphate of magnesia 
3 grs., water a pint ; dissolve and add a scruple of dry 
bisulphate of soda, and close the bottle immediately.) 

Ems. Carbonate of soda 2 scruples, sulphate of potash 1 gr., 
sulphate of magnesia 5 grs., chloride of sodium 10 grs., 
chloride of calcium 3 grs., carbonated water a pint. 

Maeienbad. Carbonate of soda 2 scruples, sulphate of soda 
96 grs., sulphate of magnesia 8 grs., chloride of sodium 15 
grs., chloride of calcium 10 grs., carbonated water a pint. 
(Or, Bicarbonate of soda 50 grs., sulphate of soda 1 dr., 
chloride of sodium 15 grs., siilphate of magnesia 10 grs. ; 
dissolve in a pint of water, add 25 grs. of dry bisulphate of 
soda, and cork immediately.) 

Maeienbad Pueging Salts. Bicarbonate of soda 5 oz., 
dried sulphate of soda 12 or., dry chloride of sodium 1^ oz., 
sulphate of magnesia, dried, 2 oz., dried bisulphate of soda 
2i oz. Mix the salts, previously dried, separately, and 
keep them carefully from the air. 

Pullna Watee. Sulphate of soda 4 drs., sulphate of mag- 
nesia 4 drs., chloride of calcium 15 grs., chloride of mag- 
nesium (dry) a scruple, chloride of sodium a scruple, 
bicarbonate of soda 10 grs., water slightly carbonated, one 
pint. One of the most active of the purgative saline 

PcLLNA Watee, without the Machine. Bicarbonate of 
soda 50 grs., sulphate of magnesia 4 drs., sulphate of soda 
3 drs., chloride of sodium a scruple ; dissolve in a pint of 
water ; add, lastly, 2 scruples of bisulphate of soda, and 
close the bottle immediately. 

Salts foe making PuClna Watee. Dry bicarbonate of 
soda 1 oz., exsiccated sulphate of soda 2 oz., exsiccated 
suljthate of magnesia Ij oz., dry chloride of sodium 2 drs.. 


dry tartaric acid f oz. (or rather, dry bisulpliate of soda 
1 oz.) 
Seidlitz Water. Tliis is usually imitated by strongly 
aerating a solution of 2 drs. of sulphate of magnesia in a 
pint of water. It is also made with 4, 6, and 8 drs. of 
the salts to a pint of water. 
Seidlitz Powdek. The common seidlitz powders (see back) 
do not resemble the water. A closer imitation would be 
made by using effloresced sulphate of magnesia uistead of 
the potassio-tartrate of soda. A still more exact compound 
will be the following : — Effloresced sulphate of magnesia 2 
oz., bicarbonate of soda | oz., dry bisulpliate of soda i oz., 
mix and keep in a close bottle. 
Seidschtitz Water. Sulphate of magnesia 3 drs., chloride 
of calcium, nitrate of lime, bicarbonate of soda, of each 8 
grs., sulphate of potash 5 grs., aerated water 1 pint. 
Seltzer Water. Chloride of calcium and chloride of mag- 
nesium, of each 4 grs. ; dissolve these in a small quantity of 
water, and add it to a similar solution of 8 grs. of bicarbonate 
of soda, 20 grs. chloride of sodium, and 2 grs. of phosphate 
of soda : mix, and add a solution of 4 of a gr. of sulphate 
of iron ; put the mixed solution into a 20-oz. bottle, and 
fill up with aerated water. But much of the Seltzer water 
sold is said to be nothing more than simple carbonated 
water, containing a little chloride of sodium. An imita- 
tion of Seltzer water is also made by putting into a stone 
Seltzer bottle, filled with water, 2 drs. bicarbonate of soda, 
and 2 drs. of citric acid in crystals, corking the bottle 
immediately. Sodaic powders are sometimes sold as Seltzer 
Vichy Water. Bicarbonate of soda 1 di-., chloride of sodium 
2 grs., sulphate of soda 8 grs., sulphate of magnesia 3 grs., 
tincture of chloride of ii'on 2 drops, aerated water a pint. 
DoRVAULT directs 75 grs. of bicarbonate of soda, 4 grs. of 
chloride of sodium, | gr. sulphate of iron, 10 grs. sulphate 
of soda, 3 grs. sulphate of magnesia, to a pint of water. 
By adding 45 grs. (or less) of citric acid an effervescmg 
water is obtained. 

M. SOTJBEiRAN, relying on the analysis of LoNGCHAMrs, 
imitates Vichy water by the following combination : — Bi- 
carbonate of soda 135 grs., chloride of sodium 2i grs., 


cryst. chloride of calcium 12 grs., sulphate of soda 11^ grs., 
sulphate of magnesia 3| grs., tartrate of iron and potash 
■g- gr., water 2 J^ pints (1 litre), carbonic acid 305 cub. inches 
(5 litres). Dissolve the salts of soda and iron in part of 
the water, and add the sulph. magues., and then the 
chlor. calc. in the remaining water. Charge now with 
the carbonic acid gas under pressui'e. 
Vichy Salts. Bicarbonate of soda 1^ oz., chloride of so- 
dium 15 grs., effloresced suljihate of soda 1 dr., effloresced 
sulphate of magnesia 1 scruple, dry tartarised potash and 
iron 1 gr., dry tartaric acid 1 oz. (or dry bisulphate of 
soda) ; mix the powders, previously dried, and keep them 
in a close bottle. 


Sea Water. Chloride of sodium 4 oz., sulphate of soda 2 
oz.. chloride of calcium ^ oz., chloride of magnesium 1 oz., 
iodide of potassium 4 grs., bromide of potassium 2 grs., 
water a gallon. A common substitute for sea water as a 
bath is made by dissolving 4 or 5 oz. of common salt in a 
gallon of water. 

The following mixture of dry salts may be kept for the 
immediate production of a good imitation of sea water. 
Chloride of sodium (that obtained from evaporating sea 
water and not recrystallized, in preference) 85 oz., efflo- 
resced sulphate of soda 15 oz., dry chloride of calcium 4 
oz., dry chloride of magnesium 16 oz., iodide of potassimn 
2 di's., bromide of potassium 1 gr. Mix, and keep dry. 
Put 4 or 5 oz. to a gallon of water. 

Balaetjc Wateb. Chloride of sodium 1 oz., chloride of 
calcium 1 oz., chloride of magnesium i oz., sulphate of 
soda 3 drs., bicarbonate of soda 2 drs., bromide of potassium 
1 gr., water a gallon. Chiefly used for baths. 


Simple Sulph peetted Waters. Pass sulphuretted hy- 
drogen into cold water (previously deprived of air by boil- 
ing, and cooled in a closed vessel), till it ceases to be 


Aix-la-Chapelle Wateb. Bicarbonate of soda 12 grs., 
chloride of sodium 25 gi'S-, chloride of calcium 3 grs., sul- 
phate of soda 8 grs., simple sulphuretted water 2^ oz., water 
slightly carbonated 17i oz. 

Baeeges Watee. (Cauterets, Bagneres de Luchon, Eaux 
Bonnes, St. Sauveur, may be made the same). Crystallized 
hydrosulphate of soda (see Soda Hydrosulphas- (Sodii 
Sulphidum Crystallizatum), P. F.), crystallized carbonate 
of soda, and chloride of sodium, of each 1^ grs., water 
(freed from air) a pint. A stronger solution for adding to 
baths is thus made : — Crystallized hydrosulphate of soda, 
crystallized carbonate of soda, and chloride of sodium, of 
each 2 oz., water 10 oz. : dissolve. To be added to a com- 
mon bath at the time of using. 

Naples Watee. Crystallized carbonate of soda 15 grs., 
fluid magnesia 1 oz., simple sulphuretted water 2 oz. 
aerated water 16 oz. Introduce the sulphuretted water 
into the bottle last. 

Habeogate Watee. Chloride of sodium 100 grs., chloride 
of calcium 10 grs., chloride of magnesium 6 grs., bicar- 
bonate of soda 2 grs., water 18^ oz. Dissolve, and add 
simple sulphuretted water 1^ oz. 

Haebogate Salts. See Dr. Duffin's (back). 


Simple Chalybeate Water. Water freed from air by 
boiling 1 pint, sulphate of iron ^ gr. 

Aeeated Chalybeate Wateb. Sulphate of iron 1 gr., 
carbonate of soda 4 grs., water deprived of air, and charged 
with carbonic acid gas, a pint. Dr. Pebeiea recommends 
10 grs. each of sulphate of iron and bicarbonate of soda to 
be taken in a bottle of ordinary soda-water. This is 
equivalent to 4 grs. of carbonate of iron. 

Beightox Chalybeate. Sulphate of iron, chloride of sodium, 
chloride of calcium, of each 2 grs., carbonate of soda 3 grs., 
carbonated water 1 pint. 

Btjssang, Fobges, Peotixs, and other similar waters, may 
be imitated by dissolvmg from ^ to ^rds of a grain of sul- 
phate of iron, 2 or 3 grs. of carbonate of soda, 1 gr. of sul- 
phate of magnesia, and 1 of chloride of sodium, in a pint 
of aerated water. 


MoxT d'Or Water. Bicarbonate of soda 70 grs., sulphate 
of iron | gr., chloride of sodium 12 grs., sulphate of soda 
■J gr., chloride of calcium 4 grs., chloride of magnesium 

2 grs., aerated water a pint. 

Passt Water. Sulphate of iron 2 grs., chloride of sodium 

3 grs., carbonate of soda 4 grs., chloride of magnesium 2 
grs., aerated water a pint. 

PrEMoyT Water. Sulphate of magnesia 20 grs., chloride 
of magnesium 4 grs., chloride of sodium 2 grs., bicarbonate 
of soda 16 grs., sulphate of iron 2 grs., Carrara water a 


Mialhe's Aerated Chalybeate Water. Water a pint, 
citric acid 1 dr., citrate of iron 15 grains ; dissolve, and 
add 75 grs., of bicarbonate of soda. 

Trosseau's Martial Aerated Water. Potassio-tartrate 
of iron 10 grains, artificial Seltzer water a pint. 

BorcHARDAT's GASEOUS PURGATIVE. Phosphate of ^oda 
1^ oz., carbonated water a pint. 

Mialhe's Ioduretted Gaseous Water. Iodide of potas- 
sium 15 grs., bicarbonate of soda 75 grs., water a pint ; 
dissolve and add sulphuric acid, diluted with its weight of 
watei", 75 grs. Cork immediately. 

Dupasquier's Gaseous Water of Iodide of Iron. So- 
lution of iodide of iron (containing -j^oth of dry iodide) 
30 grs., syrup of gum 2-^ oz., aerated water 17^ oz. 

[See also Magnesia, Carrara, and Lithia Waters (back) 
Bewley's Chalybeate Water, (back). Also Aqua Benzoata 
Aerata, and Aq. Magnesite Citratis, Pocket Formulary.^ 




The simple distilled waters ' (without spirit) used in per- 
fumery are chiefly those of rose, elder, and orange llower, 
cinnamon, &c. The points requisite to be attended to 
are, that the flowers be fresh, gathered after the sun has 
risen and the dew exhaled, and that sufiicient M'ater be 
used to prevent the flowers being burned, but not much 
more than is sufiicient for this piarpose. The quantities 
usually directed are — Roses 15 lbs., water 40 lbs. : distil 
15 lbs. for single, and the same water witli 15 lbs. of fresh 
roses, for double rose-water. 

Orange-flowers 12 lbs., water 36 lbs. : distil 24 lbs. for 
double orange-flower water ; this with an equal quantity of 
distilled water forms the single. The flowers should not 
be put into the still till the water nearly boils. 

Eldee-plower Water, Acacia- fxowee \Vatee, and Beax- 
PLOWER Water, are prepared in the same manner as rose- 

Eaij de Naphre. This water is distilled in Languedoc from 
the leaves of the bigarade, or bitter-orange tree, but the 
preparation sold in England under this name is often 
prepared thus : — Orange flowers 7 lbs. ; fresh yellow peel 
of the bigarade or Seville orange \ lb., water 2 gallons ; 
macerate for 24 hours, and distil 1 gallon. Ordinary 
orange flower water is very generally sold for this water. 

CiN'XAMON Water. A gallon should be distilled from 20 oz. 
of fine cinnamon (bruised) and 2 gallons of water. 

Strawberry Water. Bruised strawberries 4 lbs., water a 
gallon ; macerate for 12 hours, and distil 6 pints. 

The waters prepared -nathout distillation (by diffusing 
the essential oils through water, after mixing them with 
chalk, magnesia, or silica, or dissoh-ing them in spirit) are 


seldom so proper for perfumery purposes as those distilled 
from the flowers &c., Eose-water, made from the otto 
(8 drops of otto, previously mixed with a drachm of pre- 
cipitated chalk, diffused in a quart of distilled water, and 
afterwards distilled or simply filtered), is to most persons 
very agreeable ; but that distilled from the flowers should 
also be kept, as it is by others greatly preferred. 
Musk Water, Violet' Water^ jEs'sAiiiNE Water, and 
some others, are made by mixing the spirituous essences 
with distilled or pure soft water. A usual proportion is 

2 drs, to a pint. 


The spirit employed in perfumery should be selected with 
great care ; it should be perfectly free from grain-oil and 
other impurities. It should be 60'over-proof, unless other- 
^\-ise directed. The distillation should be effected by steam, 
or by the heat of a water-bath. 

Simple Spirit op Lavender. Lavender-flowers (free from 
stalks) 2 lbs., rectified spirit 8 pints, water 16 pmts ; distil 
8 pints. 

Smyth's Distilled Essence of Lavender. Essential oil 
of English Lavender 4 oz., rectified spirit (60° over-proof) 
5 pints, rose-water 1 pint : mix, and distil 5 pints for sale. 

Essence of Lavender (by mixture). Essential oil of la- 
vender 3i oz., rectified 'spirit 2 quarts, rose-water f pint, 
tincture of orris i pint. 

Lavender Water. English oil of lavender 4 oz., spirit 

3 quarts, rose-water 1 pint ; mix and filter. (A commoner 
and cheaper preparation may be made with the French 

Odoriferous Lavender Water. 1. Rectified spirit 5 gal- 
lons, essential oil of lavender 20 oz.. oil of bergamot 5 oz., 
essence of ambergris ^ oz. Sometimes 4 oz. of orris-root 
are digested with the above. — Mr. Brande. 

2. Oil of lavender, oil of bergamot, of each 3 drs. ; 
otto of roses and oil of cloves, of each 6 drops ; musk 2 
grs., true oil of rosemary 1 dr., honey 1 oz., benzoic acid 
2 scruples ; rectified spirit a pint , distilled water 3 oz, — 
Dr. Pereira. 


3. Oil of lavender 2 oz., essence of ambergris 1 oz., eau 
de Cologne a pint, rectified spirit a quart. 

4. Oil of lavender 4 drs. ; essence of bergamot, essence 
of lemon or cedrat, and otto of roses, of each 20 minims ; 
essence of ambergris 1 dr., rectified spirit 3 pints, orange- 
flower water 4 oz., rose (or distilled) water 12 oz., burnt 
alum 20 'grs. Agitate .frequently, 'then let it stand in a 
cool place for some days before filtering. 

5. Oil of lavender 3 drs., oil of bergamot 20 drops, neroli 
6 drops, otto 6 to 12 drops, essence of cedrat 8 or 10 drops, 
essence of musk 20 drops, rectified spirit 28 fluid oz., 
distilled (or orange-flower) water 4 oz. 

6. Eatt de Lavande aux Milleflenrs. Oil of lavender 
4 drs. ; essence of bergamot, essence of lemon, otto of roses, 
of each 12 drops ; essence of millefleurs 3 drs., essence of 
ambergris 1 dr., rectified spirit a pint and a half. 

7. English oil of lavender 8 oz. ; essence of musk 4oz. ; 
essence of ambergris and oil of bergamot of each 1^ oz., 
rect. spirit 2 gallons. Mix well. Very fine. — Mr. Cooley. 

Note. — Tlie oil of lavender in all the above should be the 
finest English oil ; that which first comes over is said to 
be the most fragrant. It should be kept for 12 months 
before using, either alone or mixed with an equal quantity 
of alcohol. Some makers prefer a mixture of old and new 
oil. Tlie lavender water improves by age. 
Eatj de Cologne — Cologne Watee. 1. English oil of 
lavender, oil of bergamot, oil of lemon, oil of neroli, of 
each 1 oz. ; oil of cinnamon ^ oz. ; spirit of rosemary, and 
spirit of balm {Eau des Carmes), of each 15 oz. ; highly 
rectified spirit 7^ pints. Let them stand together for 14 
days, then distil in a water-bath. — Dr. Geantillk. 

2. Oil of bergamot, citron, and lemon, each 3 oz. ; oils 
of rosemary, neroli, and lavender, of each 1 J oz. ; oil of 
cinnamon 6 drs., rectified spirit 24 pints ; compound spirit 
of balm {Eau des Carmes, below) 3 pints, spirit of rose- 
mary 2 pints. Mix, and after standing a week, distil 24 
pints. — Feench Phaemacopceia. 

3. Essential oils of bergamot, of lemon, of neroli, of 
orange peel, and of rosemary, each 12 drops; cardamom 
seeds a dr. ; rectified spirit a pint. It improves by age.— 


4. Essence of bergamot 40 minims, essence of lemon 
45 minims, oil of rosemary 6, oil of orange 22, neroli 12 
minims, highly rectified spirit 6 oz. 

5. Alcohol a pint, oil of bergamot, oil of orange-peel, 
true oil of rosemary, cardamom seeds, of each a drachm ; 
orange-flower water a pint. Mix, and distil a pint by 
water-bath. — Dr. A. T. Thomson. 

Eau des Caemes— Eatt de Melisse. Fresh flowering 
balm 24 oz. ; yellow rind of lemon, cut fine, 4 oz., cin- 
namon, cloves, and nutmeg (bruised), of each 2 oz. ; cori- 
ander seed (braised) 1 oz., dried angelica root 1 oz., recti- 
fied spirit a gallon. Macerate for 4 days, and distil in a 
water- bath. 

Aquebusade Water. 1. Sage, angelica, wormwood, savory* 
sweet fennel, hyssop, balm, sweet basil, rue, thyme, mar- 
joram, rosemary, angelica seed, origanum, red ' calamint, 
creeping thyme, lavender flowers, of each 10 oz.; sweet 
flag root 5 oz., rectified spirit 2 gallons, water q. s. Distil 

3 gallons. 

2. (Simplified.) Balm, rosemary, thyme, calamus root, 
angelica seeds, lavender flowers, of each 4 oz. ; rectified 
spirit 3 pints, water q. s. Macerate for a day, and distil 

4 pints. 

QPEEN OF Huxgart's Wateb. Spirit of Rosemary. 1. 
Rosemary tops 2 lbs. rectified spirit a gallon, water q. s. 
Distil carefully 1 gallon. 

2 Spirit of rosemary (as No. 1) 4 pints, orange-flower 
water ^ pint, essence of neroli 4 drops. 

3. Simple spirit of rosemary 3 pints, simple spirit of 
lavender a pint, rose-water 8 oz. 

Eau d'Ange. Flowering tops of myrtle 16 oz., rectified 
spirit a gallon ; digest, and distil to dryness in a water- 
bath. Or dissolve ^ oz. essential oil of myrtle in 3 pints 
of rectified spirit. Mr. Gray gives under this name a 
water without spirit : Water 2 pints, benzoin 2 oz., storax 
1 oz., cinnamon 1 dr. cloves 2 drs. Calamus a stick, cori- 
ander seeds a pinch : distil. 

HoKKT Water. Uau de Miel. 1. Rectified spirit 8 pints, 
oil of cloves, oil of lavender, oil of bergamot, of each \ oz., 
musk 15 grs., yellow sanders shapings 4 oz., digest for 8 


days, and add 2 pints each of orange-flower and rose 

2. Oil of sautal 20 drops, tincture of musk 2 J oz., 
essence of bergamot 2^ oz., oil of cloves 5 drs., oil of 
lavender 5 drs., rose-water 2 pints, orange-flower water 2 
pints, spirit of wine a gallon ; mix, and filter. 

3. (With honey.) White honey 8 oz., coriander seed 
8 oz., fi'esh lemon-peel 1 oz., cloves f oz., nutmeg, benzoin, 
sty rax calamita, of each 1 oz., rose and orange-flower 
water, of each 4 oz„ rectified spirit 3 pints ; digest for a 
few days, and filter. Some receipts add 3 drs. of vanilla, 
and direct only ^ oz. of nutmeg, storax, and benzoin. 

4. Coriander seeds 7 lbs., cloves 12 oz., storax 8 oz., 
nutmeg 8 oz., fresh lemon-peel 10 oz., calamus root 6 oz., 
rectified spirit 15 puits ; macerate for a month add water 
q. s. Distil 22 pints, and add to the distilled spirit 5 pints 
of orange-flower water, 24 drops otto of roses, a dr. of am- 
bergris, and 2 oz. of fine vanilla ; macerate for a week, and 
filter. The dry ingredients to be bruised or cut small. 

Lisbon Watee. To rectified spirit, 1 gallon, add the essen- 
tial oils of orange-peel and lemon-peel, of each 3 oz., and 
of otto of rose ^ oz. — Piesse. 

Eatj de Portugal. To rectified spirit, 1 gallon, add the 
following essential oils : of orange peel 6 oz., of lemon- 
peel 1 oz., of lemon-grass i oz., of bei'gamot 1 oz., and of 
otto of rose ^ oz. — Piesse. 

Eat: d'Elegance. Spirit of jessamine 2 lbs., spirit of styrax 
1 lb., spirit of hyacinth 1 lb., spirit of star aniseed 4 oz., 
tincture of balsam of Tolu 4 oz., tincture of vanilla 2 oz. 

Eau de Maeeschale. Spirit of wine 1^ pint, spirit of 
jessamine 1 oz., essence of bergamot | oz., essence of 
violets 1 oz. 

Eau Eomaine. Spirit of jessamine 3 quai'ts, tincture of 
vanilla 1 quart, spirit of acacia flowers 1 quart, spu-it of 
tiiberose a pint, essence of ambergris 2 oz,, tincture of 
benzoin 8 oz. 

Eau de Millefleues. Eectified spirit 2 pints, balsam 
of Peru i oz., essence of bergamot i oz., oil of cloves 5 oz., 
essence of neroli J dr., essence of musk 1 dr., orange- 
flower water 2 oz. 

Eau Spiritueuse D'Hi:LiOTEOPE. Vanilla 3 drs., double 


orange-flower water 6 oz., rectified spirit a quart ; mace- 
rate for 3 days, and distil in a water-bath. It may be 
coloured with cochineal. But the essence d'heliotrope of 
some perfumers appears, by the colour, not to have been 

Eau d'Ispahax. Essential oil of bitter orange-peel 4 oz., 
oil of rosemary 3 drs„ oil of mint 1 dr., oil of cloves 7 
scruples, neroli 7 scruples, spirit of wine 14 pints. It is 
used for the same purposes as eau do Cologne. 

Eait sans Paeeille. Essential oil of lemon | oz., of ber- 
gamot 2| drs,. of cedrat i oz., rectified spirit 6 pints, 
spirit of rosemary 8 oz. ; mix. Some authorities state 
that it is improved by distillation. 

Eau de Bouquet de Floee. 1. Honey water 2 oz., tinc- 
ture of cloves 1 oz„ tincture of calamus, of lavender, and 
of long cyperus, each i oz. ; eau sans pareille 4 oz., spirit 
of jessamine 9 drs., tincture of orris 1 oz., spirituous 
essence of neroli 20 drops. 

2. Essence of violets | oz., spirit of rosemary | oz., 
essence of lemon 1 dr., rectified spirit 24 oz., rose water 

3. Spirit of rosemary 8 oz., rectified spirit 8 oz., 
lavender water 2 oz., oil of neroli 5 drops, cloves 1 dr., 
orris root 3 drs., rose water 2 oz. ; digest for a few days, 
and filter. 

EsPEiT DE Bouquet. English oil of lavender, oil of cloves 
and of bergamot, of each 2 drs. ; otto of roses and oil of 
cinnamon, of each 20 drops ; essence of musk 1 dr., recti- 
fied spirit, a pint ; mix. 

Eau de Rosceees. Spirit of roses 4 pints, spirit of jessa- 
mine a pint, spirit of orange flowers a pint, spirit of 
ciicumber 2J pints, spirit of celery seed 2i pints, spirit of 
angelica root 2f pints, tincture of benzoin (simple) f of a 
pint, balsam of Mecca a few drops. 

Eau d'Ambee Eoyale. Rectified spirit 2 lbs., tincture of 
musk seed 1 lb., essence of ambergris 1 oz., tinctm'e of 
musk 1 oz., reduced with a proper proportion of orange- 
flower water. 

EsPEiT DE Suave. Spirit of jessamine Ih pint, spirit of 
acacia flowers 1^ pint, spirit of wine 12 oz., spirit of 
tuberose 8 oz., oil of cloves 1^ drs. oil of neroli 30 di-ops, 


essence of bergamot 1^ drs., tincture of musk 1 oz., rose- 
water 12 oz. 

Paefum DE3 Eois. Spirit of wine 2 gallons, styrax 6 oz.j 
benzoin 16 oz., aloes-wood 8 oz., spirit of rose 2 pints, 
spirit of orange-flowers 2 pints, essence (tincture) of am- 
bergris 8 oz., tincture of musk 8 oz., tincture of vanilla 
16 oz. 

Odos Delectabilis. Rose water, orange-flower water, eacli 
4 oz., oil of lavender, oil of cloves, each 1 dr., oil of ber- 
gamot 2 drs. musk 2 grains, rectified spirit a pint. 

New Mown Hat. Ext. Tonquin Bean 2 pints; ext, 
geranium 1 pint ; ext. orange-flower 1 pint ; ext. rose 1 
pint ; ext. rose triple 1 pint ; ext. jessamine 1 pint. 

Nbw Victoeia Pkefume. Cloves, bruised, 2 scruples; 
vanilla, cut small, 1 dr. ; oil of cedrat 4 drops, oil of santal 

1 dr„ cinnamon 12 grs., oil of verbena 8 drops, otto of 
roses 8 drops, oil of neroli 20 drops, oil of lavender 1 dr., 
ambergris 16 grs., tincture of musk 1 dr., rectified spirit 
16 fluid oz ; digest for a few days, and filter. Or the 
whole except the musk and ambergris may be distilled in 
a water-bath, and these added to the distilled spii'it. 

Another similar perfume is — Vanilla ^ dr., yellow San- 
ders 6 drs., cloves No. 16, neroli 3 drops, oil of lavender 
6 drops, rectified spirit 4 oz. : digest for 3 days, and add 
4 oz. of orange-flower water, water q. s. ; distil 6 oz., add 
essence of musk 1 dr. 
Jockey Club Bouqcet. Piessb. Extract of orris root 

2 pints, esprit de rose triple 1 pint, esprit de pommade 
de rose 1 pint, extract of pomade of cassia, and tuberose, 
i pint each, extract of ambergris ^ pint, oil of bergamot 
i oz. 

EsPEiT DE Rose. 1. Macerate the fresh and picked flowers 
of the most fragrant varieties of the rose, with half their 
weight of rectified spirit, and distil in a water-bath to 

2. Dissolve from 20 to 30 drops of otto in a pint of 
rectified spirit. A stronger solution, 6 or 8 drops of otto 
to an ounce of alcohol, forms essence of roses, or esprit de 
rose triple. 

3. It is also made by agitating and digesting the spirit 


with the perfumed oil or pomade of roses. See Extracts, 

Esprit de Jasmix. Eau de Jasmin. It is prepared by 

digesting and agitating pure spirit with oil or pomade of 

jessamine made with the flowers. (See Extracts further 

on.) Spirit of jonquil, tuberose, ^^olet, &e., may be ob- 
tained by the same process. 
Esprit de Violette. Eau de Violette. Macerate 5 oz. of 

tine orris root in a quart of rectified spirit for some days, 

and filter. It may also be obtained by the method just 

mentioned, or by mixing the product of both processes. 
Eau ODORAXTE DE Jasmin. Compound spirit of Jessamine; 

for the handkerchief. Spirit of jessamine 1 pint, rectified 

spirit 1 pint, essence of ambergris a dr., simple tincture of 

benzoin a dr. 
Spirit of Orange-flowers, Spirit of Elder-flowers, 

AND Spirit of Acacia-flowers. Fresh flowers 1 lb., 

rectified spirit 4 lbs., or pints, water 2 lbs. ; distil 4 lbs., 

or pints. 
Spirit of Orange-peel, of Lemon-peel, of Citron, and 

OF Bergamot. Fresh peel 1 lb, rectified sjiirit 6 lbs. ; 

macerate for 2 days, and distil in a water-bath to dryness. 

Or, 1 oz. of the essential oil to 2 pints of spirit. 
Spirit of Cinnamon, of Cloves, of Nutmeg, and of 

Calamus Root. Macerate 1 lb. of the bruised drug with 

8 lbs., or a gallon, of rectified spirit, and distil as the last. 
Spirit of Cucumbers. Cucumbers grated 8 lbs., rectified 

spirit 1 lb. ; distil 2 lbs. 
Spirit of Rosewood. Rosewood shavings 1 lb. spirit 6 

lbs., water 2 lbs. ; distil 6 lbs. It is also made by adding 

the essential oil of rhodium to spirit. 
Spirit of Angelica. Dried angelica root 1 lb., rectified 

spirit a gallon. Macerate, and distil by water-bath to 

Spirit of Balsam of Peru. Balsam 3 parts, spirit 15 

parts, carbonate of potash 1 part ; macerate for 3 days, 

and distil by water-bath. 
Spirit of Steawberries, and of Raspberries. Fresh 

fruit 3 lbs., rectified spirit 1 lb. ; macerate 24 hours, and 

distil 2 lbs. 


The following tinctures are chiefly used in the compound 

perfumes : 
Tincture of Baisam of Perit, and of Toltj. Digest 1 

oz. of the balsam -u-ith 8 of rectified spirit for some days, 

shaking it occasionally, then filter. Tincture of benzoin 

in the same manner. 
Tincture of Angelica. One part of the dried root to 8 

of rectified spirit ; as the last. 
Tincture (common spirituous essence) of Lemon, Citron, 

Orange, and Bekgamot. An ounce of the fresh peel to 

i pint of spirit, as above. 
Tincture of Musk Seed. Essence d' Amhrelte. Digest 

16 oz. of bruised musk seed with 3 phits of rectified 

spirit for a month, and filter. 
Tincture of Musk. China musk 2 drs., rectified spirit 16 

oz. For more compound tinctures of musk, see Essence 

OF Musk, below. 
Tincture or Essence of Ambergris. Guibourt directs 

1 dr. of ambergris to be digested with a gentle heat in 

3 oz. of rectified spirit. Another form is : Ambergris 

1 dr., carbonate of potash 1 dr., spirit of roses 4 oz. 
(or rectified sj^irit 4 oz., otto 6 drops). Some recipes 
direct a weaker solution : 24 grs. of ambergris to 8 oz. 
of spirits. For other formula?, see Essence, below. 

Tincture of Civet. Bruise J oz. of civet, i oz. of amber- 
gris, and the same of sugar candy, and macerate in a 
quart of rectified spirit for 6 weeks, in a warm place ; 
then filter. 

Tincture or Essence of Vanilla. Vanilla cut very small 

2 oz., rectified spirit a pint ; infuse for 2 or 3 weeks. This 
is sometimes distilled, forming spirit of vanilla. 

Tincture of Rhodium. Eosewood 1 lb., rectified spirit 3 
or 4 pints ; macerate for 3 or 4 weeks, and filter. 

Essence (or Tincture) of Vetiter. Take 2 lbs. of the 
root of vittie vayr cut small, and moisten it with a little 
water ; let it macerate for 24 hours, then beat it in a 
marble mortar. Macerate it in svifficient spirit to cover 
it, for 8 or 10 days, and strain \\ith pressure : filter through 
paper, and in a fortnight repeat the filtration. Some- 
times the root is moistened with diluted sulphuric acid, 
which, after maceration, is neutralized by adding a sufla- 


cient quantity of chalk, and the whole digested with spirit. 
The tincture when strained off, is distilled, and forms 
(with the addition of essence of balm and of roses) Essence 
de Vetiver double. 

Essence of Patchouli. Dried patchouli (pucha pat) 1 oz., 
rectified spirit a pint. It is generally combined with other 

Extracts (cxtraits) are spirituous solutions of the odorous 
principle of flowers, obtained, indirectly, by agitating and 
digesting oils and pomatums which have been perfumed 
by' tlie flowers (see Huiles Antiques, under _Hais Cos- 
metics) with pure spirit. This is repeated with fresh oil 
until the spirit is sufliciently perfumed. Wlien the same 
oil or pomade is treated with fresh spirit, inferior extracts, 
numbered 2, 3, &c., are obtained. These preparations are 
chiefly made in France. 


Lily of the Valley, are prepared by the process just 

EXTEAIT DE Bouquet. Spirit (extrait) of jessamine 2 
quarts, extract of violets 2 quarts, spirit of acacia-flowers, 
of rose, and of orange-flowers, each a quart, spirit of car- 
nations a quart, flowers of benzoin | oz., essence of am- 
bergris 1 oz. 

Exteait de Maeeschale. Essence of millefleurs Ih oz., 
essence of jessamine 1 oz., essence of musk ^ oz., essence 
of ambergris i oz„ essence of cedrat 20 drops, essence of 
violets 1 oz., sweet spirits of nitre 50 drops, true oil of 
rosemary 20 di-ops, rectified spirit 6 oz., oil of neroli 48 
drops. Set aside for some time. 

Compound Essences. Some of these contain a preparation 
of the substance whose name they bear, while others are 
fictitious or imitative, being made up of a variety of other 
essences and volatile oils. Several of the formula are those 
of M. Piesse. 

Essence of Ambeeoeis. This name is applied both to 
the simple and compound tinctures of ambergris. See 
Tincture of Ambeegeis, above. Other formula may 
here be given. 

1. Ambergris 4 oz., musk 2 oz., tincture of musk seed 
7 pints. Digest with a gentle heat. 


2. Ambergris 1 dr., musk i dr., oil of cinnamon 18 
drops, oil of rhodium 12 drojjs, rectified spirit 8 oz., 
spirit of roses 4 oz., carbonate of potash li drs., digest in 
a warm place for a few days, and strain. See also Essence 


Essence of Cbdeat. Dissolve 2i oz. of oil of cedrat in 1 
gallon of spirit, and add bergamot i oz. 

Essence of Clove Pink. Esprit de rose $ pint, de fleur, 
d'orange, and de fleur de cassie, each \ pint, esprit de vanille 
2 oz., oil of cloves 10 drops. 

Cologne Essence. Oil of bergamot 2 drs., essence of lemon 
i dr., essence of cedrat i dr., true oil of rosemary 15 
drops, rectified spirit (or spirit of balm) li- oz. 

Essence of Heliotrope. Spirituous extract of vanilla 
i pint, of French rose-pomatum t pint, of orange- flower, 
pomatum 2 oz., of ambergris 1 oz. ; add 5 drops of the 
essential oil of almonds. 

Essence of Honeysuckle. Spirituous extract of rose poma- 
tum 1 pint, of violet 1 pint, of tuberose 1 pint ; extracts 
of vanilla and tolu, of each 1 pint ; oil of neroli 10 drops, 
essential oil of almonds 5 drops. 

Essence of Hovenia. Rectified spirit 1 quart, rose-water 
i pint, essential oil of lemons ^ oz., otto of roses 1 dr., 
oil of cloves i dr., oil of neroli 10 drops. 

Essence of Jonquil. Spirituous extract of jasmine pomade 
1 pint, of tuberose 1 pint, of orange-flower ^ pint ; add 
extract of vanilla 2 oz. 

Essence of Lilt of the Valley. Mix the following 
extracts : of tuberose J pint, of jasmin 2 oz., of orange- 
flovyer 2 oz., of vanilla 3 oz., of cassia i pint, of rose-water 
i pint : add 3 drops of hydrocyanic acid. Keep together 
for a month, then bottle. 

Essence of Magnolia. Spirituous extract of orange-flower 
pomatum 1 pint, of rose pomatum 2 pints, of tuberose 
pomatum ^ pint, of violet pomatum ^ pint ; essential oil 
of citron 2 drs., and essential oil of almonds 10 drops. 

Essence of Mignonette. Digest 1 lb. of pomade de rezeda 
in rectified spirit 1 pint for i4 days ; filter off, and add 1 
oz. of extrait d'ambre. 

Essence of Moss Rose. Spirituous extract of French rose 

I pomatum 1 quart, esprit de rose triple 1 pint, extract of 


orange-flower pomatum 1 pint, of ambergris ^ pint, and 
of musk 4 oz. 
Essence of Myrtle. Take the following extracts : of 
vanilla i pint, of roses 1 pint, of orange-flower ^ pint, of 
tuberose i pint, of jasmin 2 oz. Mix, and allow to stand 
for a fortnight. 
Essence of Musk. Tincture of musk, of various strengths. 
The formula given above (tincture of musk) is that of the 
Dublin Pharmacopoeia, 1826. Guibouet directs 1 part 
of musk to 12 of proof spirit. Other authorities direct 
a smaller quantity of musk. A French work gives the 
following: Musk in the [bag, cut small 6 oz., civet 1 oz., 
tincture of musk seed 7 pints ; digest in the sun, or in a 
warm place for 2 months. 
Essence of Patchouli. Oil of patchouli 1^ oz., otto of 

rose i oz., rectifled spirit 1 gallon. 
Essence of Rondelbtia. Essence of bergamot, essence of 
lemon, oil of cloves, each 1 dr., otto of roses 6 drops 
rectified spirit 1 pint. 
Essence Rotale. Ambergris 1 dr., civet 15 grs., musk 30 
grs., carbonate of potash 20 grs., ; triturate together, and 
add oil of cinnamon 10 drops, oil of rhodium, and of ueroli, 
6 drops, otto of roses 6 drops, rectified spirit t pint ; 
digest, and filter. 
Essence of Sweet Beiar. Spirituous extracts of French 
rose pomatum 1 pint, of cassia and orange flowers, each 
i pint, esprit de rose i pint, with oils of neroli and lemon- 
grass, of each ^ dr. 
Essence of Sweet Pea. Essences of tuberose, orange- 
flower, and rose-pomatum, each i pint, with essence of 
vanilla 1 oz. 
Essence of Veebena. Essential oil of verbena 2 drs., rec- 
tified spirit 4 oz., essence of ambergris ^ tlr., orange-flower 
water ^ oz. ; mix. Another form is : Oil of verbena ^ oz., 
essence of vanilla 40 drops, rectified spirit 4 oz. : mix and 
Essence of White Lilac. Spirituous extract of tuberose 
pomade 1 pint, of orange-flower pomade | pint ; add essen- 
tial oil of almonds 3 drops, and extract of civet i oz. 
Fbangipanni Bouquet. Essence of vetiver 3 oz., ol. neroli 
15 minims, oil of sandal wood i dr., otto of rose 40 minims. 

222 perfttmeut 

essence of musk 3 drs., esprit de \-iolette 3 oz., essence of 
ambergris 6 drs., rectified spirit to make up 20.oz. — Piesse. 

Essences toe Scenting Pomatuu. — Millefleiir : Oil of 
lemon 3 oz., essence of ambergris 4 oz., oil of cloves 2 oz., 
oil of lavender 2 oz. — Coivslip : Essence of bergamot 
16 oz., essence of lemon 8 oz., oil of cloves 4 oz., oil of 
orange-peel 2 oz., oil of jessamine 2 drs., eau de bouquet 
2 oz., oil of bitter almonds 16 drops. — For general use : 
Essence of bergamot 16 oz., essence of lemon 8 oz., true 
oil of origanum and oil of cloves, each 2 oz., oil of orange- 
peel, li oz. 

MiSTUBA Odobata. Rectified spirit 48 oz., tincture of 
benzoin 4 oz., tincture of vanilla i oz., tincture of musk 
i oz., balsam of Peru i oz., oil of cloves, of mace, and of 
cinnamon, eacb ^ oz., oil of bergamot 1 oz., oil of cedrat 2 

oz. — GlESEE. 

Scent pob Snuff. Oil of lavender 2 drs., essence of lemon 
4 drs., essence of bergamot 1 oz. : mix. [1 dr. with 8 oz. of 
fine Scotch snuff, constitutes Queen's Snuff.] 

[The following Essences, Spirits, and Waters are given as 
specimens of some of the cheaper perfumes, as made in 

Essences (SpiEiTTjoirs). 

JEssenee {Spirituous) of Neroli. Spirit of wine J pint, 

orange-peel cut small 3 oz., orris-root in powder, 1 dr., 

musk 2 grs. ; let it stand in a warm place for 3 days, and 

Essence of Lemon, Spirit of wine \ pint, fresh lemon-peel 

4 oz., as above. 
Essence of Bergamot. Spirit of wine i pint, bergamot-peel 

4 oz. ; as above. 
JEssenee of Violets. Spirit of wine i pint, orris root 1 oz. 
Essence of Cedrat. Essence of bergamot (as above) 1 oz., 

essence of neroli 2 drs. 
Essence of Jessamine. Essence of violets 1 oz., essence of 

cedrat 2 drs. 
Essence of Music. Spirit of wine ^ pint, musk 16 grs. 
Essence of Ambergris. Spirit of \\\ne i pint, ambergris 

24 grs. 


Essence of Cloves. Spirit of wine \ pint, bruised cloves 

1 oz. Other essences in the same manner. 


Spirit of Rose. Spirit of wine ^ pint, otto 6 drops. 

Spirit of Jessamine. Spirit of \\-ine i pint, essence of 

jessamine (as above) a drachm. 
Spirit of Orange. Spirit of wine i pint, essence of orange, 

or neroli, a drachm. 
Spirit of Lavender. Spirit of wine \ pint, essential oil of 

lavender a drachm. 
Spirit of Musk. Spirit of wine | pint, essence of musk a 


Others in a similar manner. 

Simple Watees. 

Rose Wafer. Distilled or rain water | pint, spirit of roses a 

Jessamine Wafer, Husk Water, Violet, Orangeflower 

Water, ^c, by adding a dr. of the above spirits to § pint 

of water. 


AMMO^'IATED Cologne Wateb. A fragrant and reviving 
substitute for Spirit of Sal Volatile. Chloride of ammonium 
5 drs., carbonate of potash 8 drs., eau de Cologne 12 oz., 
essential oil of ccdrat and of bergamot, of each 15 drops 
(dissolved in an oz. of rectified spirit), orange-flower water 
8 oz. ,• mix, and carefully distil 15 or 16 oz. 

Eau de Luce. Mastic 2 drs., rectified spirit 9 drs. ; dissolve 
and add to the clear tincture 30 drops of oil of lavender, 
10 drops of bergamot, and a pint of strong water of am- 
monia. This is more agreeable than the compound of the 
London Pharmacopoeia, which, however, should always be 
used when prescribed medicinally. 

EssEXCE FOB Smelling Salts. 1. English oil of lavender 
and essence of bergamot, of each a dr., oil of orange-peel, 
or of cedrat, 8 drops, oil of cinnaHion 4 drops, oil of neroli 

2 drops, alcohol, and strongest water of ammonia, of each 
2 oz. (or 4 oz. of strong ammoniated alcohol). 


2. Amnioniated alcohol 12 fluid oz. English oil of 
lavender, essence of bergamot and essence of lemon, of 
each a dr., cloves ^ dr., camphor ^ oz., macerate for a week, 
and filter. — Mr. Maggs. 

3. Essence of ambergris and musk 4 drs., otto of rose 
20 drops,'oil of lavender 1 dr., ammoniated alcohol 10 oz. ; 
mix, and add strongest liquor ammonia 10 oz. — Phaem. 

Smelling Salts. Sesquicarbonate of ammonia 40 oz., broken 
into small pieces not larger than a filbert, put into 
an air-tight ^-gallon jar ; pour over it 20 oz. strong solu- 
tion of ammonia (sp. gr. 'SSO) pre^'iously perfumed accord- 
ing to taste, and immediately fix on the lid of the jar, tak- 
ing care that it is properly secured. Keep in a cool place, 
opening and stirring with a stiff spatula every other day for 
a week ; allow it now to remain for 2 or 3 weeks, at the end 
of which time it will have become hard. — Mr. Allchin. 

Godfeey's Smellixg Salts. Dr. Paris says it is prepared 
by resubliming volatile salts with carbonate of potash 
and a little spirit of wine. It is usually scented with an 
alcoholic solution of essential oils. 


Abomatic Spieit of Vinegae. 1. strong acetic acid 
16 oz., camphor 1 oz. ; when dissolved, add 1 oz. each of 
essential oils of cloves, lavender, and lemon. This is said 
to resemble Hexet's. 

2. Glacial acetic acid 8 oz., true oil of rosemary 20 grs., 
of bergamot 15 grs., of lavender 9 grs., of cloves 24 grs., 
neroli 4 grs., cinnamon 20 ; dissolve the oils iu 2 drs. of rec- 
tified spirit. For another formula, see Pocket Formulary. 

Aromatic Vinegars are made in France by infusing various 
flowers, &c., in distilled or finest wine vinegars, with or 
without the addition of spirit. Others are made by dis- 
tillation. As they are seldom required in this country, a 
few examples only will suflice. 

Rose Vinegae. Red roses, picked and dried, J lb., best 
vinegar 8 lbs. ; macerate for a fortnight, with occasional 
stirring, and strain ; then filter. 

Lavender Vinegae. Fresh lavender-flowers 1 lb., vinegar 


12 lbs. Macerate as above. It is sometimes distilled, 
drawing off 8 lbs. 

Distilled Rose Vinegar. Pale roses, dried, 2 lbs., distilled 
vinegar 8 lbs. Distil tliree fourtlis by sand-bath, and add 
2 lbs. of spirit of roses. It is occasionally coloured mtb 
cochineal, and used as a cosmetic. 

Toilet Vinegar. Dried rose leaves 4 oz., otto of roses 90 
drops, rectified spirit 10 oz., dilute acetic acid 40 oz. Ma- 
cerate in a closed vessel for 14 days. — Piessb. 

ViNAiGRE DE BuLLT. Esseucc of bergamot 40 drops; 
essence of lemon 30 drops j oil of rosemary 20 drops ; oil 
of balm 6 drops ; oil of cloves, oil of lavender, oil of 
neroli, of each 4 drops ; dissolve in rectified spirit 9 oz. ; 
then mix with tincture of benzoin ; tincture of sty rax ; 
tincture of Tolu, of each 1 drachm ; distilled water 14 oz. ; 
diluted acetic acid 5 oz. Mix well, let stand, and filter. — 

Orange-flower Vinegar. Fresh orange-flowers 1^ lbs., 
distilled ^■inegar 8 lbs., spirit of orange-flowers 1 lb. Mace- 
rate for 12 days, strain and filter. 

ViNAiGRE Virginal. Benzoin in powder 2 oz., rectified 
spirit 8 oz., white vinegar 2 lbs. Digest the benzoin in the 
spirit for 6 days, strain, and add the vinegar to the residue ; 
macerate for 6 days, decant, and add to it the tincture. 
The next day filter. It is chiefly used aa a cosmetic. 

ViNAiGRE DE COLOGNE. To each pint of eau de Cologne 
add an ounce of strong acetic acid. 

ViNAiGRE DE JouvENCE. Spirit of cucumber 4 oz., spirit of 
storax 2 lbs., strong vinegar 8 lbs. 

ViNAiGRE DE Flore. Equal parts of rose vinegar, viuaigre 
virginal, and orange-flower vinegar. 

ViNAiGRE DES Qfatre Volkurs. Thieves' vinegar. Dried 
tops of large and small (pontic) wormwood, rosemary, 
sage, mint, rue, lavender-flowers, of each 2 oz. j calamus 
root, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, garlic, of each i oz. ; 
camphor \ oz., concentrated acetic acid 2 oz., strong vine- 
gar 8 lbs. Macerate the herbs, &c., in the vhicgar for a 
fortnight, strain, press, and add the camphor dissolved in 
the acetic acid. 




Pot Poueei. 1. Gather in the season the petals of the most 
fragrant kinds -of roses (witli which other flowers may be 
mixed, at pleasure, in small proportion) ; spread them out 
to dry in the sun, or in a warm room, sprinkle a little salt 
on them, and put them into a jar, in which they are to be 
kept covered up till wanted for use. Take of these rose 
leaves 4 oz., dried la^■ender flowers 8 oz., vanilla, cloves, 
storax, and benzoin, all bruised, of each 1 dr., ambergris 
20 grs., otto of roses 20 drops. Mix. 

2. Calamus root, yellow sanders, of each 1 oz., vanilla 

1 dr., musk 8 grs., ambergris 8 grs., cascarilla 1 oz., orris 
root 3 oz., cinnamon 1 oz., lavender flowers 1 oz., styi'ax 

2 drs., benzoin 2 drs., cloves 2 drs., coriander seed 1 oz., 
nutmegs 2 di's., otto of roses 20 drops, oil of neroli 10 
drops. The dry ingredients to be coarsely bruised. Mix. 

3. French. Take the petals of the pale and red roses, 
puiks, violets, moss rose, orange-flower, lily of the valley, 
acacia flowers, clove-gilliflowers, mignonette, heliotrope, 
jonquils; with a small proportion of the flowers of myrtle, 
balm, rosemary, and thyme ; spread them out for some 
days, and as they become dry, jDut them into a jar with 
alternate layers of dry salt, mixed with orris powder, till 
the vessel is full. Close it for a month, then stir the whole 
up, and moisten it with rose-water. 

4. Orris root 16 oz., dried acacia flowers 8 oz., dried 
bergamot-peel 2 oz., musk seed i oz., cloves \ oz. ; pound 
them together. 

5. Dry rose leaves quickly on a ■nicker tray, in a warm 
place. To a pint of the petals add powdered orris 2 oz., 
pimento i oz., cascarilla 5 oz., musk 2 grs., otto of roses 2 
drops, bruised cloves i oz. 

Sachets oe Scent Bags. The pot pourrl No. 2 or 4 may 
be put into bags, alone, or with any perfume to increase 
the strength. Or coarsely powdered patchouli (a herb of 
the Pogostemon genus) may be used, with any other per- 
fume. Or the bags may be filled with carded cotton mixed 
with any of the following scented powders. 




Eose. Powdered starch 3 oz., carmine to colour, otto of roses 

3 drops, orris powder 1 oz. 
Violet. Orris powder 4 oz., essence of bergamot 20 drops, 

essence of ambergris 20 drops. 
Foudre de Chi/pre. Oak-moss is macerated in clean water 

for a day or two, and strongly pressed in a cloth ; it is 

then moistened with rose-water mixed with a third of 

orange-flower water for two days, pressed, and pulverized. 

It serves as a basis for other perfumes, the power of which 

it is said to increase. 
Poudre a la Mousseline. Orris root 16 oz., coriander-seed 8 oz., 

musk-seed 2 oz., cinnaiuon, cloves, and sandal-wood, each 

1 oz., star aniseed i oz., mace, ginger, and violet ebony, 
of each 2 oz. ; beat them to a powder, and pass through a 

Foudre a I' (Fillet . Red roses 48 oz., orris 48 oz., cloves 6 oz., 
bergamot-peel 20 oz., musk seed 24 oz., cinnamon 6 oz., 
long cyperus 6 oz., pale roses 26 oz., di'ied acacia flowers, 
orange flowers, and clove stalks, of each 8 oz. 

Foudre a la Mareschale. Oak moss in powder 2 lbs., plain 
starch powder 1 lb., cloves 1 oz., calamus 2 oz., cyperus 2 
oz., rotten oak-wood powder 2 oz. ; mix. — Gray. 

Fortugal. Dried orange-peel 1 oz., di'ied bergamot-peel, | oz., 
cloves 4 oz., storax 1 dr., ambergi'is 8.grs., benzoin a drachm, 
musk seed a scruple, musk 4 grs. 

Scented Balls, Medallioxs, &c. Fastilles de Toilette 
odorantes. These consist of perfumed powdei-s made into 
a paste, and moulded to any desired form before drjing. 
The above scent powders beaten up with mucilage of tra- 
gacanth wiU answer the purpose ; or the following : 

1. Beat the fresh petals of red roses in an iron mortar 
to a smooth paste, with a few drops of essence of amber- 
gris, or other suitable perfume. It becomes sufficiently 
smooth to take a polish. 

2. Powdered orris, oak moss, and poudre de mousseline, 
of each 1 oz; lamp-black, or other colour, q. s. Form 
into a stiff paste, with a .jelly made of 6 di's. of isinglass, 

2 of tragacanth, and boiling water q. s. Make it into beads 

223 fElllPtJMEEY 

by means of a pill-maclihie, or into any ornamental form 
by moulds. 

3. Jessamine flowers 1 oz., powdered gum tragacauth 
^ oz., vermilion 2 oz. 

4. Yellow Sanders, cyperus, cloves, balsam of Peru, of 
each 2 drs., benzoin and styrax, of each 5 oz., musk and 
civet, of each 10 grs., oil of cinnamon 5 drops, oil of rhodium 
15 drops, essence of jessamine 1 dr., neroli 20 drops, ivory- 
black li oz., Paris plaster 2 oz., mucilage of tragacanth, 
made with rose-water, q. s. As the last. 

Pastils for BuRNiNa. 1. Yellow sanders 3 oz., styrax 
4 oz., benzoin 3 oz., olibanum 6 oz., cascarilla 6 oz., am- 
bergris 1 dr., Penivian balsam 2 drs., myrrh 1^ oz., nitre 
li oz., oil of cinnamon 20 drops, oil of cloves ^ dr., otto 
30 to 60 drops, oil of lavender I4 drs., balsam of Tolu l.J 
oz., camphor ^ oz., strong acetic acid 2 oz., charcoal 3 lbs. ; 
mix s. a., and beat into a paste with mucilage of traga- 
canth, and form into conical pastils. A second and third 
quality may be made by using, respectively, 4 and 5 lbs. 
instead of 3 lbs. of charcoal. These are highly approved, 
but rather expensive. 

2. {Clous fumans of the French Codex.) Benzoin 2 oz., 
balsam of Tolu \ oz., labdanum 1 dr., yellow sanders | oz., 
light charcoal 6 oz., nitre 4 oz., mucilage of tragacanth 
q. s. Reduce the substances to powder, and form into a 
paste with the mucilage, and divide into small cones with 
a tripod base. 

3. Powdered cascarilla 8 oz., benzoin 4 oz., yellow san- 
. ders 2 oz., styrax calamita 2 oz., olibanum 2 oz., charcoal 

3 lbs., nitre IJ oz., mucilage of tragacanth q. s. 

4. Benzoin 1 oz., cascarilla 1 oz., myrrh 8 scruples, 
oil of nutmeg 4 scruples, oil of cloves 4 scruples, nitre 
I oz., charcoal 6 oz., mucilage of tragacanth, q. s. — Dr. 

1XCE5SE. 1. Styrax 2\ oz., benzoin 12 oz., musk 15 
grains, burnt sugar \ oz., frankincense 2i oz., gum traga- 
canth Ij oz., rose water sufficient to form a miss; to be 
divided into small tablets. — Mr. Astley. 

2. Powdered cascarilla 2 oz., myrrh, styrax, benzoin, 
thus. Burgundy pitch, each 1 oz. Mix.— Mr. Atkins 
(Ph. Journal), 


Mouth Pastils. Dry compounds for perfuming or correct- 
ing the breath. 

Caehou Aromatise. The basis of these compounds, as 
the name implies, was originally catechu, with which va- 
rious odoriferous substances were combined. The cutechn, 
however, is now often omitted. The following are some 
of the most approved forms : 

_ 1. Extract of liquorice 3 oz., oil of cloves 1\ drs., oil of 
cinnamon 15 drops : mix, and divide into one-grain pills, 
and silver them. 

2. (M. Chetaxlier's.) Chocolate powder and ground 
coffee, of each 1^ oz., prepared charcoal 1 oz., sugar 1 oz., 
vanilla (pulverised with the sugar) 1 oz., mucilage q. s. 
Make into lozenges of any form, of which 6 to 8 may be 
used daily to disinfect the breath. 

3. Caehou de Bologne. Bologna Catechu. Extract of 
liquorice 3 oz., water 3 oz., dissolve by heat in a water- 
bath, and add catechu 1 oz., gum arable i oz. ; evaporate 
to the consistence of an extract, and add (in powder) 
i dr. each of mastic, cascarilla, charcoal, and orris : remove 
from the fire, and add oil of peppermint i dr., essence of 
ambergris and essence of musk each 5 drops ; roll it flat 
on an oiled marble slab, and cut it into very small lozenges. 
[Or it may be rolled into small pills, and silvered. They 
are chiefly used by smokers.] 

_ 4. Catechu 7 drs., orris powder 40 grains, sugar 3 oz., 
oil of rosemary (or of peppermint, cloves, or cinnamon) 4 
drops, or q. s. Proceed as for the last. 

5. Caehou Aromatise. Extract of liquorice and water, 
of each 3^ oz. ; dissolve in a water-bath, and add Bengal 
catechu in powder, 462 gi-ains, and gum arable in powder 
231 grains ; evaporate to an extract, and then Incorporate 
the following substances, first reduced to a fine powder : — 
Mastic, cascarilla, charcoal, and orris root, of each 30 
grains; melt the mass to a proper consistence, remove 
it from the fire, and then add English oil of peppermint 
30 drops, tinctures of ambergris and musk, of each 5 drops ; 
pour it now on an oiled slab, and spread it out, by means 
of a roller, to the thickness of a sixpenny piece. When 
cool, apply some folds of blotting-paper to absorb any 
adherent oil, moisten jthe surface with water, and cover i^ 


with sheets of silver leaf. Allow it to dry, and finally 
divide it into thin strips, and these again into small pieces, 
about the size of a fenugreek seed. — (Journal de Phar- 
Pastils oe Lozenges, with chlorine, for disinfecting the 
breath. 1. Sugar flavoured with vanilla 1 oz., powdered 
tragacanth 20 grs., liquid chloride of soda q. s., any essen- 
tial oil 2 drops. Form a paste, and divide into lozenges 
of 15 grs. each. 

2. Dry chloride of lime 2 drs., sugar 8 oz., starch 1 oz., 
gum tragacanth 1 dr., carmine 2 grs. Form into small 



Aqua Cosmetica. Cosmetic Lotion. 1. Emulsion of bitter 
almoncls 3 oz. ; rose and orange-flower water, of each 
4 oz. ; borax 1 dr., tincture of benzoin 2 drs. ; mix. — Dr. 

2. Elder-flower water a pint, borax ^ oz., can de Cologne 
1 oz. ; mix. 

Kaltdor. The following is said to resemble Kalydor and 
Gowland's lotion. Bitter almonds blanched 1 oz., cor- 
rosive sublimate 8 grs., rose water 16 oz. 

Milk of Roses. Sweet almonds 5 oz., bitter almonds 
1 oz., rose-water 2^ pints, white curd soap ^ oz., oil of 
almonds i oz., spermaceti 2 oz., white wax i oz., English 
oil of lavender 20 drops, otto of roses 20 drops, rectified 
spirit a pint. Blanch the almonds, and beat them with 
the soap and a little of the rose-water. Melt together the 
oil of almonds, spermaceti, and white wax, and mix with 
the former into a cream, and strain it through fine 
muslin. Then add gradually the remaining rose-water, 
and lastly the spirit, with the essential oils dissolved 

2. A common kind is made by mixing 1 oz. of fine olive 
oil with ten drops of oil of tartar, and a pint of rose- 

3. Bitter almonds 6 drs., sweet almonds 12 drs., blanch, 
dry, and beat up with 1 dr. of Castile soap; gradually 
adding 15 grs. of spermaceti, 30 gi-s. of white wax, and a 
dr. of almond oil, melted together. When thoroughly 
incorporated, add gradually six drops of otto of roses, dis- 
solved in 6 oz. of rectified spirit, and 14 oz. of distilled 

Milk of Cfcumbees. In the same manner as milk of 
roses, substituting juice of cucumbers for the rose-water. 


Milk of Hou8eleee;. As milk of roses, No. 1, substi- 
tuting expressed juice of houseleek for a pint of the rose- 

Alibeet's Cosmhtic. Cucumber pomade (see below) 3 oz., 
almond soap 1 oz., rose water a quart. Mix the pomade 
and soap, ajid add the rose water gradually. 

Siemmeeling's Cosmetic. Make an emulsion with 1 oz. of 
sweet almonds, ^ oz. bitter almonds, black cherry-water 
10 oz. ; and bichloride of mercury 5 grs., tincture of benzoin 
5 drs., lemon iuice i oz. 

Witheeing's (Dr.) Cosmetic. An infusion of horseradish 
in milk. 

Lait Viegtnal. Virgin's Milk. Simple tincture of ben- 
zoin 2 drs., orange-flower water 8 oz. It may be varied by 
using rose or elder-flower water. 

Lait de Feaichette. Double rose-water 8 oz., tincture of 
benzoin 4 drs., balsam of Mecca ^ oz. 

Schcbaeth's Cosmetic Emulsiojt. Almond emulsion (made 
with rose-water) 8 oz., tincture of benzoin 3 drs. 

Italian Cosmetic "Wash. Melilot water 12 oz., tincture of 
benzoin 2 drs. 

AuGrsTiN's. Rose water 8 oz., salt of tartar 2 drs., tincture 
of benzoin 3 drs. 

Kittoe's Lotion foe Feeckles. 1. Chloride of ammonium 
1 dr., spring-wat€r a pint, lavender-water 2 drs. Apply 
with a sponge 2 or 3 times a day. 

2. Sulpho-carbolate of zinc 2 parts, glycerine 25 parts, 
rose water 25 parts, eau de Cologne 5 parts. 

Lemon Ceeam foe Sxtneuens, Feeckles, &c. Sweet cream 
1 oz., new milk 8 oz., juice of lemon, brandy, or eau de 
Cologne 1 oz., alum 1 oz., sugar 1 dr. Boil and skim. 
Buttermilk is used for the same purpose. 

Lemon Emeeocation foe Feeckles, &c. Borax 15 grs., 
lemon juice 1 oz., sugar candy i dr. ; mix the powders with 
the juice, and let them stand in the bottle, shaking occa- 
sionally, till they are dissolved. 


Pommadb de Bbatjt£. Melt together in an earthen vessel 
placed in hot water, white wax IJ drs., spermaceti 2 dis., 


oil of sweet almonds 2 oz., virgin olive oil i oz., oil of 
poppies i oz. ; beat them with a few drops of balsam of 

CucuMBEH Pomatum, for softening and cooling the slcin. 
Clarified lard 4 lbs., veal suet 1 lb., juice of cucumbers 3 
lbs. ; melt the two former together, then beat them up 
assiduously with the juice. Next day, pour off the juice 
that has separated, and add the same quantity of fresh to 
the melted pomade. Repeat this six times, or imtil the 
pomade is sufficiently imbued with the odour of ciicnm- 
bers. Then melt the pomade by a water-bath, and mix 
with it 3 drs. of powdered white starch ; let it settle, and 
before it is too cold, pour it ofP into small pots, taking care 
not to disturb the dregs. See Unguentum Citcumis, 
Pocket Formulary. 

POMMADE d'Hebe. Incorporate together juice of lily-bulbs 

2 oz., Narbonne honey 2 oz., white wax 1 oz., rose-water 

3 drs. ; melt the wax with a gentle heat, and add the other 
ingredients. To be applied at night, and not wiped ofE till 
morning. To remove wrinJcles. Probably cod-liver oil, 
used externally and internally, would be a more successful 
though less agreeable remedy. 

Pate Divine de Venus. Mix equal parts of washed lard, 

fresh butter, and white honey j add balsam of Mecca and 

otto of roses, to perfume. 
PoMMADE DE NiNON. Oil of sweet almonds 4 oz., washed 

lard 3 oz., juice of houseleek 3 oz. ; mix. Softening and 


POMMADE EN Creme. Melt together 1 dr. each of white 
wax and spermaceti, add oil of sweet almonds 2 oz. ; 
pour it into a warm mortar, and gradually stir in 5 oz. of 
rose or other perfumed water, and 1 dr. of tincture of 

Lemon Cbeam. Melt together 2 drs. of spermaceti and 1 oz. 
of oil of almonds; and as it cools, stir in 16 drops of 
essence of lemon. 

Com Cbeam. 1. Oil of almonds 16 oz., white wax 4 oz., 
melt together in an earthen vessel, and when nearly cold, 
stir in, by little and little, 12 oz. of rose water, 
2. Melt together white wax 2 oz., oil of almonds 8 oz., 


and stir in 4 oz. of rose-water. Next day add 6 drops of 
otto of roses. 

3. "WTiite wax and spermaceti, of each ^ oz., oil of 
almonds 4 oz., orange-flower water 2 oz. j mix s. a. 

4. As No. 3, but without the orange-flower water. 

5. Lard 16 oz., white wax 2 oz., olive oil 1 oz., magis- 
tery of bismuth 1 oz. 

6. White wax 1 oz., almond or olive oil 1 oz., rose-water 
1 oz., glycerin 2 drs. 

N.B. Those cold creams are generally preferred for pre- 
sent use which contain rose or other water, but they keep 
longer without them. 

Geantjlated Cold Cream. Melt together 1 oz. each of 
white wax and spermaceti, with 3 oz. of almond oil; 
when a little cooled, pour the mixture into a large 
Wedgewood mortar pre\"iously warmed, and containing 
about a pint of warm water. Stir briskly until the cream 
is M-ell divided, add sufficient otto of roses to scent it, and 
pour the whole suddenly into a clean vessel containing 
8 or 10 pints of cold water. Throw the whole on muslin, 
and shake out as much water as possible. — Mr. Owen, 

PoMMADE Divine. Put 3 lbs. of beef marrow into an 
eartlien vessel, and cover it with cold water, changing 
the water daily for a few days, and usmg rose-water the 
last day; press out the water and add to the marrow, 
styrax calamita, benzoin, Chio turpentine, each 4 oz. ; 
orris powder 1 oz. ; powdered cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, 
of each ^ oz. Place them in a well-tinned vessel in a 
water-bath, and keep the water boiling for three hours ; 
then strain. 

AxMOND Paste FOB THE Skin. 1. Powdered bitter almonds 
4 oz., white of egg 1 oz., beat them well together to a 
smooth paste, with eqvial parts of spirits of wine and rose- 

2. Sweet and bitter almonds, blanched, of each 2 oz. ; 
spermaceti 2 drs., oil of almonds 5 oz. ; Windsor soap 
i oz. ; rose-water 1 oz., or q. s. ; otto of roses, and oil of 
bergamot, of each 12 drops. 

3. (Camphorated.) To either of the above add 2 drs. of 


po-wdered camphor. A few drops of oil of bitter almonds 
may be substituted for the otto and bergamot. 

4. {French.) Blanch 12 oz. of bitter almonds and beat 
them in a mortar with a small quantity of rose or other 
water to a smooth paste; then add 7 oz. of rice flour, 
3 oz. of bean flour, 1 oz. of orris powder, and when per- 
fectly mixed, \ oz. of carbonate of potash dissolved in 
rose-water ; again beat together, and add 3 oz of spiritu- 
ous essence of jessamine, 2 drops of oil of rhodium, and 
1 of neroli. 

Almond and Honey Paste. Fine honey may be added to 
either of the preceding ; or mix 16 oz. of clarified honey 
with 16 oz. of bitter almond powder ; and add gradually, 
in alternate portions, 32 oz. of oil of almonds, and the 
yolks of 5 eggs. 

Honey Paste. Pdte au Miel. It is sometimes made as the 
lastj or by mixing clarified honey with cold cream, or 
some similar compound. 

Camphor Balis, for rubbing on the hands, after washing 
them, to prevent chaps, &c. 1. Melt 3 drs. of spermaceti, 
and 4 drs. of white wax, with 1 oz. of almond oil, and stir 
in 3 drs. of powdered camphor. Pour the compound into 
small gallipots, so as to form hemispherical cakes. They 
may be coloured with alkanet, &c. 

2. Lard 3 oz., white wax 2 oz., camphor \ oz. 

3. Spermaceti 3 oz., white wax 1 oz., olive oil 4 oz. ; 
melt together, and add 1^ oz. of powdered camphor, and 
stir it well. 

■ 4. Melt 3 drs. of spermaceti, and 4 drs. of white wax, 
with 1 oz. of almond oil, and stir in 3 drs. of powdered 

Camphob Ice. Melt 1 dr. of spermaceti with 1 oz. of 
almond oil, and add 1 dr. of powdered camphor. 

Almond Powdee. (Cosmetic.) This is prepared by grind- 
ing the marc or cake left after expressing the oil from 
sweet or bitter almonds. It is sometimes perfumed, and 
mixed \vith other ingredients. It is used for cleansing 
the skin, and is less irritating than soap. 

Almond Wash Po-wdkr. 1. Almond powder (from ex- 
pressed bitter almonds) 16 oz., rice flour 2 oz., powdered 


soap 1 oz., orris powder 1 oz., bergamot or otlier scent 
q. p. 

2. Almond powder (as above) 16 oz., powdered benzoin 
i oz., oil of bitter almonds 10 drops. For cleaning the 
hands and removing any unpleasant smell. To render it 
more detergent, 4 oz. of fine sand, or powdered pumice- 
stone may be added. 

3. Geouxd MrsTAED, mixed with a little water and 
rubbed over the hands, removes strong odours from tliem. 
Linseed meal answers the same purpose. 

Rose Lip Saive. 1. Oil of almonds 3 oz., alkanet \ oz. ; 

digest with a gentle heat, and filter. Melt IJ oz. white 

wax and 2- oz. spermaceti ^vith the filtered oil, stir it until 

it begins to thicken, and add from 12 to 36 drops of otto 

of roses. 

2. Wliite wax 1 oz., oil of sweet almonds 2 oz., alkanet 

1 dr. J digest till coloured, strain, and add 6 drops of otto 

of roses. 
Perttvian Lip Salve. As either of the above, substituting 

20 or 30 drops of Peruvian balsam for tlie otto ; 8 drops 

of oil of lavender may be added. 
Grape Lip Salve. Pomade au raisin pour les levres. 

Put into a glazed earthen pipkin ^ lb. of fresh butter, 

i lb. fine yellow wax, 1 oz. of alkanet, and 3 bunches of 

black grapes ; boil together, and strain without pressure 

througli linen. 
Feexch Lip Salve. Lard 16 oz., white wax 2 oz. ; nitre 

and alum in fine powder, of each 5 oz. ; alkanet to colour. 
German Lip Salve. Butter of cacao ^ oz., oil of almonds 

5 oz. ; melt together with a gentle heat, and add 6 drops 

of essence of lemon. 
Gants Cosmetiques. These are white kid gloves, which 

have been turned inside out, and brushed over with a 

melted compound of wax, oil, lard, balsam, &c. The 

Peruvian lip salve, without any alkanet, may answer the 

jjurpose. For oftening the hands. 


Fine Carmine (prepared from cochineal) is used alone, or 
reduced with starch, &c. And also tlie colouring matter 


of safflower and other vegetable colours, in the form of 
pink saucers, &c. 

EoUGE is prepared from carmine, and the colouring matter 
of safflower, by mixing them with finely levigated French 
chalk or talc, generally with the atldition of a few drops 
of olive or almond oil. Sometimes fine white starch is 
used as the reducing ingredient. It is used in the form 
of powder, pomade, and crejpons — the latter being pieces 
of crape imbued with the colouring matter. For com- 
mon purposes, vermilion is used ; and it is sometimes pre- 
pared for this purpose by mixing it with a few drops of 
almond oil and of mucilage of tragacanth, placing the 
mixture in rouge pots, and di'ying it by a very gentle 

Almond Bloom. Boil 1 oz. of Brazil dust in 3 pints of 
distilled water, and strain ; add 6 di's. of isinglass, 2 drs. 
of cochuieal, 1 oz. of alum, and 3 drs. of borax ; boil 
again, and strain through a fine cloth. — Gbax's Supple- 

Face Whites. One of most innocent kind is prepared 
from Venetian talc, or French chalk, finely le\'igated. 
These are sometimes calcined, to increase their whiteness ; 
but this dimmishes their mictuosity and adhesiveness. Di- 
gestion with vinegar, and subsequent washing, are prac- 
tised for the same purpose. Flake white (a fine variety 
of white lead) was formerly much used, but is now 
generally condemned as unsafe ; it is also liable to become 
browni under certain circumstances. Pearl or bismuth 
white (magistery of bismuth*) is less injurious when pure, 
but is subject to the latter inconvenience. M. Thenaed 
recommends oxide of zinc, with an equal weight of French 
chalk prepared by vinegar. ]\Iagnesia is said to be em- 
ployed by by the American ladies. White starch is used 
for the same purpose. 

* For tliis purpose a little hydrochloric acid is added to the solution of the 
metal in nitric acid, and the magistery is precipitated by a small quantity of 
water ; or the nitric solution is iiiixed with a weak solution ot sea salt . Dr. 
Ure s'ates tliat the prccpitate thusacquires a more pearly lustre. 



As the retail di'uggists and perfumers do not generally make 
their own soap in the first instance, it is only necessary to 
mention the means by wliich the soap, as it comes from 
the manufacturers, is prepared for the toilet. 

Scented Soaps, in general. Cut the best white curd soap, 
(or for some kmds, palm soap) into thin shavings, and 
place it in a copper vessel, with sufficient distilled water, 
and heat it by a water-bath till the whole is uniformly 
liquefied. Let it cool to 135" F. ; then add the colouring 
matter and perfumes. On the large scale these additions 
may be mixed with the liquid soap at the maker's, before 
it is poiired into the fi'ames. The quantity of perfume 
used must depend on the price at which it is to be sold. 

Almond Soap. To one hmidredweight of the best hard 
white soap, melted as above, add 20 oz. of essential oil 
of bitter almonds. (Soap really made from expressed 
almond oil is, we apprehend, rarely met with in com- 

Savon au Bouquet. Melt 60 lbs. of white curd soap as 
above, and 8 oz. of oil of bergamot, 1^ oz. each of oils of 
cloves, sassafras, and thyme, f oz. of neroli, and 14 oz. or 
q. s. brown ochre. 

Rose Soap. Put into a copper vessel, placed in boiling 
water, 20 lbs., of white curd soap, and 30 lbs. of olive oil 
soap, both in thin shavings ; add 5 lbs. of soft water, or 
rose-water ; keep the heat below boiling till the soap is 
uniformly liquefied, then add 12 oz. of finely sifted ver- 
milion, or enough to produce the required tint. With- 
draw it from the fire, and when sufficiently cool, add 3^ oz. 
of otto of roses, ^ oz. of oil of cloves, ^ oz. of oil of cin- 
namon, and 2^ oz. bergamot. For a cheaper article use 
less perfume. 

WiNDSOE Soap. This is said to be made with lard. In 
France they use lard with a portion of olive or bleached 
palm oil. Dr. PEEErEA states that it is made with one 
])art of olive oil to nine of tallow. But a great part of 
M'hat is sold is probably only curd (tallow) soap, scented 
with oil of caraway and bergamot. The brown is probably 
coloured with burnt sugar, or umber. 


Honey Soap. "VVliite curd soap 1^ lbs., brown Windsor soap 
i lb. ; cut them into thin sha\'ings, and liquefy as directed 
above for scented soaps : then add 4 oz. of honey, and 
keej) it melted till most of the water is evaporated ; then 
remove from the fire, and when cool enough, add any 
essential oil. According to Piesse the honey soap usually 
sold, consists of fine yellow soap perfumed with oil of 

Floating Soaps. These are made by liquefying, as de- 
scribed above, 30 lbs. of oil soap with about 5 lbs. of water, 
and agitating the mixture, by a suitable wooden apparatus 
turned by a handle, till the froth arises to the top of the 
vessel. It is then put into frames to cool. These soaps 
are variously perfumed and coloured. 

Teanspaeent Soap. Cut fine white curd soap into thin 
shavings, and dry them with a gentle heat till they can be 
reduced to powder. Put 2 lbs. of this powder into a water- 
bath with 5 or 6 pints of rectified spirit of \\dne, and heat 
it gently (taking care that the water does not quite boil) 
till the solution is complete ; add the perfume and pour 
into the frames. Wlien cold, cut it into squares. They 
must be kept some time in a dry place before they can 
attain their full degree of transparency. By usmg a still, 
most of the spirit may be recovered for future use. 

Wash Balis. Savonettes. These are made from various 
kinds of soap, usually with the addition of powdered 
starch, or hair-powder, or of rice flour, together with per- 
fuming and colouring ingredients. They are formed into 
spherical balls by taking a mass of the prepared soap in 
the left hand, and a conical drinking glass with rather 
thin edges in the right. By turning the glass and ball of 
soap in every direction, the rounded form is soon given j 
when dry the surface is scraped to render it more smooth 
and even. One or two examples of this kind of soap will 

Common oe Lemon Wash Balls. Cut 6 lbs. of soap into 
very small pieces ; melt it in a pint of water in which 
6 lemons have been boiled. \Vlien melted, withdraw tlie 
soap from the fire, and add 3 lbs. of powdered starch, and a 
little essence of lemon ; knead the whole into a paste and 
form into balls of the desired size. 

240 §EtN COSMETldS 

Ceeaji Wash Balls. White curd soap 7 lbs., powdered 
starch 1 lb. ; water or rose-water, q. s. Beat the whole 
together, and form into balls. — Geay's Supplement. 

Camphor Wash Balls. White soap 1 lb., spermaceti 1 oz., 
water q. s. j melt together and add 1 oz. of powdered 

Mrs. Stmond's Soap Paste foe the Hands. Best soft 
soap (from olive oil and potash if procurable) 16 oz., 
spermaceti 4 oz., best olive oil 1 oz., camphor j oz., 
rectified spirit J oz., soft water 1 pint, essence of lemon 
^ oz., M.S. A. With 8 oz. of pumice-stone, powdered 
and sifted through fine book muslin, it forms sand soap 

Powdered Soap. Any of the hard soaps may be pulverised, 
if first cut into thin shavings, and kept at a gentle lieat, 
till sufficiently dry. This process renders the soap more 

Shaving Powder. Melt together in a water-bath 1 lb. of 
white soap with 1 oz. of powdered spermaceti and i oz. 
of chlorate of potash dissolved in a little w^ater, or rose- 
water. Pour the liquefied soap into a shallow mould; 
when solidified, shave it fine and dry as above. 

Shaving Paste. 1. Melt together 1 dr. each of sper- 
maceti, white wax, and almond oil ; beat it up with 2 oz. 
of the best white soap, and a little lavender or Cologne 

2. Najiles soap, beaten ujj with sufficient powdered soap 
to form a stiff paste. 

3. White soft soap, 4 oz., powdered Castile soap 1 oz., 
oil of olives, or almonds i oz. 

Shaving Liquid. Essence of soap. 1. White soap 3 oz., 
proof spirit 8 oz., distilled water 4 oz., cai'bonateof potash 
1 dr., essence of lemon q. s. Dissolve the soap without 
heat, and add the potash and essence. 

2. (Italian essence of soap.) Wliite curd or Windsor 
soap 10 parts, rectified spirit 34 parts, rose or orange- 
ilower water 34 jDarts. Digest with a gentle heat and 

3. Naples soap, or white soft soap, 16 oz., oil of olives 
\ oz., gum benzoin 1 dr., rectified spirit 24 oz. Digest. 
Rub a few drops on the beard, followed by warm water. 


Hair Powder. The basis of hair-powder is finely powdered 
starch. _ It is variously scented, and was formerly tinted 
of various colours. The plain and violet hair-powders 
are_ now principally used. The latter is perfumed with 
orris powder, or essence of violets, usually with the addi- 
tion of bergamot, &c. Gray gives the following species 
for scenting hair powder: powdered orris 1 lb., essence 
of bergamot 12 oz., oil of neroli 1 dr., musk 1 scruple. 
Hair-powder is also perfumed with jessamine, roses, &c., 
by mixing the flowers with plain powder for 2 or 3 days, 
stirring the mixture twice or thrice a day, and then sifting 
out the powder from the flowers. 



Pomades for the cube of Baxdness. 

1. Duptttteen's Pomade. The recipe given by Bate- 
man and Rennie for this celebrated preparation, viz. 
almond oil, lard, suet, and essential oils, is remarkable as 
entirely omitting the active ingredient. It is probable that 
the preparation first employed by M. Duptjyteen was more 
simple in its form than what he subsequently adopted, but 
cantharides was always the essential constituent. The 
first formula met with was : Tincture of cantharides 
(made according to the Paris Codex, 1 part flies to 8 of 
proof spirit) 1 part, lard 9 parts. The following are said 
more nearly to represent the compound in its improved 
and more elegant form. M. Cap prescribes : Beef marrow 
2 oz., spirituous extract of cantharides (made by evaporat- 
ing the above tincture) 8 grs., rose oil 1 dr., essence of 
lemon 50 drops. M. Fontaine directs : Beef marrow 4 



oz., calomel 2^ drs., extract of cantharides 18 grs., attar of 
roses 2 drops. But the following by M. Eecitjz is said 
to have been acknowledged by M. Duptjyteen as the tnie 
formula : Beef marrow 6 oz., nervine balsam* 2 oz., 
Peruvian balsam 2 oz., oil of almonds li oz., extract of 
cantharides 16 grs. ; melt the marrow and nervine balsam 
with the oil, strain, add the balsam of Peru, and lastly the 
extract, dissolved in a drachm of rectified spirit. M. 
Gfibofet says that no better than the following can be 
used: Beef marrow 1 oz., nervine balsam 1 oz., rose oil 
1 dr., extract of cantharides (dissolved in spirit) 6 grs. 
These pomades should be rubbed on the scalp once or twice 
a day for some weeks. If any soreness is produced, the 
pomade should be less frequently apphed. 

2. Pomade contee l'Alopecie. Fresh lemon-juice 
1 dr., extract of bark (by cold water) 2 drs., marrow 2 oz., 
tincture of cantharides (as above) 1 dr., oil of lemon 
20 drops, oil of bergamot 10 drops ; mix. First wash the 
head with soap and water, with a little eau de Cologne, 
then rub it dry. Next morning rub in a small lump of 
pomade, and repeat it daily. Li 4 or 5 weeks the cure of 
baldness is effected. — Dr. Schneidee. 

3. Cazenate's Remedy poe Baldness. Beef mar- 
row 1 oz., tincture of cantharides (as above) 1 dr., pow- 
dered cinnamon 1 dr. To be applied night and morning, 
the head beiag first washed with salt and water. Keep 
the hair short. 

4. Dr. Cattell's is the same, substituting 10 drops each 
of oils of origanum and bergamot for cinnamon. 

5. Beef marrow 1 oz., castor oU ^ oz., tincture of can- 
tharides 1 dr., essential oil of bitter almonds and of lemon, 
each 12 drops. 

6. Beef marrow 3 drs., almond oil 1 dr., sulphate of 
quinine 15 grs., otto 2 drops. — SouBEraAN. 

7. Prepared lard 2 oz., white wax 2 drs. ; melt together, 
remove from the fire, and add 2 drs. balsam of Tolu, 20 
drops of oil of rosemary, and in chronic cases 1 dr. of 
tincture of cantharides. — Dr. Nblkjan. 

* This is made by melting together 4 oz. each of beef marrow and oil of 
mace, and adding 2 dr . of balsam of Tolu, and 1 dr, each of oil of cloves and 
camphor, dissolved in | oz, of rectified spirit. 


8. Camphor 1 scruple, citrine ointment 2 drs., sperma- 
ceti cerate 6 drs. ; mix. To be applied every night. 

9. Bate's Unguentum Criyiiscutn. Labdanum 6 drs., 
bears'-grease 2 oz., honey \ oz., powdered southernwood 
3 drs., ashes of red-root 1^ drs., oil of nutmeg 1 dr., 
balsam of Peru 3 drs. ; mix. Let the bald part be first 
rubbed with an onion till it is red, then apply the oint- 
ment. It should be used daily, or oftener, for 5 or 6 weeks. 

10. Box leaves 2 oz., southernwood 2 oz. ; lard, marrow, 
or bear's-grease, 8 oz. ; digest together by the heat of a 
water-bath, and strain. 

11. Bears'-grease. The most approved consists of 2 
parts of prepared bears' fat, with one of beef marrow, 
scented at pleasure. We have placed this, on the ground 
of common report, among the preparations which may 
possess some efficacy, but reserve the compounds usually 
sold under this name for the Pomatums. See below. 

12. Pommade Philocome. Powdered cinchona ^ dr., 
oil of almonds 2 drs., beef marrow 6 drs., oil of bergamot 
6 drops ; balsam of Peru 20 drops j mix. — DouRYAULT. 


1. Dr. Locock's Lotions. Oil of mace (expressed oil of 
nutmeg) ^ oz., olive oil 2 drs., water of ammonia \ dr., 
spirit of rosemary 1 oz., rose-water 2^ oz. ; mix. [Mr. 
AsTLEY recommends the following modification : Oil of 
mace i oz., olive oil 2 drs., oil of rosemary 4 drops ; incor- 
porate them carefully, than add gradually 3i oz. of rose- 
water, 2 drs. of solution of carbonate of ammonia, and 2 drs. 
of rectified spii'it.] 

2. Mr. Eeasmtts Wilson's. Eau de Cologne 2 oz., 
tincture of cantharides 2 drs. ; oil of rosemary and oil of 
lavender, of each 10 drops. 

3. Mr. Acton's. Equal parts of rectified spirit, castor 
oil, and eau de Cologne. 

4. Mr. Acton's, stronger. Equal parts of honey-water 
and tincture of cantharides. 

5. Tincture of cantharides 3 drs., acetate of copper 3 grs. ; 
oil of almouds and castor oil, of each a fluid oz., with ajiy 


essential oil to scent it. A small quantity to be applied to 
the roots of the hair every morning. 

6. Vinegar of cantharides (Lond. Pharm.) J oz., eau de 
Cologne 1 oz., rose-water 1 oz. ; mix. 

7. Castor-oil, lavender-water, and tincture of cantha- 
rides, in equal quantities. 

8. Glycerine 2 oz., tincture of myrrh 1 oz., eau de 
Cologne 1 oz., tincture of cantharides i oz., distilled water 
24 oz.— Phaem. Jouen. 

9. American Shampoo Liquor, Rum 3 quarts, spirit 
of wine 1 pint, water 1 pint, tincture of cantharides ^ oz., 
carbonate of ammonia ^ oz., salt of tartar 1 oz. Rub it on, 
and afterwards wash with water. By omitting the salt of 
tartar it nearly resembles balm of Columbia. 

10. French Receipt. Rum 500 parts, alcohol 75, dis- 
tilled water 75, tincture of cantharides 3,* carbonate of 
potash 3, carbonate of ammonia 5 parts. Dissolve the 
salts, mix the liquids, and filter. Wet the skin of the head, 
with [this lotion for several minutes, then wash it with 

11. Dr. Landeeer's. Bay leaves 2 oz., cloves i oz., 
spirit of lavender 4 oz., spirit of thyme 2 oz. ; digest for 6 
days, filter, and add i oz. of ether. To be rubbed on everj' 

12. Put into a still 4 lbs. of honey, 12 handfuls of the 
tendrils of vine, and the same of rosemary tops ; distil 
very slowly till the liquor begins to taste sour. 

13. Dr. Cattell's. See Washes foe the Haib, 
further on. 

Ifote. — The above ointments and liquids require to be used 
for some weeks, in order to produce a decided effect, 
either in curing or preventing baldness. Those which 
contain cantharides in any form are the most active, and 
must be used with caution. They should be applied once 
or twice a day, according to the effect produced ; but if 
the scalp becomes sore, their use must be omitted for a 
time, or longer intervals allowed, as the case may require. 
When employed to prevent the hair falling off, or from be- 
coming grey, they need not be applied so frequently as 
for baldness. 

* Made according to the French Codex. 


The following require no particular caution, being less active 
than the preceding. 



Pomatums, or Pomades, 

These are composed usually of animal fats, variously per- 
fumed. The lard, veal fat, beef and mutton suet, bears' 
fat, and beef marrow, employed for this pui-pose, require 
to be prepared with great care. The following is, perhaps, 
the best mode : Cut the raw fat into pieces, carefully re- 
moving the fleshy and bloody portions of membrane, &c., 
and beat it In a marble mortar ; melt it in a well-tinned 
vessel placed in boiling water, and strain the melted fat 
through a hair-sieve without pressure (reserving the resi- 
due to be heated again and pressed for more fat, to be 
used for commoner purposes). Keep the melted fat for 
some time gently warm, without disturbing it ; remove 
any scum which may have arisen, and pour off the clear 
fat, taking care that none of the dregs or watery liquid 
which have subsided, pass with it. A mixture of these 
fats forms the basis of many varieties of pomades. Some- 
times a little white wax is added. A greater degree of 
whiteness is said to be given, by addmg to the liquefied 
fat a few grains of citrrc acid. The same end Is promoted, 
by assiduously beating the pomade, while cooling, with a 
wooden spatula. 

To perfume pomatums, various essential oils, &c., are added 
(see Common Pomatum) ; but the finer sorts arc perfumed 
by Infusing fi-esh flowers in the melted fats for some hours, 
and straining; or, in other cases, the simple pomade is 
thinly spread on plates of glass set in frames, and the 
fresh flowers stuck in the scored surface of the fat, chang- 
ing the flowers dally till the pomatum is sufficiently per- 
fumed. As these compounds can seldom be prepared to 
advantage by the retailer, a few varieties only require to 
be noticed here. 

Common Pomatum. Mutton suet (prepared as above) 1 lb.. 

246 flAtil COSMETICS 

common lard 3 lbs. ; melt together in a water-bath, pour 
it into an earthen basin, and beat it assiduously -with a 
wooden spatula. "UTien sufficiently cool, add 2 oz. or q. s. 
of essence of bergamot or of lemon, and continue the 
stirring till nearly cold. 

Rose PoMAxtrM. Prepared lard 16 oz., prepared suet 2 oz. ; 
melt with a gentle heat, and add 2 oz. of rose-water, and 
6 di'ops of otto of roses. Beat them well together, and - 
pour into pots before it is too cold. For making jessa- 
mine, violet, and orange pomade, put the same quantity of 
water, and 1 dr. of the essence. 

Maeeow Pomatum. Beef marrow and beef suet, coloured 
•with a little annotto, may be employed for this and other 
yellow pomatums. For the perfumes employed for these 

. and other pomatums, see Essence for scenting Pomatums, 
under Peefumert. 

Pomade poh Beautifying the Haie. Oil of sweet almonds 
a pint, spermaceti, 1^ oz., purified lard 2 oz. ; melt with a 
gentle heat ; when nearly cold, add any agreeable scent, 
and pour it into pots or wide-mouthed bottles. 

Beaes' Grease (Artificial). Bears' grease is imitated by 
a mixture of prepared veal suet and beef marrow. It may 
be scented at pleasure ; oil of lavender, with a very little 
oil of thyme, is sometimes used. The followmg are some 
of the compounds sold under this name : 

1. Prepai-ed suet 3 oz., lai'd 1 oz., olive oil 1 oz., oil of 
cloves 10 drops, compound tincture of benzoin 1 dr. ; mix. 

2. Lard 1 lb., solution of carbonate of potash 2 oz. 

3. Olive oil 4 flasks, white wax 4 oz., spermaceti 2 oz. ; 
scented with otto of roses and oil of bitter almonds. 

Green Bears' Grease. Bears' grease digested with fresh 
walnut leaves, and strained. This is repeated with more 
leaves till the pomade is sufficiently coloured ; it is then 
scented ^vith oils of rosemary, thyme, and bergamot. 

German Pomade, for strengthening the Hair. Take 
8 oz. of purified marrow, melt it in a glass or stoneware 
vessel, and add 1^ oz. of fresh bay leaves, 1 oz. of orange 
leaves, 1 oz. of bitter almonds, ^ oz. of nutmegs, ^ oz. of 
cloves, and 1 dr. of vanilla, all bruised ; cover the vessel, 
and let the whole digest for 24 hours, with a gentle heat ; 
strain while warm through linen, and stir it as it cools. 


Haed oe Roll PoMATrrii. 1. Suet 5 lbs., white wax 8 oz., 
spermaceti 2 oz., oil of lavender and essence of ambergris, 
of each i oz. 

2. Beef suet 16 oz., white or yellow wax 1 oz., with 1 
dr. of oil of lavender or of bergamot. 

3. Lard melted with one third or half its weight of 
white wax, and poured into serai-cylindrical paper moulds 
when nearly set. This is sold under the name of cos- 
mettque. It is sometimes coloured to match the hair. 
See after Haie Dyes, further on. 

Coloured Pomatums. The colouring matters employed 
are annotto, alkanet, marigold, carmuie, gamboge, indigo, 
cobalt blue, umber, ivory black, &c. 

CiKCASsiAN Ceeam. Two flasks of oil, 3 oz. of white wax, 
2 oz. of spermaceti, i oz. of alkanet root. Digest the oil 
with the alkanet till coloured, strain, melt the wax and 
spermaceti with the oil, and when sufficiently cool add 2^ 
drs. of English oil of lavender, and i dr. of essence of am- 

Crystalline Cream. Oil of almonds 8 oz., spermaceti 1 
oz. ; melt together ; when a little cooled add ^ oz. or less 
of essence of bergamot, or other perfume; put it into 
wide-mouthed bottles, and let it stand till cold. 

Cam2jJi orated crystalline cream may be made by using 
camphorated oil (Lin. CamphorEe) instead of oil of almonds. 

Castor Oil Pomade. Castor oil 4 oz., prepared lard 2 oz., 
white wax 6 drs., essence of bergamot 2 drs., oil of lavender 
20 drops, eau de Cologne g dr. ; stir till cold. 

Crystalline Castoe Oil Pomade. Castor oil 16 oz., 
spermaceti If oz. ; melt together, and when a little cool, 
add 1 oz. of essence of bergamot, i dr. oil of verbena, ^ dr. 
oil of lavender; pour it into wide-mouthed bottles, and 
let it stand till cold. 

Castor Oil and Glycerine Pomade. Dissolve white wax 
li oz. with a moderate heat in 3 oz. of castor oil, triturate 
■with 9 oz. of castor oil and 2 oz. glycerine until cool. 
Then add essence of lemon 5 drs., ess. of bergamot 2 drs., 
oil of lavender 1 dr., oil of cloves 10 drops. Piub aunatto 
gr. X with 1 dr. of water till smoothly suspended, add 1 dr. 
of alcohol, and stir the colouring into the pomade until 
thoroughly mixed. — American Recipe. 


Fox's Ceeam. Marrow pomatum 2 oz., oil of almonds 2 
oz. ; melt, and add while cooling, with constant stirring, 
essence of jessamine or of bergamot 2 drs. — Bateman. 

Glycerine and Lime Cream. Glycerine, oil of sweet 
almonds, and lime water, of each 8 oz., tincture of cantha- 
rides 1 oz. Perfume as desired. 

Lime Juice and Glycerine, Lime juice i pint, rose water 
k pint, glycerine 2 oz., rect. spirit 2 oz., oil of lemon _30 

QuiLLAi Bark. Stir a piece of the bark in some water till 
a strong lather is produced, and rub it on the hair with a 
rough towel. Thus used it is an excellent remedy for 


perfumed oils for the hair. 

The basis of these oils is either almond oil, olive oil, or oil of 
ben J whichever is used should be perfectly fresh, and of 
the finest quality. The perfume is communicated in three 
ways : by infusing the flowers in the oil at a gentle heat ; 
by placing layers of flowers alternately with folded cotton 
soaked in the oil, in proper frames, and pressing out the 
oil when sufiiciently imbued with the odour of the flowers ; 
or simjjly by adding essential oils, &c., to the fixed oil. 
An example or two of each method will be sufficient. 

Oil of Eoses, by Infusion. Heat in a water-bath 1 lb. 
of virgin oil, and add 1 lb. of picked fresh petals of Pro- 
vence roses. Let these remain togetlier in a water-bath 
for half an hour, then remove from the bath, and leave 
them together for 24 hours, stirring them twice during 
the time. Strain through a cloth, and express all the oil. 
To this oil add fresh roses, and proceed as before ; repeat- 
ing this for 5, 6, or 7 times, till the oil is suflicieutly per- 

Oil of Jessamine, Perfumed with the Flowers. Fold 
pieces of white cotton cloth twice or four times ; moisten 
them with fine olive oil, slightly pressing tliem, and place 
them in proper frames. Then place on the cloths a rather 
thick layer of freshly gathered and dry jessamine flowers, 
carefully deprived of all green parts. In 24 liours care- 
fully remove the flowers, and replace them by fresh ones. 


till the oil is sufficiently perfumed. Tlie oil is then ex- 
pressed. Tlie same method is employed in preparing oils 
from other delicate flowers ; such as violet, lily of the 
valley, &c. 

Oil of Roses, Common. Fine olive or almond oil a pint, 
otto of roses 16 drops. If required red, colour the oil 
with alkanet root, and strain before adding the otto. For 
common sale, essence of bergamot or of lemon is often 
substituted, wholly or in part, for the more expensive otto. 

Peeftjmed Oil of Beegamot, Lemon, Orange, &c. To 
oil of ben, or finest almond or olive oil, add essential oil of 
bergamot, lemon, &c., q. s. For common purposes a 
drachm of the essential oil may be added to 16 oz. of oil. 
Some recipes, however, direct as much as 1^ oz. or 2 oz. 

Oil of Ambergris and Musk. Ambergi-is 2 drs., musk i 
dr. ; grind them together in a mortar, then with a small 
quantity of oil ; add more oil to make uj) a pint, and let 
them stand together for 12 days, stirring them occasion- 
ally. Then decant or filter. Add half a pint of oil to the 
residue for an oil of second quality. 

Common Oil of Musk, Oil of Benzoin, Oil of Stteax, 
&c., may be obtained by mixing a strong tincture of these 
drugs with fine oil, agitating them frequently together, 
and after remainuig some hours at rest, decanting the 
clear oil. 

Huile Comogene. Mix equal parts of oil and spirit of 
rosemary with a few drops of oil of nutmeg. To be used 

Huile de Phenix. Clarified beef marrow 4 oz., lard 2 oz., 
oil of mace 4 oz. ; melt together, and strain through linen 
into a warm mortar ; stir, and when it begins to cool add 
the following solution, and stir constantly till it is quite 
cold : oil of cloves, lavender, mint, rosemary, sage, and 
thyme, of each ^ dr. ; balsam of Tolu 4 drs., camphor 1 dr., 
rectified spirit 1 oz. Put the spirit and balsam into a phial, 
and place it in warm water till the solution is complete, 
then add the camphor and essential oils. 

Huile Philicome d'Aubeil. Triturate together, wnthout 
heat, equal parts of cold-drawii nut oil, almond oil, and 
prepared beef marrow, adding any essential oil as a per- 


HtriLE Veete. Macerate 1 dr. of guaiaciim vnth 1 lb. of 
olive oil ; strain, and add any essential oil to perfume it. 
— Geat. 

Maeeow Oil. Clarified beef marrow, or marrow pomatum, 
with enough almond or olive oil to brmg it to the desired 

Fltjide de Java. Tliis consists of beef marrow, white wax, 
fine olive oil, and essential oils at pleasure. 

Macassar Oil. The oil made by the natives in the island 
is obtained by boiling the kernel of the fruit of a tree 
resembling the wahint, called in Malay badeau. The 
oil is mixed vnth other mgredients, and has a smell 
approaching to that of creasote. But the Macassar oil 
sold in this country has probably no relation to the above, 
except in name. The following is given by Geat : Olive 
oil 1 lb., oil of origamim 1 dr. ; others add 1 j drs. of oil of 
rosemary. The following French compound is probably 
named Macassar oil rather to denote its properties than 
from any resemblance either to the product of Macassar* 
or to the oil sold under this name in England : 

HiriLE DE Macassae de Naquet. Oil of ben 14 pints, 
nut oil 7 pints, spirit of wine 1 quart, essence of bergamot 
3 oz., tincture of musk 3 oz., spirit of orange {esprit de 
Portugal) 2 oz., otto of roses 2 drs., alkanet to coloiir it. 
Digest them together with a gentle heat for an hour, and 
shake frequently for a week. 

Beilliantine. a solution of castor oil in eau de Cologne, 
1 part in 4. Another formula is as follows : — Glycerine 
and eau de Cologne, of each 1 part ; honey, 2 parts ; rec- 
tified spirit, 4 parts. 


Vegetable Exteact poe Cleansing and Steengthen- 
ING the Haie. 1. Southernwood 2 oz., box leaves 6 oz., 
water 4 pints. Boil gently in a saucepan for i of an hour, 
strain, and to each pint of the liquid add 2 oz. of spirit 
of rosemary and ^ dr. of salt of tartar (or 1 dr. of Naples 

2. Boil 1 lb. of rosemary in 2 quarts of watei", and add 

' to the filtered liquor 1 oz. of spirit of lavender, and i oz. 
of Naples soap, or salt of tartar. 


3. lucinerate 2 oz. each of rosemary, maidenhair, southern- 
wood, myrtle berries, and hazel bai'k; make a strong 
solution of the ashes, with which wash the hair at the roots 
every day. Keep the hair short. — Dr. Catteli. 

4. Borax 1 oz. ; powdered camphor J oz., boiling water 
a quart. When cold, filter for use. Damp the hair vdih 
it frequently. 

Wash toe REiioTiifG Sccef and Promoting the Curling 
OF THE Hair. 1. Beat up the yolk of an egg with a pint 
of clean rain-water. Apply it warm ; and afterwards 
wash the head with warm water. 

2. Lime-water a pint, distilled vinegar i of a pint ; mix. 

Wash for Irritable Eruptions of the Scalp or Face. 
llimmel's toilet vinegar 6 oz., glycerine 2 oz., carbolic acid 
i drachm. — Dr. Headland.. 


Eau Collante. Dissolve without heat 8 oz. of clear gum 
in 2 lbs. of distilled or rose water, and filter thi'ough coarse 
filtering paper. 

Bandoline, or FiXATEtru. Vegetable mucilage, with suffi- 
cient spirit to preserve it. Mucilage of quince seed is 
used; mucilage of picked Wsh moss, carefully strained, 
is said to answer still better. The following is em- 
ployed by some Loudon perfumers : Finest picked gum 
tragacanth, reduced to a coarse powder, 1 oz., rose-water 
a pint ; put them into a wide-mouthed vessel, and shake 
them together daily for 2 or 3 days ; then strain \\'ith 
gentle pressure through fine linen or cambric. If required 
to be coloured, infuse cocliineal in the water employed, be- 
fore making the mucilage. Another form is — linseed (not 
bruised) a tablespoonf ul, water -i pint ; boil for 5 minutes 
and strain. 

PojiMADE Collante, for False Curls. Melt together in 
an earthen pipkin 24 oz. of fine Burgundy pitch and 8 oz. 
of white wax, and add 1 oz. of pomatum j remove from 
the fire and add 4 oz. of brandy or other spirit, replace 
it on the fire till it boils slightly, then strain through 
linen, adding bergamot or other perfume, and cast it into 



Oefila's Haie Dye. Take 3 parts of litharge and 2 of 
quicklime, both in an impalpable powder, and mix them 
carefully. ^Vhen used, a portion of the powder is mixed 
with hot water or milk, and ajjplied to the hair, the part 
being afterwards enveloped in oil-skin or a cabbage-leaf for 
4 or 5 hours. 

2. Litharge 2 parts, slaked lime 1 part, chalk 2 pai-ts, 
all finely powdered, and accurately mixed. When required 
for use, mix the powder with warm water, and dip a brush 
into the mixture, and rub the hair well \yith it. After 2 
hours, let the hair be washed. 

3. Litharge 4^ oz., quicklime f oz. ; reduce to an im- 
palpable powder, and pass it through a sieve. Keep it in 
a di-y, close bottle. Wash the hair first with soap and 
water, then with tej^id water ; wipe it dry, and comb 
with a clean comb. Mix the dye in a saucer with hot 
water to the consistence of cream, and apply it to the 
hair, beginning at the roots. Place over it four folds of 
brown paper, saturated with hot water, and drained till 
cool ; and over this an oilskin cap and a nightcap. Let it 
remain from 4 to 8 hours, according to the shade required. 
When removed, oil the hair, but do not wet it for 3 or 4 

4. Cheyailiee's. Mix 5 drs. of freshly slaked lime ^-ith 
1^ oz. of water, and strain through silk ; put the milk of 
lime into a 4-oz. bottle. Dissolve 5 grs. of acetate of lead 
in sufficient water, and add enough slaked lime to saturate 
the acetic acid (a drachm or rather more), let it settle, 
pour off the supernatant liquor, wash the precipitate with 
water, and add it to the milk of lime. 

5. Chesnut Hair Dye. We have met with the fol- 
lowing, but do not guarantee it : Permanganate of potash 
gives the hair a beautiful chesnut-brown colour, varying 
according to the strength of the solution of the salt. A 
good formula is : Permanganate of potass 1 dr., powdered 
gum arable 2 drs., rose-water 3 oz. ; mix. Apply carefully 
with a tooth brush, so as to avoid stahiing the skin. 
(' Chemist and Druggist.') 


6. Hair Restoeer. Sulphur 45 grs. j acetate of lead 
20 grs. ; glycerine ^ oz., water to 10 oz. ; mix. 

7. Golden Hair Dye. Aureoline. A solution of 
peroxide of hydrogen in water, containing from 3 to 6 per 
cent., by weight, of the peroxide. 

8. Dark Browk Hair Dye. a. Pyrogallic acid 4 grs., 
distilled water 2 oz. ; mix. 

b. Crystallized nitrate of silver 1 dr., gum arable 1 dr., 
distilled water, 2 oz. ; mix. 

c. Nitrate of silver 192 grs., distilled water 8 oz. Dis- 
solve and add gradually sufficient of the strongest solution 
of ammonia to precipitate the silver. Then afterwards 
just as much as is necessary to redissolve the precipitate. 
See further on. 

9. Dr. Hanmann's. Levigated litharge 11 oz., pow- 
dered quick lime 75 oz., hair powder 37 oz. j mix. When 
used, a portion of the powder is mixed with warm water 
in a saucer, and applied to the hair with the fingers, taking 
care to cover the hair to the roots. Cover the whole with 
a sheet of cotton wadding moistened with water, and this 
with a folded cloth. Let it remain on for 3 hours; or 
better, for the night. 

10. Warren's. Sifted lime 16 oz., white lead 2 oz., 
litharge in fine powder 1 oz. ; mix well together, and 
keep dry. To dye black, mix a little powder with water 
to the consistence of cream. To dry broton, use milk 
instead of water. Apply with a small sponge. 

Essence of Ttee. Grecian Water. Eait d'Egypt, 
Eau de Chine. These are solutions of nitrate of silver ; 
in applying them, it must be remembered that they stain 
the skin as well as the hair. Hence there is more diffi- 
culty in applying than with the preceding; but they are 
considered to impart a finer colour to the hair, with the 
disadvantage, however, of rendering it dry and crisp. The 
following are some of the most approved formulae : 

1. Dr. Cattell's. Nitrate of silver 11 drs., nitric acid 
1 dr., distilled water 1 pint, sap green 3 drs., gum Arabic 
1 dr. ; mix. 

2. Nitric acid 1 dr., nitrate of silver 10 drs., sap green 
9 drs., mucilage 5 drs., distilled water 37i fluid oz.j 


3. Silver 2 drs., iron filings 4 drs., nitric acid 1 oz., dis- 
tilled water 8 oz. Digest, and decant the clear solution. 
To be carefully applied with a close brush. 

4. Hydrosulphate of ammonia 1 oz., solution of potash 
3 drs., distilled water 1 oz. ; mix. Apply this with a tooth- 
brush for 16 or 20 minutes, then brush the hair over with 
the following : Nitrate of silver 1 dr., distilled water 2 oz., 
using a clean comb to separate the hair. 

Mercurial Black Dye. A weak solution of perchloride of 
mercury, used for some days, followed by a wash contain- 
ing hyposulphite of soda. 

Bhowx Hair Dye. Acetate of lead 2 drs., hyposulphite of 
soda 1 dr., rose water 14 oz., glycerine 2 oz. Dissolve the 
acetate of lead and hyposulphite in separate portions of 
the rose water; filter separately, mix the solutions and 
add the glycerine. See back. 

Pyeogallic Stain. Distil coarsely powdered nutgalls in a 
retort, dissolve the solid acid which sublimes in a little 
hot water, add the solution to the acid liquid which passes 
over, separate the floating oil, shake the liquid with char- 
coal, filter, and add a little spirit. 

TiNOTtTRB OF Walnttt. A strong tincture of the shells of 
green walnuts, scented. 

La Forest's Cosmetic Wash for the Hair. Red wuie 
1 lb., salt 1 dr., sulphate of iron 2 drs. Boil for a few 
minutes, and add common verdigris 1 dr. ; leave it on the 
fire for 2 minutes, withdraw it, and add 2 drs. of powdered 
nutgall. Rub the hair with the liquid ; in a few minutes 
dry it with a warm cloth, and afterwards wash with water. 

Pomatums, or Cosmetiques, in sticks, for the haii-. 

Black Pomatum, in sticks, for the eyebrotos, whiskers, ^'c. 
Prepared lard melted -nith a third of its weight of wax in 
winter, or half in summer, is coloiu'ed with levigated 
ivoi-y black, and strained through tammy, or any material 
which will permit the fine particles of ivoiy black to pass 
through. Stir it constantly, and when it begins to thicken 
pour it into paper moulds. 

Brown and Chest:^t Pomatums are prepared in the 
same way, but coloured vdth. umber, &c. White, as Hard 

Ebonx Pomatum, in pots. Melt 4 oz. of white wax with 


12 oz. of any kind of pomatum, and add 2 oz. of levigated 
ivory-black. Proceed as above, and pour into pots. 
PoMiiADE DE Jetjnesse. Pomatum mixed with magistery 
of bismuth. It is said to turn the hair black. — Gkat. 



These require caution, as they are apt to injure the skin. 
We have omitted those which contain sulphuret of arsenic 
(orpiment), as there is danger of its being absorbed, and 
the object can be accomplished -without its use. The 
powders require to be kept in close bottles or boxes, and 
no more should be mixed with liquid than is required to 
be used at once. 

1. Mix lime and water to a thick cream, and pass 
through the mixture 25 or 30 times its volume of sul- 
phuretted hydrogen gas. "When the gas escapes, stop the 
process. The pulpy mass is spread on paper, and appUed 
for 12 or 15 minutes, and then washed off with a sponge 
and water. The only objection to this is its disgusting 

2. Chinese. Quicklime 16 oz., pearlaSh 2 oz., liver of 
sulphur 2 oz. Reduce to a fine powder, and keep it in a 
close bottle. Use it as No. 4. 

3. Mr. Redwood recommends a strong solution of sul- 
phuret (sulphide) of barium, with sufficient powdered 
starch to form a paste ; to be left on for a few minutes, 
then scraped off with the back of a knife. 

4. Bottdet's Depilatoet. Crystallized hydrosulphate 
of soda 3 parts, quicklime in powder 10 parts, starch 10 
parts ; mix. To be mixed with water, and applied to the 
skin, and scraped off in 2 or 3 minutes with a wooden kuif e. 



General Directions. — The dry ingredients should be finely 
pulverized, and the whole well mixed ; which is best 
effected by triturating the powders together, or agitating 
them in a bottle, and afterwards passing the whole 
through a sieve. Some ingredients are usually levigated, 
or ground with water, as prepared chalk, coral, &c. The 
tooth powders which contain acids, and acid salts, should 
not be frequently used. For children those only which 
contain very soft powders should be permitted ; the heavy 
carbonate of magnesia is very suitable for them. 

Ameeican Tooth Powdee. Coral, cuttle-fish bone, dragon's 
blood, of each 8 oz., bui'nt alum and red sanders, of each 4 
oz., orris 8 oz., cloves and cinnamon, of each \ oz., vanilla 
2 drs., rosewood ^ oz., rose pink 8 oz. 

Antiseptic Tooth Powdee. Prepared or precipitated 
chalk 2 oz., dry chloride of lime 10 grs., oil of cassia or of 
cloves 5 drops ; mix. It may be coloured, if preferred, by 
a little levigated bole. 

Antiscoebutic Tooth Powdee. Extract of rhatany \ oz., 
prepared charcoal 2 oz., cinnamon y oz., cloves \ oz. 

Abomatic Tooth Powdee. Calamus aromaticus 4 drs., 
charcoal 1 dr., soap 1 dr., oil of cloves 12 drops. — 

Asiatic Tooth Powdee. Prepared coral 4 oz., Venetian 
red 3 drs., ochre 5 drs., pumice 5 drs., musk 1 gr. j mix. 
Or, bole 3 parts, chalk 2, ochre 1, pumice 1, musk to 

Cadet's or Dr. CoOMBE'e. Sugar 1 oz., charcoal 1 oz,, 


Peruvian bark | oz., cream of tartar I5 drs., cinnamon 
24 grs. 

Camphohated Chalk. Camphor (pulverized by the aid of 
a few drops of spirit) 1 oz., prepared or precipitated chalk 
3 oz. Some makers put only 1 part of ciunplior to 7 of 

Compound Camphorated Tooth Powder. Camphor 1 
oz., precipitated chalk 2 oz., cuttle-fish bone 5 oz., myrrh 
2 drs., borax 2 drs., lake or rose pink 1 dr., or q. s. 

CAETWRiaHT's DENTIFRICE. Prepared chalk 7 oz., orris 
1 oz., Castile soap ^ dr. 

Caeabelli's. Cuttle-fish bone li oz., prepared oyster shells 
1^ oz., cinnamon, orris, and lime-tree charcoal, of each 3 
drs., vanilla 10 grs. 

Charcoal, Prepared. The charcoal, made in iron cylinders, 
from %\-illo\v, is to be preferred. It should be reduced to an 
impalpable powder, and kept from the air. Charcoal of 
areca nut is highly commended. That of the shells of cocoa- 
nuts is said to be used for the same purpose. Dr. Heideu 
prefers the charcoal of the lime tree. 

Charcoal Tooth Powder (Gray). Prepared charcoal 1 oz., 
powdered chalk 3 oz. 

Charcoal Tooth Powder (French). Prepared charcoal 

1 oz., sugar 1 oz., oil of cloves 3 drops ; mix. 
Charcoal with Bark. Charcoal 1 oz., red cinchona 1 oz., 

powdered sugar ^ oz., with a few drops of some essential 
oil. See also Rhighini's, further on. 
Charcoal with Bark (French recipe). Charcoal 1 oz., 
Peruvian bark 5 oz., oil of cinnamon, mint, or other oil, 

2 drops, essence of ambergris 30 drops. 

Charcoal with Quinine. Charcoal 1 oz., sulphate of 
quinine 2 to 4 grs., magnesia 4 to 8 grs., otto of rose (or 
other perfume) 2 drops. 

Carbonic Dentifrice (Desfoeges'). Willow charcoal 4 
oz., cinchona bark 4 oz., cloves i dr. 

Circassian Dentifrice (Dr. Halifax's). Prepared harts- 
horn 2 oz., sulphate of potash 2 oz., cuttle-fish bone 8 oz., 
orris 4 oz., yellow sandal wood 1 oz., rose pink 3 oz., oil 
of rhodium 30 drops. Mix the dry ingredients, previously 
reduced to a fine powder, and add the oil of rhodium. 

Coral Dentifeice {Poudre Dentifrice of the French Phar- 



macopceia). Eed coral, bole, cuttle-flsli bone, of each 3 
oz., cG.'agou's blood Ij oz., cochineal 3 drs., cream of tartar 
4i oz., cmnamon 6 drs., cloves 1 dr. ; reduce separately to 
powder, mix and grind on porphyry. 
Deschamp's Alkaxine Dentifeice. Venetian talc 4 oz., 
bicarbonate of soda 1 oz., carmine 4 or 5 grs., oil of mint 
(or other perfume) 15 drops. 
Deschamp's Acid Dentifrice. Venetian talc 4 oz., cream 

of tartar 1 oz., carmine 4 or 5 grs., oil as the last. 
Desfoeges'. See Carbonic Dentifrice. 
Detergent Tooth Powder. Bicarbonate of soda 1 oz., 
powdered Castile soap i oz., sulphate of potash ^ oz., 
sugar of milk ^ oz., orris root 4 oz., oil of bitter almonds 
4 drops. Coloured at pleasure. 
Elephant's (Mrs.) Tooth Powder. Bole 1 oz., myrrh, 
bark, and orris, each ^ oz. All to be finely powdered, and 
Florentine Dentifrice. Prepared shells 14 di's., orris 6 

drs., cream of tartar 3 di's., lake to colour. 
French Tooth Powder. (See Coral Tooth Powder, 
above; also Galvanic, Deschamp's, &c.) Peruvian bark, 
burnt crust of bread, and sugar, in equal proportions. 
Galvanic Dentifrice. Triturate 2 leaves of gold-leaf 
and 3 of silver with 2 drs. of sulphate of potash and 1 dr. 
of alum ; then add white sugar 2 drs., common salt 1 dr., 
pellitory of Spain ^ dr., prepared hartshorn 1 oz., sulphate 
of quinine 10 grains ; mix. Colour with finest smalts 
(powder blue), rose, pink, or lake. Fozembas' recipe is : 
2 leaves of gold, 2 of silver, alum 3 drs., salt 1| di's., white 
sugar li drs., pepper 15 grs., opium 5 grs., coral 3 drs., 
Peruvian bark 3 drs. Grind the gold and silver with the 
salt and alum, and add the latter ingredients. For the 
douhle galvanic tooth powder, put twicethe above quantities 
of gold, silver, alum, salt, pejiper, and opium. The galvanic 
action of the metals is thought to stimulate the gums. 
German Tooth Powder. Peru\'ian bark 6 drs., red sanders 

2 drs., oil of cloves and of bergamot 3 drops. 
Grosvenor's Tooth Powder. Prepared shells and coral, 

of each 12 oz., oi'ris root 2 oz., oil of I'hodium 6 drops. 
Hemet's Dentifrice. It is said to consist of cuttle-fish 
bone 6 oz., cream of tartar 1 oz., orris f oz ; mix. 


Jamet's. Orris 16 oz., magnesia 4 oz., pumice-stone 8 oz., 
cuttle-fish bone 8 oz., sulphate of quinine 4 oz., cascarilla 
1 oz., sugar of milk 16 oz., oil of mint 1 oz., 'oil of cin- 
namon 2 drs., oil of neroli 1 dr., essence of ambergris 
1 dr. 
Kemmeeee's. Wood-soot IJ oz., strawberry-root i oz., and 

a fe^^' drops of eau de Cologne. 
Lavendek Tooth Powdee. Crimson lake 1 dr., Chinese 
blue (or TurnbuU's blue) a scruple; mix atid add bicar- 
bonate of soda ^ oz., cuttle-fish bone 2 oz., precipitated 
chalk 6 oz., oil of lavender 8 di'ops. 
Laednee's Tooth Powder. See Chaecoal Tooth Pow- 
dee (gray). 
Lefoulon's Tooth Powdee. Scurvy-grass, horse-radish, 
guaiacum, cinchona, mint, pellitory root, calamus, rhatany, 
of each equal quantities. Reduce to an impalpable pow- 
der. A little calcined magnesia is sometimes added. 
Mauet's Caebonic Tooth Powdee. Charcoal 8 oz., cin- 
chona 4 oz., sugar 8 oz., oil of mint i oz., oil of cinnamon 
f oz., tincture of ambergris i dr. 
Metges' Tooth Powdee. Prepared chalk 3^ lbs., lake or 
rose-pink 1 lb., orris 2 lbs., cream of tartar 12 oz., levigated 
pumice 1 oz., sugar 9 oz., oil of cloves 1 dr. 
Mialhe's Rationax Dentieeice. Sugar of milk 3 oz., 
pure tauniu 3 drs., lake 1 dr., oil of mint 8 di'ops, oil of 
aniseed 8 drops, neroli 4 drops. 
Myeeh Dentieeice. Myrrh 1 oz., cuttle fish bone 4 oz., 

orris 3 oz. ; mix. 
Nichol's Tooth Powdee. Cuttle-fish bone, prepared chalk, 

orris, of each 1 oz. ; cassia i oz., mj'rrh i oz. ; mix. 
Palmee's Tooth Powdee. Prepared chalk 1 lb., camphor 

1 oz., orris 1 lb., cuttle-fish bone 4 oz., rose pink 1 oz. 
Pearl Dentieeice. Precipitated chalk 16 oz., talc 8 oz., 

finest smalts i oz., or q. s. to give it a slight tint. 
Pelletiee's Quinine Dentieeice. Sulphate of quinine 
4 grs., prepared red coral 1 oz., myrrh a scruple. For the 
coral may be substituted levigated bole 2 drs., precipitated 
chalk 6 drs. 
Regnaud's Dentifrice. Calcined magnesia i oz., sulphate 
of quinine 8 grs., carmme (or cochineal) i dr., oil of pep- 
permint 3 drops. 


Ehatany Tooth Powder. Rhatany root 2 oz., cuttle-fish 
bone 4 oz., prepared chalk 8 oz., borax 1 dr. 

RiGHiNi's Charcoal and Bark. Charcoal 4 parts, yellow 
bark 1 part. 

Rose Dentifrice. Lake -| dr., myi-rh 2 drs., bicarbonate 
of soda 2 drs., orris 2 oz., cuttle-fish bone 2 oz., precijsi- 
tated chalk 6 oz., otto of roses 16 drops ; or it may be 
coloured with rose pink to any desired shade. 

RuspiNi's Dentifrice. Cuttle-fish bone 8 oz., prepared 
hartshorn 2 oz., alum 1 oz., cream of tartar 2 oz., orris 
1 oz., oil of rhodium G drops. 

Russian Tooth Powder. Peruvian bark 2 oz., orris root 
1 oz., sal ammoniac i oz., cateclm 6 drs., myi-rh 6 drs., 
oil of cloves 6 or 8 drops. 

Saunders' Dentifrice. Prepared chalk 2 oz., cuttle-fish 
bone 1 oz., orris 1 oz., myrrh ^ oz., sulphate of quinine 
10 grs. 

Dr. Sciioepf's Tooth Powder, against mercurial salivation. 
Alum 2 scruples, cinchona bark, 1 oz. 

Violet Tooth Powder. Orris root 2 oz., cuttle-fish bone 
4 oz., precipitated chalk 12 oz., bicarbonate of soda ^ oz., 
essence of violets 1 dr., pure percyanide of iron and crim- 
son lake or rose-pink, enough to give it a pale violet 
colour. See Pulvis Dentifricius, Pocket Formulary. 


Any of the above tooth powders may be made into a paste 
with honey, clarified honey, or honey of roses. A little 
perfumed spirit may be added. A common objection to 
these pastes or electuaries, is their liability to fermenta- 
tion, or effervescence. Some makers keep the paste in 
the bulk for a considerable time, till the effervescence has 
completely subsided, and then put it up in pots for sale. 
Others heat the honey, stir in the powders, and keep the 
mixture warm till any effervescence produced by the 
action of the acidity of the honey on the cretaceous pow- 
der has subsided. It would pei-haps be preferable in all 
cases to use the prepared honey (see Mel Depuratum, 
Pocket Formulary) for these purposes. Electuaries of this 


kind are tcrincd by the French opials, althougli they may 
contain no ojnnm in any form. 

Coral Tooth Paste. dj)iat Dentifrice. 1. Prepared coral 
5 oz., cream of tartar 3 oz., ciattle-fish bone 3 oz., cochi- 
neal \ dr., Narbonne honey 16 oz. — Desforges. 

2. Opiat Dentifrice Rouge. Prepared coral 8 oz., 
cochineal 1 oz., cinnamon 2 oz., alum 3 drs., honey 20 oz., 
Avatcr 1 oz. ; triturate the cochineal with the alum and 
water, add the honey, then the coral and cinnamon ; leave 
tlie whole for 24 hours, or till the effervescence has sub- 
sided ; then rub it with a few drops of oil of cloves, or 
other aromatic oil, and j)ut it into covered pots for sale. 

Dyon's Charcoal Paste. Triturate \ dr. of chlorate of 
potash vnt\\ \ oz. of mint water, and add gradually 1 oz. 
of powdered charcoal. 

Metges' Tooth Paste. Metges' tooth powder (see back) 
48 oz., Narbonne honey 32 oz., syrup 64 oz., cochineal 
1 'oz., alum 1 oz., water 4 oz. ; triturate the cochineal and 
alum with the water (and strain), add the honey and syrup, 
and lastly the powder. 

Pelletier's Odoxtine. This is said to consist of mag- 
nesia and butter of cacao, aromatised with some essential 

Rose Tooth Paste. Cuttle-fish bone 3 oz., prepared or 
precipitated chalk, 2 oz., orris 1 oz., lake or rose pink to 
give it a pale rose colour, otto of roses 16 drops, honey of 
roses q. s. 

Red or Cherry Paste. See Coral Paste, No. 2. 

Rosemary Paste. Levigated bole 4 oz., myrrh 1 oz., oil 
of rosemary 2 drs. (dissolved in 1 oz. rectified spirit), clari- 
fied honey q. s. 

Saline Tooth Paste. Sulphate of potash 1 oz., bay salt 
i oz., clarified honey q. s., eau de Cologne 2 drs. (or essence 
of ambergris 30 drops). 

VA>fiLLA Tooth Paste (French). Charcoal 1 oz., white 
honey 1 oz., vanilla sugar 1 oz., Peruvian bark J oz., and 
a few drops of any essential oil. The vanilla sugar may 
be made by triturating a drachm of saturated tincture of 
vanilla with 1 oz. of pure sugar, and drying the mi.xture 
with a gentle heat. 

White Tooth Paste. 1 (French). Orris, sal ammoniac. 


cream of tartar, of each 2 oz., tincture of clniiamon and 
tincture of vanilla, of each 5 oz., oil of cloves 60 drops, 
clarified honey and syi'up to form a paste. 

2. Precipitated chalk 4 oz., sulphate of potash i oz., 
prepared honey sufficient to form a paste.; to be flavoured 
with a few drops of otto of roses or oil of cinnamon, &c. 



AsTEiNGENT Tincture for the Teeth and Gums. 1. 
Borax, alum, hay salt, of each a dr., spirit of camphor, 
tincture of myrrh, of each 1 oz., spirit of scurvy-grass 
(or of horseradish) 4 oz., tincture of rhatany 2 oz. ; mix, 
and shake occasionally for a day or two, then filter. A 
teaspoonful in a wineglassful of watei", to rinse the mouth 
after cleaning the teeth, or at any other time. 

2. Tannin 1 dr., rose-water 4 oz., spirit of wine 2 oz., 
spirit of scurvy-grass (or of horseradish) 2 oz., essence of 
hitter almonds a few drops. 

Odoriferous tincture of Myrrh. 1. Choice Turkey 
myrrh 3 oz., eau de Cologne a quart ; digest for 7 days, 
and filter. 

2. To 18 fluid oz. of tincture of myrrh add 2 oz. of 
essence of Cologne. (See Perfumery, back.) If the 
tincture should not be quite clear, add a few grs. of burnt 
alum, shake frequently, and filter in a day or two. 

BoRATED Tincture of Myrrh. 1. Myrrh 1 lb., eau de 
Cologne 16 lbs. borax 1 lb., distilled water 3 lbs., syrup 3 lbs., 
essence (or tincture) of roses 6 di-s., rhatany root 4 oz. ; 
digest for 10 or 12 days and filter. — Mr. Cockle. 

2. Borax 1 oz., shell-lac i oz., myrrh 2 oz., spirit of 
camphor 2 oz., honey of roses 2 oz., rectified spirit a pint 
Cologne essence 2 drs., orange-flower or rose water 4 oz. ; 
digest for a few days in a warm place, shaking occasion- 
ally, and filter. 

3. Borax 1 oz., shell-lac i oz., water 8 oz. ; boil together 
to 4 oz., and add spirit of scurvy-grass a pint, camphor 
i oz., myrrh 2 oz. ; digest and filter. 

^*^ Borax is very readily soluble in glycerin. 
Antiscorbutic Elixir. Cinchona 3 oz., guaiacum 5 oz., 


pellitory 3 oz., orange-poel 2 di's., cloves 5 di's., saffron i dr., 

benzoin, 2 di's., spirit of ^\■ine or brandy 32 oz. ; digest and 

filter. — Desfoeges. 
Desforges' Extract of Pellitoet. Pellitory root 5 oz., 

cinchona 1 oz., benzoin 1^ di's., essence of peppermint 3 drs., 

brandy a quart. 
Elixir of Roses. Cloves 1 dr., cinnamon 3 oz., ginger 

2 oz., spirit of wine 2^ pints, oil of orange-peel 1 dr., otto 

of roses 15 drops, essence of peppermint 1 oz. ; mix, digest 

for 15 days and filter. 
Lefandinieee's Eiixie. Rasped guaiacum wood ^ oz., 

pellitory 1 dr., nntmegs 1 di\, cloves i oz., oil of rosemary 

10 drops, oil of bergamot 4 drops, brandy a pint ; macerate 

for a fortnight, and filter. 
Eau de Bottot. Aniseed 4 oz., cinnamon 1 oz., cloves 

1 oz., cochineal 2 drs., oil of mint 2 drs., spirit of wine or 

brandy 8 lbs. j macerate 8 days, and filter. 

2. Tincture of cedar wood 1 pint, tincture of myrrh 

1 oz., mixed with the following essential oils : of pepper- 
mint ^ dr., of spearmint I dr., of cloves 10 di'ops, of roses 
10 di-ops. — PlESSE. 

Eau Dentifrice de Stahl. Spirit of M-ine or brandy 

2 gallons, rosewater 3 quarts, pellitory 5 oz., cypress 
root 3 oz., tormentil 3 oz., balsam of Peru 3 oz., cinna- 
mon 5 drs., goats' rue 1 oz., rliatany 1 oz. : macerate for 6 
days, shaking it occasionally ; let it rest for 24 hours, and 
pour off the clear. Add to the clear liquor, oil of mint 
li drs., cochineal 4 drs. ; in 3 or 4 days, filter. 

Eatt dtt Dr. O'Meaea. It is a tincture of pellitory, vetivcr, 

cloves, orris, and coriander, with creasote, &c. 
BoRiEs' Odontalgic Elixir, Pellitory root 2 oz., simple 

spirit of lavender 16 oz., muriate of ammonia i dr. ; digest 

24 hours and filter. 
Greenoitgh's Tincture. Bitter almonds 2 oz., Brazil wood 

i oz., cinnamon ^ oz., orris root i oz., cochineal, alum, salt 

of sorrel, each 1 dr., spirit of wine 32 fluid ounces, spirit of 

scur\^ grass 1 oz. 
Hudson's Preservative. Tincture of myrrh, tincture of 

bark, cinnamon water, of each 3 oz., arquebusade water 

1 oz., powdered gum ^ oz. 
Cheltenham Dentai Tincture. Camphor 4i oz., mji-rh 


2 oz., bark 5 oz., rectified spirit 36 fluid oz., distilled water 
8 oz. 

Lefoulom's Elixir foe the Teeth. Fresh roots of horse- 
radish, fi-esh leaves of scurvy grass and of mint, of each 
6 drs., guaiacum, cinchona, pellitoi'y, calamus, and rhatany, 
each 5 drs., proof spirit a tjuart ; macerate for 16 days, 
and strain. 

Eau de Madame de la Veilliere poxte les dekts. 
Cinnamon 2 oz., cloves 6 drs., fresh lemon-peel 1^ oz., dried 
rose petals 1 oz., scurvy-grass 8 oz., spirit 3 lbs. ; macerate 
24 hours, and distil in a water-bath. 

RusPiNi's TiNCTUEE. Orris 8 oz., cloves 1 oz., spirit 32 
fluid oz., essence of ambergris 1 oz. (or ambergris a scruple); 
macerate 14 days, and filter. 

Feench Elixir foe the Teeth. Rose water 16 oz., spirit 
of scurvy-grass 2 oz., tincture of galbanum 1 oz. ; colour 
with cochineal. 

Alkakine IjOTION, for preventiitff injuri/ to the teeth from 
acid medicines. Bicarbonate of soda 4 drs., distilled 
water 8 oz., eau de Cologne 2 drs., aromatic spirit of 
ammonia 1 dr. The mouth to be rinsed out with the lotion 
immediately after swallowing any medicine containing an 

Lotion of Chlorinated Soda, for purift/ing the breath, 
cleansing the mouth, removing inipleasant odours, &c. 
Liquid chlorinated soda 1 oz., distilled water 19 oz. ; mix. 
A teaspoonful in a glass of water. The same direction 
applies to most of the above. 


These are applied by moistening a little cotton wool or lint 
Avith the liquid, and introducing it into the cavity of the 
decayed and aching tooth. Where there is no cavity, they 
are sometimes applied to the gums surrounding the affected 
tootji. Most of them are stated by their several inventors 
or patrons, to give " immediate relief." The cavity should 
be dried with lint before applying the remedy. 

1. M. Pieste's. Water of ammonia, with half the 
quantity of tmcture of opiimi ; applied as above. 


2. Creasote 1 ili'., sjjirifc of camphor 2 drs., laudaimm 
1 dr. Creasote is also used alone : so is carvacrol, a li(juid 
of similar properties. Laennec prescribes 1 part of 
creasote and 10 of alcohol. See also No. 14. 

3. M. CoTTEREATj's. Etlicr saturated in the cold with 
camphor, and then a few drops of ammonia added. 

4. Mr. Blake's. Finely powdered alum 1 dr., spirit of 
nitric ether 7 drs. 

5. Faragway-roiix, or Compound Tincture of Para 
Cress. Flowers of Para cress 4 parts, Italian elecampane 
{Tnula hifrons) 1 part, pcllitory root 1 part, rectified spirit 
8 parts ; macerate 14 days, and strain. 

0. Mr. Elande's Tincture. Bruised pcllitory ^ oz., 
camphor ,3 drs,, opium 1 dr., oil of cloves ^ dr., rectified 
spirit 6 oz. ; digest for ten days, and strain. 

7. Pellitory, ginger, cloves, camphor, of each 1 oz., tinc- 
ture of opium 4 oz., spirits of wine 16 oz. ; macerate for 8 
days, and strain. 

8. Camphor 1 dr., ether 4 drs. ; dissolve. 

9. Camphor 2 drs., chloroform 1 dr., spirit of sal volatile 

10. Opium 2 oz., mastic 1 oz., balsam of Tolu 1 dr., 
camphor 1 oz., oil of cloves 1 dr., rectified spirit 16 lluid 
oz., oil of bitter almonds 8 drops. 

11. Creasote and chloroform, of each 2 drs., Sydenham's 
laudanum 4 drs., tinct. benzoin 1 oz. 

12. Chloral and camphor, of each 1 dr., morphia 2 grs., 
oil of peppermint 2 drs. 

13. Boerhaave's Odontalgic. Rectified spirit 1 oz., 
camphor i oz., opium 1 scruple, oil of cloves 80 drops. 

14. Lemaztjkier's Odontalgic Cherry-laurel water 2 
oz., acetate of morphia 1 gr. Wash the mouth with warm 
water, to a glass of which a few drops of this mi.\ture have 
been added. 

15. Oil of rosemary 2 oz., tincture of galbanuni 1 oz. ; 
mix. Cotton wet with this, is to be introduced into the 

16. RitiGiNi's. Alcohol 4 drs., creasfite 6 drs., tincture 
of cochineal 2 drs., oil of peppermint 3 drops. 

17. Mr. Drttitt's. Tannin 20 grs., mastic 5 grs., ether 2 
drs. Wash the mouth with warm water containing a little 


carbonate of soda ; lance the gums, and apply the tincture 
to the cavity of the tooth on cotton. 

18. Mr. Tomes recommends a solution of mastic in 
chloroform. The mastic serves to retain the chloroform, 
but the latter may be used alone on cotton or lint. Mr. 
Beatson uses a solution of copal in chloroform. 

19. Chloroform and white of egg, equal parts, digested 
for 4 hours, then applied on lint. 

Henbane Fumig-ation foe Toothache. A popular remedy 
is to throw henbane seed on hot cinders, inverting a cup 
over them to I'eceive the smoke and empyreumatic oil pro- 
duced. The cup is then filled with hot water, and the 
steam conveyed to the affected side of the mouth. Dr 
Downing' s Aiieuralgicon would probably prove a more 
effective means of applying remedies of this kind. See 
Gutta; Odontalgicaj. — Pocket Formulary. 



1. De Handel's. Opium 12 grs., camphor 24 grs., ca- 
jeput oil 4 drops, tincture of cantharides 4 drops, extract 
of henbane and of belladonna, of each 24 grs., distilled 
water of opium q. s. 

2. Vogiee's. Powdered opium 1 oz., mastic 2 drs., 
sandai-ach 2 drs., dragon's blood i dr., oil of rosemary 8 
di'ops, spirit to form a paste ; to be applied near the affected 

3. Powdered alum 1 dr., powdered mastic i dr., spirit of 
nitric ether q. s. to form a paste. 

4. Rust's. Opium 5 grs., oil of cloves 3 di'ops, extract 
of henbane 5 grs., extract of belladonnna 10 grs., powdered 
pellitory sufficient to form a paste. 


These are harder than the preceding, and intended to 
remain in the tooth for an indefinite time. In all cases 
the cavity should be previously cleansed from all extraneous 


matters, and wiped perfectly dry with a piece of lint or 
blotting paper. 

1. Soubeiean's. Powdered mastic and sandarach, of 
each 4 drs., dragon's blood 2 drs., opium 15 grs., mix with 
sufficient rectified spirit to form a stiff jjaste. A solu- 
tion of mastic, or of mastic and sandarach, in half the 
quantity of alcohol, is also used, applied with a little cotton 
or Imt. 

2. Sandarach 12 parts, mastic 6 parts, amber in powder 
1 part, ether 6 parts. Applied with cotton. Or simply 
a paste of powdered mastic and ether. Or a saturated 
ethereal solution of mastic, applied with cotton. 

3. Taveare's Cement is made with mastic and burnt 
alum. Beenoth directs 90 parts of powdered mastic to 
be digested with 40 of ether, and enough powdered alum 
added to form a stifE paste. 

4. Gutta i^ercha, softened by heat, is recommended. 
Dr. RoLLFS advises melting a piece of caoutchouc at the 
end of a wire, and mtroducing it while warm. 

5. Gaugee's Cement. Put into a quart bottle 2 oz. 
of mastic and 3 oz. of absolute alcohol ; apply a gentle 
heat by a water-bath. When dissolved, add 9 oz. of 
dry balsam of Tolu, and again heat gently. A piece of 
cotton dipped in this viscid solution, becomes hard when 
introduced into the tooth, previously cleansed and dried as 

6. Mr. Eobinson's. After washing out the mouth 
with warm water, containing a few grains of bicarbonate 
of soda, and cleaning the canity as above directed, he 
drops into it a drop of collodion, to which a little morphia 
has been added, fills the cavity with asbestos and satu- 
rates \\ith collodion, placing over all a pledget of blotting- 

7. Ostermaiee's Cement. Mix 12 parts of dry phos- 
phoric acid with 13 of pure and pulverized quicklime. It 
becomes moist in mixing, in which state it is introduced 
into the cavity of the tooth, where it quickly becomes hard. 
[In some hands this has failed, from what cause we do 
not know.] The acid should be prepared as directed 
under Trade Chemicals (Acid, Phosphoric). 

8. Silica. This name has been given to a mixture of 


Paris plaster, levigated porcelain, iron filings, and di'Cgs of 
tincture of mastic, ground together. 

9. Wieih's Cement. It is said to consist of a viscid 
alcoholic solution of resins, with powdered asbestos. 

10. Metallic Cement. Amalgams for the teeth are 
made with gold or silver, and quicksilver, the excess of 
the latter being squeezed out, and the stiif amalgam used 
warm. Inferior kinds are made with quicksilver and tin, 
or zinc. A popular nostrum of this kind is said to con- 
sist of 40 gps. of quicksilver and 20 of fine zinc filings, 
mixed at the time of using. Mr. Evans states that pure 
tin, with a small portion of cadmium, and sufficient quick- 
silver, forms the most lasting and least objectionable amal- 
gam. The following is the formula ; Melt 2 i^arts of tin 
with 1 of cadmium, run it into ingots, and reduce it to 
filings. Form these into a fluid amalgam with mercury, 
and squeeze out the excess of mercury through leather. 
Work up the solid residue in the hand, and press it into 
the tooth. Or, melt some bees'-wax in a pipkin over the 
fire, throw in 5 parts of cadmium, and, when melted, add 
7 or 8 parts of till in small pieces ; pour the melted metals 
into an iron or wooden box, and shake them till cold, so 
as to obtain the alloy in a powder. This is mixed with 
2^ or 3 times its weight of quicksilver in the iialm of the 
hand, and used as above. 

Another cement consists of about 73 parts of silver, 21 
of tin, and 6 of zinc, amalgamated with quicksilver. An 
amalgam of copper is said to be sometimes used. But this 
class of stoppings is altogether disapproved of by other 
aiithorities. Pure leaf-gold seems the least objectionable. 

11. Maemoratum. Finely levigated glass, mixed with 
tin amalgam. 

12. PouDEE Metalliqve. The article sold under this 
name in Paris appears to be an amalgam of silver, mer- 
cury, and ammonium, \\ith an excess of mercury, which 
is pressed out before using it. 

13. Fusible Metal. Melt together 8 parts of bismuth, 
5 of lead, 3 of tin, and li or 1-6 of quicksilver, with as 
little heat as possible. — Chaudet. 

14. NoN Expensive Metallic Tooth- Stopi'Ing. Take 
1 part of sulphate of mercury, 1 part of copper in fino 


powder ; rub them well together with a little warm water; 
when the amalgam is formed wash well, and remove the 
surplus of mercury l)y pressing it through cliamois leather. 
— Phaem. Jouen. 

SxPENsiNE Metallic Tooth-Stopping, and much pee- 
FEEABLE. Take pure gold, pure gelatiiie, I part of each, 
pure silver, 2 parts, melt, and when refrigerated, reduce 
to a powder by means of a file ; wash weli and dry. In 
the nioment of using it, add sufficient mercury to form a 
plastic paste. — Phaem Jouen. 

i^ASTE POR Destroying the Sensibility of the Dental 
Pulp previous to Stopping. Arsenious acid 30 grains, 
sulphate of morphia 20 grains, creasote q. s. [Unsafe 
it is only inserted by way of warning, against what may 
prove an unsuspected cause of mischief.] 

'ivots for Artificial Teeth. An alloy of platinum and 

ipRiNGS FOR Artificial Teeth. Equal parts of copper, 
silver, and palladium. — Chaudet. 

[For Cachou Aromatise, and other compounds for sweet- 
ening the breadth, see Perfumeey.] 

:aeachk. Simple Cure for. Take a common tobacco-pipe, 
place a v.-ad of cotton in the bowl, drop upon it 8 or 10 
drops of chloroform, and cover with another wad of cotton ; 
place the stem to the afPected ear, tlien blow into the bowl, 
and in many cases the pain \nll cease ahnost immediately. 
• — American Journal. 




We have placed here such beverages as are rather employed 
as a refreshing luxury than either medicinally of as re- 
gular articles of diet. Wines, spirits, &c., are necessarily 
excluded. The medicinal mineral waters will be found 

GiNGEE Beee. 1. Lifuse 3 oz. of bruised ginger in 4 gal- 
lons of boiling water till cold. Strain through tammy or 
flannel. Dissolve in the liquor 5 lbs. of loaf sugar, and 
add half a pint of sohd yeast, and 2^ oz. of cream of 
tartar. In cold weather it will be necessary to set the 
cask near the fire, so as to excite brisk fermentation. As 
soon as this subsides, rack off the clear liquor, return it 
into the cask previously washed out, and allow it to work 
for a day or two longer. Then draw it off and bottle it. — 

2. Ginger sliced 1 oz., dried oi'ange peel J oz. ; tie them 
in a bag, and boil with 16 lbs. of water, and strain ; add 
f of an oz. of tartaric or citric acid, 25 drops of essence of 
lemon, and 24 oz. of loaf sugar. Wlien sufficiently cool, 
add 2 tablespoonfuls of fresh yeast; let it work for 12 
hours and bottle it. 

3. Ginger sliced f oz., essence of lemon (rubbed -with 
sugar) i dr., lump sugar 12 oz., boiling water 8 lbs. ; infuse 
till cold and strain. Ferment as above, \>ith 3 or 4 
spoonfuls of yeast, and bottle. 



4. Boil 2i oz. of bruised giuger and 3 lbs. of sugar in 3i 
gallons of water for 20 minutes ; put Into [a large pan 1 
oz. cream of tartar, and the juice and rind of two lemons ; 
pour the boiling liquor over them, and stir the whole well 
together ; when milk-warm add ^ pint of good ale yeast, 
cover it, and let it work for 2 or 3 days, skimming it fre- 
quently ; then strain it through a jelly -bag into a cask, 
add i pint of brandy, bung down close, and in 2 or 3 
weeks, bottle it in the usual way. 

5. Boil 22 oz. bruised ginger in 3 gallons of water for 
^ an hour ; add 20 lbs. of white sugar, 18 oz. of lemon -juice, 
1 lb. of honey, and 15 gallons of water, and strain through 
a cloth. When cold add the white of an egg, and i oz. 
of essence of lemon; after standing 4 days, bottle, and 
lay the bottles in a cellar for three weeks. 

6. Prepare a clear decoction or infusion of ginger with 
sugar and lemon as above ; but instead of fermenting it 
with yeast, charge it strongly mth carbonic acid gas by 
means of a machine. 

7. Imperial Pop. Cream of tartar 3 oz., ginger 1 oz., 
white sugar 24 oz., lemon-juice 1 oz., boiling water a 
gallon and a half ; when cool, strain, and ferment with 1 
oz. of yeast, and bottle. 

of ginger with 11 quarts of water : beat up four eggs to a 
froth, and add them with 9 lbs. of sugar to the preceding. 
Take 9 lemons, peel them carefully, and add the rind and 
juice to the foregoing. Put the whole into a barrel, add 

3 spoonfuls of yeast, bung down the barrel, and in about 
12 days bottle it ofp. In 15 days it wiU be fit for drink- 
ing ; but it improves by keeping. 

2. To 10 gallons of water add 11^ lbs. of loaf sugar, and 
the whites of 10 eggs well beaten ; boil till the scum rises, 
and add 6 oz. of bruised ginger ; boil for 20 minutes, then 
pour the hot liquor on the rinds of 12 lemons thinly 
peeled ; when cold, put into a barrel the juice of 12 lemons, 
1 oz. of isinglass, a gill of brandy, and a spoonful of yeast, 
and fill the barrel with the liquor. In a fortnight it will 
be ready to bottle. 
GiNGEE Beee Powdees. Fuie powder of Jamaica ginger 

4 or 5 drs., bicarbonate of soda 3? oz., refined sugar in 


powder 14 oz., essence of lemon 30 drops : mix, and 
divide into 5 dozen powders. (Or 4 to 5 grs. of ginger, 
28 of bicai'bonate of soda, 112 of sugar, and ^ drop of 
essence of lemon, in each j)owder.) In the other powder, 
put 32 grs. of tartaric acid ; or 35 grs. if a more decidedly 
acidulated beverage is required. Or from 30 to 33 grs. of 
citric acid. 

[Other formulae are also in use. Dr. Pereiea gives the 
following : — Bicarbonate of soda 30 grs., white sugar 1 dr., 
powdered ginger 5 grs., in each blue jjaper ; and 25 grs. of 
tartaric acid in each white paper. This is less agreeable, 
but perhaps more friendly to the stomach, than when the 
acid is in slight excess. The following is from the Phar- 
maceutical Journal : — Sugar 2 drs., sescpiicarbonate of soda 
2 scruples (misprinted 3 drachms in vol. 3), ginger 4 or 5 
grs., essence of lemon 1^ or 2 drops, in each blue paper ; 
with 35 grs. of tartaric acid.] 

Ginger Beer Powder in one Bottle. (The soda, acid, 
and sugar must be very carefully dried, separately, and at 
a temperature not exceeding 120°.) Fine powder of 
Jamaica ginger 4 or 5 drs., bicarbonate of soda 3i oz., 
double-refined sugar 14 oz., essence of lemon 30 drops, 
tartaric acid 4^ oa. The acid and soda should not be too 
finely powdered. Mix the powders, recently dried in a 
warm mortar, and immediately put the mixture into dry 
bottles, and cork securely. A measure holding 3 drs. should 
accompany each bottle. 

Lemon Juice (factitioi^s). Dissolve 4 oz. of citric acid in 3 
pints of water, with 8 drops of essence of lemon (rubbed 
with the acid, or dissolved in a little spirit or tincture of 
fresh lemon-peel). After standing a few days filter it, and 
keep it in well-closed bottles. 

Orange Juice (factitious). Citric acid 1 oz., water 2 pints, 
oil of orange-peel 4 dro^is, tincture of orange-peel ^ oz. As 
the last. 

King Cup ; or Lemon Drink without Acid. 1. Pour a 
cpiart of cold water on the thin peel of 1 or 2 lemons : let 
them infuse 6 or 8 hours ; then strain. — Mr. Brande. 

2. Pour a pint of boiling water on the outer rind of one 
lemon, a small piece of dried orange-peel, and a moderate- 
sized lump of sugar. 


Lemonade, Acidulated (not Aerated). 1. Fresh lemon- 
juice 4 oz., fresh lemou-peel (thinly peeled) ^ oz., white 
sugar 4 oz., boiling water 3 pints. Strain when cold.-^ 
Mr. Brande. 

2. Imperial. Cream of tartar 1^ drs., a slice of thin 
lemon-peel, a lump of sugar j pour on them a quart of 
boiling water. Strain when cold. To be taken as a cool- 
ing drink. 

3. Common. Cut 2 lemons into slices, add 2 oz. of 
sugar, and pour on them a quart of boiling water. It is 
sometimes made with cold water. 

4. French. Syrup of citric acid 2 oz., water a quart, 
spirit of lemon-peel a teaspoonf ul. 

5. Juice and thin peel of 1 lemon, citric acid 1 dr., 
sugar 3 oz., boiling water a quart. It may be varied by 
substituting for the sugar, syrup of raspberries, or of other 

Aerated or Effervescing Lemonade. This may be 
made by putting into each bottle (soda-water bottle) 1 oz. 
or 1^ oz. of syrup of lemons, and filling it up witli simple 
aerated water from the machine. [The syrup is made 
by dissolving 30 oz. of lump sugar in 16 oz. of fresh 
lemon-juice, by a gentle heat. It may be aromatized 
by adding 30 or 40 drops of essence of lemon to the 
sugar ; or by rubbing part of the sugar on the peel of 2 
lemons ; or by adding to the syrup an ounce of a strong 
tincture of fresh lemon-peel, or of the distilled spirit of 
the same.] 

Effera'escing Lemonade, without a Machine. Put Into 
each bottle 2 drs. of sugar, 2 drops of essence of lemon, 
\ dr. bicarbonate of potash, and water to fill the bottle ; 
then drop in 35 or 40 grs. of citric or tartaric acid in 
crystals, and cork immediately, placing the bottles in a 
cool place, or preferably, in iced water. Mr. Eartlett 
recommends 2 scruples of sesquicarbonate of soda, 2 drs. 
of sugar, 4 drops of essence of lemon, and half a pint of 
water, lastly, a dr. of tartaric acid in crystals. Care must 
be taken to avoid accidents from the bursting of the l)ottles. 
Another form is : — Into a soda-water ])ottle nearly filled 
with water, put 1 oz. of sugar, 2 drops of essence of lemon 
(dropped oil tlie sugar), 20 grs, of bicarbonate of potash 



in crystals ; and, lastly, 30 to 40 grs. o£ citric acid, also in 
crystals. Cork immediately. 

Mile Lemonade. Dissolve 1^ lbs. of sngar in a quart of 
boiling water, add i pint of fresh lemon-juice, and the 
same of sherry; and, lastly, two thirds of a pint of cold 
milk. Stir together, and strain. 

Det Lehoxade, oh AciDrLATED Lemonade Potvdee. 
Citric acid f oz., refined sugar 8 oz., essence of lemon 36 
drops. Some recipes direct a larger quantity of acid, 
others a much larger proportion of sugar. 

Effeevescing Lemonade Powdees. Bicarbonate of soda 
Si 07.., refined sugar 14 oz., essence of lemon 60 drops. 
[Sometimes 12 or more grains of the powdered yellow 
rind of lemon-peel are added to colour it.] Mix, and 
dinde into 60 powders, or 140 grains in each blue paper. 
Li the white papers put from 30 to 82 grs. of citric acid. 
or from 32 to 35 grs. of tartaric acid. Or the mixed 
alkaline powder and the acid may be put into separate 
bottles, furnished with measures holding the proper quan- 
tity of each. 

— Tlie powders must all be separately and carefully dried, 
at a moderate temperature, before mixing, and when mixed, 

' must be carefully secured from the air. 

1. Bicarbonate of soda 1 oz., refined sugar 3^ oz., tar- 
taric acid li oz., essence of lemon 30 drops; mix, and put 
into well-corked bottles. 

2. Mix 3^ oz. of bicarbonate of soda, 14 oz. of double 
refined sugar, 60 drops of essence of lemon, and 4 oz. to 
4i oz. of tartaric acid. 

3. Lemon-Kali. Acidulated Kali. Sesquicarbonated 
. soda 8 oz., tartai'ic acid 8 oz., refined sugar 16 oz., essence 

of lemon 100 drops : mix. — Pharmaceutical Journal. 

Oeanoeade, oe Sherbet. 1. Juice of 4 oranges, thin peel 
of 1 orange, lump sugar 4 oz., boiling water 3 pints. 

2. Juice and peel of 1 large orange, citric acid ^ dr.^^ 
sugar 3 oz., boiling water a quart. 

Effervescino or Aeeated Oranoeade, or Sherbet. 
1. Mix 1 lb. of syrup of orange-peel, a gallon of water, 
and 1 oz. of citric acid, and charge it strongly with car- 
bonic acid gas with a machine. 



2. iSyrup of orange juice f oz., aerated water half a 

3. Simple syrup ^ fluid oz., tincture of orauge-peel ^ 
dr., citric acid 1 scruple; fill the bottle with aerated 

4. Put into a soda-water bottle A oz. to 1 oz. of syrup of 
orange-peel, 30 grs. of bicarbonate of potash, 8 oz. of water 
and, lastly, 40 grs. of citric acid in crystals, and cork 

5. Rit into each bottle 2 or 3 drs. of sugar, 2 di-ops of 
oil of orange-peel, 30 grs. of bicarbonate of potash, or 25 
grs. of bicarbonate of soda ; water to fill the bottle, and 40 
grs. of citric acid, as before. 

Aeeated Sherbet oe Oeaxgeade Powdees. Powdered 
sugar 14J oz., powdered orange-peel 12 grs., oil of orange- 
peel 60 drops, essence of cedrat 12 drops, bicarbonate of 
soda 3^ oz. ; mix, and put 145 grs. in each blue paper. In 
the white paper put 32 grs. of tartaric (or rather 30 grs. of 
citric) acid. Or the alkaline and acid powders may be put 
into separate bottles, with a measure holding the proper 
proportion of each. The orauge-peel may be omitted. 

Aeeated Sheebet Powdees in one Bottie. Double- 
refined sugar 14^ oz. [powdered orange-peel 12 grs.], bicar- 
bonate of soda 3 4 oz., essence of cedrat 12 drops, oil of 
orange-peel 60 drops, tartaric acid 4 oz. The powders 
must be carefully cb'ied, mixed quickly, and afterwards 
kept dry, and securely corked. A measitre holding nearly 
3 drs. of the powder should accompany each bottle. 

Obaxgeade Powdeb, not Aeeated. Citric acid h oz., 
sugar 8 oz., oil of orange-peel 20 drops. 

Soda Powdees. The usual proportions are — 30 or 32 grs., 
of bicarbonate of soda in each blue paper ; and 25 or 26 
grs. of tartaric acid in each white paper. 

AciDrLATED Effertesci>'G Powdees; for making effer- 
vescing drinks with concentrated syrups of lemon, ginger, 
&c. Put into separate papers, distinguished by their dif- 
ferent coloiirs, 20 grs. of bicarbonate of soda, and 28 grs. 
of citric or tartaric acid. One of each powder to be dis- 
solved separately in one third of a tumbler of water, and 
a teaspoonful of the syrup added to the acid solution, and 
the liquids mixed. 

27G beVeeageS 

[The Concentrated Sykups are thus made — 

Concentrated Syrup of Ginger. Simple syinip 7i fluid 
ouuees, essence of ginger (1 part ginger to 1 of spii-it) 
i oz. 

Concentrated Si/rup of Lemon-peel. Strong tincture 
of lemon-peel* 1 oz., simple syrup 15 fluid ounces. 

Concentrated Syrup of Orange-pjeel. Strong tincture of 
fresh orange-peel* ^ oz., simple syrup 7i fluid ounces. 

[Syrup of raspberries, pine-apples, and other fruit, may 
he used with the above powders in the same way.] 

For Seidlitz and other Medicated Powders, see Mineeal 
Waters and Powders, at the end of Patent Medicines, 

Spruce Beer. Water 10 gallons, treacle or lump sugar 
(according to the colour required) 6 lbs. ; essence of spruce 
4 oz. ; add yeast, and fennent as for ginger beer. 

Spruce Beer Powders. In each blue paper put 5 scruples 
of powdered sugar, 28 grs. of bicarbonate of soda, and 10 
grs. essence of spruce. In each white paper 30 grs. of 
tartaric acid. 

Treacle Beer. 1. Brown sugar 1 lb., treacle 1 lb., bruised 
ginger 1 oz., hops 5 oz. ; boil for a few minutes in 3 quarts 
of water, strain, and add 5 quarts of cold water : add a 
spoonful of fresh yeast ; let it work all night, and bottle 
it in the morning. 

2. Treacle 14 lbs., hops Ij lbs., water 36 gallons, yeast 
1 lb. Boil the hops with the w-ater, add the treacle, and 
strain. Cool to 80°, and ferment with the yeast. In winter 
i oz. of Cayenne pods with the hops is an improvement. — 
Family Friend. 

Capillaibe. To a pint of boiling water add 3 oz. of fine 
maidenhair ; remove from the fire, cover, and set near the 
fire for 3 hours ; strain, and add ^ pint of orange-flower 
water. Boil a gallon of fine syrup till reduced to 7 pints, 
then add the infusion, and boil for ten minutes ; strain 
through a jelly-bag, and when quite cold, bottle the syrup. 
It is used to give a fine flavour to water. 

* These tinctures are thus made: fresh lemon-peel, thin, and cut small, 
4oz. ; rectified spirit 8 oz. ; digest for some dajs, and strain. Fresh peel of 
Seville oranges 4 oz.; spirit 16 oz. 


Ltmoxiated Capillaiee. Refined sugar 24 oz., water 12 
oz. ; dissolve by a gentle heat ; and 'add essence of lemon 
30 drops, neroli 3 drops, citric acid 2 oz., orange-flower 
^\'ater 4 oz. 

^YEUP OF Pine Apple. Expressed juice of pine apple a 
pint ; loaf sugar 2 lbs. Boil gently, and when cold filter. 

5IR0P p'Oegeat. See Syrnpus Amygdalaj, Pocket Formu- 
lary. Another formula for this excellent syrup is the fol- 
lowing : Take 20 oz. of sweet and 8 oz. of bitter almonds, 
9 lbs. of white sugar, and 4 pints of water. Blanch the 
almonds, dry them well, beat them with a portion of the 
sugar, and add gradually two thirds of the water ; strain 
through linen, wash the almonds on the strainer with the 
rest of the water, and dissolve the sugar in the strained 
liquor by a gentle heat. Pour the syrup into an earthen 
vessel, remove the scum, and when nearly cold, add 2 oz. 
of orange-flower water. 

IciDtTLATED RASPBERRY Syrup. Put 6 Ibs. of raspberries 
into a china or glass bowl, or an earthen pan not glazed 
with lead, with a quart of water in which has been dis- 
solved 2| oz. of tartaric (or preferably citric) acid, and let 
it remain 24 hours ; then strain it, taking care not to 
bruise tlie fruit. To each pint of clear liquor add 1^ lbs. 
of pounded loaf sugar, and stir it with a silver spoon till 
dissolved ; leave it for a few days, then bottle it close. A 
little of this syrup, or of either of the two following, with 
water, forms a refreshing drink in warm weather, and in 
some febrile disorders. 


using 2 oz. of citric acid, instead of 2^ oz. of tartaric 

lASPBERRY Vinegar. Put a pint and a half of best wine 
vinegar to 3 lbs. of fruit in a glass or porcelain vessel ; 
leave them together for a fortnight, then strain without 
pressure. Or put an equivalent quantity of strong acetic 
acid (4 oz. of the usual strength) to the fruit, in the same 
way. Or it may be made as directed above for Acidulated 
Raspberry Syrttp. 

Vhet Powder. Sugar of milk in fine powder 2 oz., pow- 
dered white sugar 7 oz., gum Arabic i oz. ; mix. An 


ounce dissolved in a quart of water is used as a substitute 
for wliey. 

Whet may be made by adding a little infusion of rennet 
(prepared calf's stomach) to milk, and gently heating _ it 
till curdled. It is also made by heating a quart of milk 
nearly to boiling, and adding either a little lemon juice, 
orange-juice, solution of citric acid, vinegar, or white 
wine, or cream of tartar, sufficient to turn it. It is then 
strained. If required bright, beat up the white of an egg 
with a portion of the whey, mix with the rest, boil for a 
moment, and run it through a jelly-bag. See Serum 
Lactis, Pocket Formulary. 

One or two recipes in Confectionery may be introduced 

Oeakge Maemalade. 1. Procm-e some large Se\'ille 
oranges mth clear skins, peel them, squeeze out the_ pulp 
and juice, taking, care to remove all the pips. Boil the 
peel, divided into quarters, till they are sufficiently tender ; 
scrape clean air the inside from them, lay them in folds, 
and cut them into very thin slices about an inch long. 
Weigh the juice, pulp, and boiled peel ; then add broken 
lump sugar equal in M-eight to the whole, and boil for 
lialf an hour, carefully remo\ing the scum. Then put it 
into pots, and when quite cold, cover them over. 

2. Instead of using all Se%ille oranges, let only half or a 
third of them be bitter, and the rest, common sweet oranges. 
Proceed in the same way as above. Some add honey. 

CUEEANT Jelly. Pick the currants, put them in an earthen 
jar, and place it m boiling water till the juice is extracted. 
Strain through a sieve without pressing them, and boil 
the juice in an enamelled saucepan with its weight of loaf 
sugar, removing the scum as it rises. "VNTien it will jelly 
on" the back of a cold spoon, it is sufficiently done. A little 
of the jelly dissolved in warm water forms an agreeable 



As the ingredients of some of the following compounds are 
usually sold by druggists, who may be expected to furnish 
information as to the manner of using them, and as they 


may all be regarded as auxiliaries to medical treatment, 
some notice of them here seems desirable, though it must 
necessarily be brief and incomplete. 

Akeow-eoot. [West Indian arrow-root is the fecula of the 
tubers of the Marauta arundinacea ; East Indian arrow- 
root is obtained from the Curcuma augustifolia ; South 
Sea or Tahiti arrow-root from the Tacca pinnatifida. 
They have all the same properties, and are used in the 
same manner]. Mix a dessert-spoonful of arro^^Toot 
■with sufficient cold water to form a soft paste j rub it till 
quite smooth, and add half a pint of boiling water, stir- 
ring it briskly. Boil it for a miniate or two, and when 
removed from the fire add a tea spoonful of sherry or other 
white wine (where wine is admissible), with a little grated 
nutmeg or lemon-peel, and sugar to the taste. For yomig 
children, milk should be used instead of water, and the 
wine omitted ; it is also more nourishing in this form for 
those invalids with whom milk agi*ees. 

Tors LES Mois. [The fecula of a species of Canna.] It 
is used in the same way as arrow-root ; but rather less is 
required. It forms a more tenacious, but less transparent 


Sago. [The granulated fecula of the pith of one or more 
species of the Sago Palm.] Wash an ounce of pearl sago 
in cold water ; then boil it very gently in a pint of fresh 
water, stirring it frequently till dissolved. It may be 
flavoured with wine, spices, and sugar, as directed for 
arrow-root. For childi'en, and for consumptive and debi- 
litated patients, it may be made \\-itli milk instead of 
water. The common sago, being in larger grains, requires 
more time to dissolve ; and is usually steeped for some 
hours before boiling it. 

Tapioca. [Obtained from the tuberous roots of the Cassava 
(Jatropha manihot). It is usually sold in small lumps 
formed by drying the fecula on hot plates.] It is used in 
the same way as sago ; but requires to be pre^dously steeped 
for some hours, or to be simmered for a longer time. It 
forms a clear jelly, which may be flavoured with wine, 
spices, and sugar, as directed for arrow-root ; but is more 
nourishing when made with milk. 


Sago Posset, for invalids. Macerate a tablespoon fnl of 
sago in a pint of water for 2 honr.H on the hob of a stove, 
then boil for 15 minutes, assiduously stirring. Add sugar 
with an aromatic, snch as ginger or nutmeg, and a table- 
spoonful or more of white wine. If the wine be not per- 
mitted, flavour with lemon-juice. 

Sago or Tapioca Milk, for invalids. Take an ounce of 
cither of these feculie, and soak it in a pint of cold water 
for an hour; then pfnir off this water, and, adding 1^ 
j)int3 of good milk, boil slowly until well incorporated. — 
Dr. A. T. Thomson. 

Tapioca Ptddixg, for invalids. Beat up I ounce of sugar 
with the yolks of 2 eggs, and stir the mixture into a pint 
of tapioca milk. — Dr. Thomson. 

Arrow-root milk and jmdding may be made like th(' 
corresponding ])rcparations of tapioca 

Panada, for invalids. Place in a saucepan some very thin 
slices of brea<l crumb, and a<ld rather more water than 
will cover them. Boil now until the bread becomes pidpv, 
strain off the superfluous water, and beat up the remainder 
into the consistence of gruel. Sweeten with white sugar, 
and add, if permitted a little sherry wine. 

Barlky Water. See Decoctum Hordei, and Decoctum 
HoRDEi CoMPOSiTTM. — Pockct Formulary. Robinson's 
Patent Barley is a convenient preparation ; printed direc- 
tions accompany it. 

Asses' Milk, artificial. Eringo root, pearl barley, sago, 
rice, of each 1 oz. Wash them with cold water, then boil 
them with 3 pints of water to 1^ pints, and strain. Put a 
teaspoonful to a cup of boiling water, and sweeten to the 
taste. [^Bonbons de lait d'dnesse are made with sugar of 
milk, white sugar, gum, and starch or arrow-root.] 

Linseed Tea. Take IJ oz. of clean linseed, and ^ an oz. 
of bruised liquorice root; put them into a warm teapot or 
jug, and pour on them 2 ])iiits of boiling water ; let them 
stand, covered, near tlic fire, for 3 or 4 honrs, stirring 
them occasionally ; then strain. To save time, the in- 
gredients may be boiled for 1,5 or 20 minutes, instead of 
infusing them ; but the tea so made is less agreejible. 

Iceland Moss. Infuse an ounce of picked Iceland moss for 15 
minutes in half a pint of hot water; strain off the water 


and boil the moss in a qnart of fresh water till reduced to 
a pint and a half. Half an ounce of liquorice root may 
he addetl, towards the end of the boiling, if agreeable : or 
milk may he used instead of water. 

Jelly oii Iceland Moss. See Gelatina Lichenis, Pocket 
Formulary. Another form is the following : — Infuse 2 ll)s. 
of the moss for half an hour in sufficient boiling water to 
cover it ; drain the moss, and boil it in 2^ gallons of 
water for an hour, and strain. Boil the moss with fresh 
water, adding an oz. of isinglass ; strain ; mix the pro- 
diu't of the two boilings, and let it stand till clear. Eva- 
porate the clear liquid to the consistence of a stifp jelly, 
adding, towards the end, G lbs. of fine lump sugar, 2 oz. of 
French brandy, and half an ounce of orange-flower water. 
It may he taken, almost at pleasure, dissolved in water or 

Iceland Moss Chocolate. See Chocolata Lichenis, Pocket 

Irish Moss, or Carrageen. Steep a i of an ounce of the 
moss in cold water for a few minutes ; then withdraw it, 
shaking the water from each sj^rig, and boil it in a quart 
of milk till it attains the consistence of jelly, and sweeten 
to the taste. A decoction of the same quantity of moss in 
a quart of water is also used as a demulcent in coughs, &c, 
Blanc-Mange may be made by washing | oz. of the moss 
a* above, and boiling it in IJ pints of new milk to such a 
consistence that it will retain its fonn when cold, sweeten- 
ing and flavouring it to the taste. An agreeable jelly may 
be made by boiling it with water instead of milk, and add- 
ing lemon or orange juice or ])eel, wine, &c. 

Ceylon Moss. Boil | oz. of the ])veparcd moss in a quart 
of water for 25 minutes ; or till a spoonful taken out 
forms a firm jelly in 2 or 3 minutes : then flavour with 
wine, ciniuimon, or with lemon or orange juice or peel ; 
ami sweeten to the taste. ]5oil for five minutes longer, 
and ]n-ess through a jelly-bag, or doubled muslin. Pour 
it into earthen moulds, and leave it undisturbed till it has 
set. If the jelly is required bright it must be clarified 
with white of ego^, as directed for gelatine jelly. For 
Blanc-Mange add 1 oz. of pre]iarcd moss to a cpiart of 
boiling water, and boil gently till rcdm'ed to a third ; add 


the milk and flavouring ingredients, and pour into earthen 

ArsTEALiAN Moss. Tliis has been introduced for the same 
use as Irish and Ceylon mosses, but has not been very 
generally adopted. Soak ^ oz. of the moss in water for an 
hour or two, pour away the water, and boil the moss in a 
quart of fresh water till dissolved. Stram through a hair 
sieve, and sweeten and flavour to the taste. 

Salep. [The dried root of some species of orchis.] Boil 
i oz. of salep powder in a pint of water till dissolved ; 
strain, and sweeten and flavour to the taste. 

Hartshorn Jelly. Boil 4 oz. of true hartshorn shavings 
(previously washed in warm water) in a quart of water 
till reduced to a pint ; strain, and sweeten and flavour to 
the taste. For children and consumptive patients, the 
simple jelly may be mixed M'ith milk and a little sugar. 
To make a bright jelly for the table, boil 4 oz. of washed 
hartshorn shavings in 1^ pints of water, till reduced to f 
of a pint, and add 2 oz. of sugar, and a tablespoouful of 
lemon or orange juice. Strain with pressure ; beat up the 
white of an egg with a little cold water, mix this 
thoroughly with the jelly, and evaporate the liquid till a 
little taken out solidifies on cooling. Add a little fresh 
lemon-peel, and strain through a jelly-bag. 

Gelatine Jelly. Steep 1 oz. of Nelson's or other pui-ified 
gelatine in half a pint of cold water for ten minutes ; then 
add the same quiwitity of boiling water, and strr till it is 
dissolved, applying heat if required : add the jiiice and peel 
of two lemons, sugar, and wine suflicient to make up the 
whole to a pint and a half. If required bright, have ready 
the white and shell of an egg well beaten together, stir 
them briskly into the jelly, boil for 2 or 3 minutes without 
stirring, and pass through a jelly-bag. As a nourishing 
diet for children and invalids, a little of the gelatine simply 
dissolved in water may be mixed with milk, or the dry 
gelatine dissolved in milk by heat. 

Isinglass Jelly. Isinglass is used in the same way as 
gelatine, but as it is not wholly soluble in water, it re- 
quires straining. To make a bright jelly, it requires more 
eggs for its clarification than gelatine. A very pleasant 
jelly is made with the Acidulated Raspberry or Strawberry 


Svrup (see further back) thus : Dissolve 1^ oz. of isiuglass 
in a very little water, put this to a quart of the syrup, 
warm it and stir it well j then strain it into a mould. In 
warm weather put 2 oz. of isinglass. 

Aerow-Root Bianc-Mangk. Beat up 2 oz. of genuine 
arrow-root Mith a little cold milk to the consistence of 
cream ; pour on it !# pints of boiling milk, stirring it all 
the time. Flavour and sweeten to the taste, boil for 10 
minutes, stirring it constantly, pour into moulds, and leave 
it until next day. 

Blanc-Mange. This may be made with either isinglass or 
gelatine. Boil J oz. in 16 fluid oz. (the old wine pint) of 
new milk ; stir it constantly till it boils, let it simmer for 
a few minutes till the isinglass is dissolved ; strain, add 
sugar to the taste, and a few drops of almond flavour, or 
other flavouring ingredients, and pour into moulds. 

Chocolate. This is prepared from the finest cocoa-nuts 
(seeds of Tlieobroma cacao) after roastuig, winnowing, 
&c., by grinding them on a hot stone or plate, or beating 
them in a hot mortar to a smooth paste. Sugar is gene- 
rally added, and vanilla or other flavouring ingredients. 

Chocolates, Medicated. See Chocolata, Pocket Formulary. 

White_ Chocolate. White sugar 3 lbs., rice flour 27i oz., 
English or Indian arrow-root 8 oz., tincture of vanilla 
i oz., butter of cacao 8 oz., powdered gum Arabic 4 oz. ; 
form a paste with boiling water, and put it into moulds. 

Cocoa. This should also be prepared from the seeds of 
Theobroma cacao; and the rock, roll, and flake cocoas, 
often consist of this alone. But most of the paste cocoa, 
and soluble cocoa powder, is mixed with saccharine and 
farinaceous matters. This is the case with much of the 
" Homoeopathic " Cocoa, which professes to be unadul- 
terated, but generally contains potato-starch. A common 
proportion for soluble cocoa, appears to be two thirds of 
l)ure cocoa, and one third of sugar and farina ; the latter 
being one or more of the following : — Wheat flour, sago 
meal, potato flour, arrow-root, &c. The Paste Cocoa often 
contains only about half its weight of cocoa, the rest being 
sugar and water, with sometimes the addition of sago meal 
or other farina. 

GuAKANA. An alimentary and medicinal substance, im- 


ported in the form of cakes from Brazil, where tlicj are 
used as we use chocolate, uiixed with water and sugar, 
and taken as a beverage. Guarana is very rich in caft'ein. 
See Pocket Formulary. 

Beoma. This consists of about 8 oz. of pure cocoa, 3i of 
sugar, and 4^ of sago-meal, arrow-root, &c. 

Wacaka des Indes. Roasted cacao beans (chocolate) in 
powder 2 oz., sugar 6 oz., cinnamon i oz., vanilla (pow- 
dered with part of the sugar) ^ dr., aml)ergris 3 grs., musk 
li grs. Sometimes a drachm of prepared annotto is added, 
and the ambergris and musk omitted. 

Racahoitt des Arabes. This is professedly a preparation 
of acorns (perhaps those of the Quercus ballotta, which 
are naturally sweet, or of other kinds deprived of their 
bitterness by being buried in the earth) ; but it is imitated 
by the following : — 1. Chocolate in powder 1 oz., rice flour 
3 oz., sugar 9 oz., potato arrow-root 3 oz., vanilla (pul- 
verized with part of the sugar) 1 dr. ; mix. 

2. Chocolate in powder 4 oz., salep 1 oz. (or powdered 
tragacanth 1 oz.), potato arrow-root 5 oz., sugar (flavoured 
with vanilla) 8 oz. — Cadet. 

DiCTAMiA. Sugar 7 oz., potato arrow-root 4 oz., flour of 
brent barley (Triticum monococcum) 3 oz., Trinidad and 
Granada chocolate, each 1 oz., vanilla 15 grs. 

Palamoud. Chocolate 1 oz., rice flour 4 oz., potato arrow- 
root 4 oz., red sanders, in flue powder, 1 dr. ; mix. [In 
the above, by chocolate is meant the cacao beans roasted 
and pulverized without addition. Indian arrow-root or 
tous les mois may be substituted for the potato arrow- 

Fecultjm Saxonia. Barley flour 21 oz., sugar 7 oz., cin- 
namon 1 dr. Mix, and bake them in an oven, enveloped 
in a paste of wheat flour, and placed in an earthen vessel. 
When sufficiently baked, remove the crust, and when the 
contents are cool, reduce them to po^^■der. About i oz. 
to 1 oz. is boiled with broth, &c., as a nourishing diet. 
It is often medicated with the addition of sarsaparilla, 
bark, &c. 

Faeinaceous Food, &c. The following compounds are 
accompanied with full directions for use ; — 


Bastee's Soojee and Compound Farina. Wheat flour, 
with sugar. 

Bright's Nutritious Farina. The basis is said to he 
potato starcli. 

Beight's Breakfast Potuder. A combination of choco- 
late witli his nutritious farina. 

Braden's Farinaceous Food. Chiefly wheat flour care- 
fully baked. 

Bullock's Semola. Wlieat flour, from which a portion 
of the starch has been removed, so as to leave a definite 
proportion of gluten. 

Chapman's Entire Wheat Flour. Is what its name 

Denham-'s Farinaceous Food. As Beaden's, witli per- 
haps a mixture of bai'ley flour. 

Gaedinee's Alimentary Preparation. Very finely 
ground rice flour. 

Haed's Farinaceous Food. Carefully baked wheat flour. 

Hunt's Breakfast Powder. Rye, carefully roasted as 
coffee. [For Dandelion Coffee, see further back, xinder 
" Deuggists Nostrums."] 

Leath's Alimentary Farina. Baked wheat flour, with 
sugar, potato flour, and a small quantity of Indian corn 
meal, and tapioca. 

Maidman's Nutritious Farina. Potato flour, tinged 
with some pink colouring matter. 

Palmee's Titaroborant. See Ervalenta, below. 

Plumbe's Farinaceous Food. South Sea arrow-root 
combined with pea flour. 

Prince of Wales's Food. Potato flovir. 

Semolina. A hard kind of wheat, containing much 
gluten, ground into coarse grains. But some articles sold 
under this name appear to be compounds of gluten, arti- 
ficially granulated, resembling Bullock's Semola. 

Ervalenta, Revalenta Aeabica, Lentil Powder, &c. 
These consist chiefly eitlicr of the European or Egyptian 

Frvalenta. Waeton's consists of the French or Ger- 
man lentil, with either Indian corn, or, more probably, a 
species of corn called Durra, used by the Ai'abs. But 


Dr. ScHENE states that what is sold at Paris, consists of 
the flour of French beans and Lidiau corn. 

Eevalenta Arabica. A mixture of the red (Egyptian or 
Arabian) lentil with barley flour. Some samples contain 
sugar, others salt and a flavouring ingredient. 

Lentil Powders. Some consist entirely of lentil flour 
(French or German, or Egyptian, or both kinds mixed). 
Others contain barley flom' in addition. Nevill's consists 
of 1 oz. of curry powder to 4 lbs. of lentil flour. The Lancet 
gives the following recipes for lentil powder ; 1. Ai-abian 
lentil flour 2 lbs., barley flour 1 lb., salt 3 oz. 

2. Pea flour 2 lbs., Indian com flour 1 lb., salt 3 oz. 
GsrEL is made either from oatmeal, or from groats or grits 
(oats deprived of their cuticle), either whole or crushed 
(Embden groats). Dr. Thohpson directs 3 oz. of groats, 
pre\'iously washed, to be boiled slowly in 4 pints of water, 
till reduced to 2 pints, then strained through a sieve. The 
Embden groats require less boiling. Dr. Kitchen'ER 
directs one or two tablespoonfuls of oatmeal (according as 
the gruel is preferred thin or thick) to he well mixed with 
3 spoonfuls of cold water, gradually added, a pint of boil- 
ing water poured on it, and the whole boiled for 5 minutes, 
constantly stirrmg it j it is then skimmed and strained 
through a hair sieve ; a little butter is usually added, and 
sometimes milk, with salt, or other^-ise sugar and spices 
to the taste. Thorough trituration of the oatmeal and 
cold water, and constant stirrmg of the gruel while on the 
fire, render long boiUng unnecessary. 
Boiled Wheat. Steep the wheat in water for 10 or 12 
hours, then boil it for half an hour. [As a substitute for 
vegetables, and to ob^'iate constipation. — Mr. L. Bttllock.] 
Beef Tea. Professor Liebig directs 1 lb. of beef, free fi-om 
fat, to be minced very small, mixed with an equal weight 
of cold water, and heated slowly to boiling ; when it has 
boiled for a minute or two, strain through a cloth. It may 
be coloured with roasted onion or burnt sugar, and salted 
to the taste. Dr. Setmoue directs 2^ lbs. of lean beef cut 
small to be put into 3 pints of cold -water, and simmered 
slowly, without boiling, till reduced to a pint and a half ; 
then carefully strained. In another formula we read — 
Macerate raw beef (recently killed), chopped very fine, 


i lb., in distilled water 22^ oz., with coininou salt 50 grs., 
dilute hydrocliloi-ic acid 16 drops, for an hour and a half ; 
strain through a fine hair sieve. Give two tumblers daily. 

Extract of Meat. Cut the lean of fresh-killed meat very 
small, put it into eight times its weight of cold water, and 
heat it gradually to the boiling point. When it has boiled 
for a few minutes, strain it through a cloth, and evaporate 
the liquor gently by a water-bath to a soft mass. 2 lbs. of 
meat yield 1 oz. of extract. Fat must be carefully excluded, 
or it vdW not keep. — LiEBlG. 

Liebig's Food foe Infants. Malt flour, to which is added 
a small quantity of bicarbonate of potash or soda. 

LiEBi&'s Sorp FOE Childeen. Mix ^ oz. wheat flour, i 
oz. malt flour, 7-5- grs. bicarbonate of potash ; add 1 oz. of 
water and 5 oz. of milk. Heat with constant stirring 
over a gentle fire till it begins to thicken. Remove from 
the fire and stir for 5 minutes. Heat once more, and again 
remove and stir. Heat again to ebullition. Separate the 
bran from the soup by a fine sieve. 

Teophazome. Mince 16 oz. of meat, free from fat, very 
fine, poui' on it 8 oz. of cold or lukewarm water (not 
exceeding 100° F.) ; mix well, and let it stand for an hour, 
stirring it 3 or 4 times. Press out the liquid (about 6 oz.) ; 
mix 8 oz. more of water with the meat, stir it occasionally, 
and in half an hour strain with pressure. Repeat tliis 
with 8 oz. more water. Break up the pressed meat, and 
put it into a small tin vessel j place this in a water-bath 
of cold water, heat gradually to the boiling point, and 
keep it boiling for 20 minutes. Mix the fluid which exudes 
with the others, add salt, spices, and other flavouring in- 
gredients, and boil for 20 minutes in a covered vessel. It 
may be thickened with 1 oz. of semola. — Mr. Bullock. 

Meat Biscuits. A thick extract of meat (made by boiling 
fresh-killed beef or other meat, and evaporating the strained 
liquid) is kneaded with wheaten flour, and the dough rolled 
out and diAnded into biscuits, which are dried or baked in 
an oven. They are kept in the form of biscuits, or coarsely 
ground : 1 ounce makes a pint of rich soup, which may be 
salted or flavoured to the taste. 

Beead, Aeeated. Dauglish's patent. This is prepared 
without yeast, to the saving, it is said, of 10 per cent, of 


the weight of the flour. Aei-ated water is forced by 
machinery into the mass of flour enclosed in an iron vessel. 
The dough is then kneaded by machinery inside the vessel. 
The pressure being now removed, the dough instantly rises. 
The whole process occupies no more than half an hour, 
instead of eight or ten hours, as when yeast is used. 
Bread, Unfermented. Mix carefully J oz. of bicarbonate 
of soda and 5 oz. of salt with 4 lbs. of flour ; mix this with 
a quart (or rather 41 or 42 fluid oz.) of very cold water, 
previously mixed with 5 a fluid oz. and 20 minims of 
hydrochloric acid of 1'16 specific gravity, into a thin dough, 
with as little kneading as possible, and let it be immediately 
placed in the oven ; it requires rather more time than 
fermented bread. By mixing 26 measures of the acid 
with 46 of water, a diluted acid is obtained, of which a 
fluid ounce and a half may be taken for every ^ oz. packet 
of soda. 

A pamphlet on the subject, directs for Broion Bread, 
3 lbs. of wheat-meal and 10 drs. (Apoth. weight) of bicar- 
bonate of soda to be well mixed, and made into dough, 
vAt\\ 25 oz. of cold water, previously mixed with 12| fluid 
drs. of hydrochloric acid. 

The proportions used first by Dr. Whiting, and subse- 
quently by Mr. DoDSOX, in the preparation of unfer- 
mented bread and biscuits, were : 7 lbs. of wheaten flour, 
350 to 500 grs. of bicarbonate of soda, 2| pints of water, 
with hydrochloric acid 420 to 500 grs., or as much as may 
be sufiicient. The soda, dissolved in a small quantity of 
water, is first carefully kneaded with the dough, and the 
acid being afterwards rapidly mixed in, the bread is baked 
without delay. 

A third formula is that of Mr. J. Savory, and is re- 
commended as excellent by Dr. Pereira. Intimately mix 
with 1 lb. of flour, sesquicarbonate of soda 40 grs., and 
powdered white siagar a teaspoonful, in a large basin with 
a wooden spoon. Then gradually add cold \vater about 5 a 
pint, previously mixed with 50 drops of pure hydrochloric 
acid, and stir constantly, so as to form very speedily an 
intimate mixture. Divide into 2 loaves, and put into a 
quick oven imnaediately. 

Another form of luifermented bread is as follows: — Mix 


1 oz. of bicarbonate of soda, f oz. of tartaric acid, and i oz. 
of salt, with 7 lbs. (half a peck) of flour ; mix the whole 
thoroughly, taking care that all the ingredients are per- 
fectly dry ; add, in 2 or 3 portions, 4 pints of cold water, 
and incorporate quickly ; place it in tins, and send it to 
the oven immediately. If not baked in tins, less water 
must be used. 

Jones's Patent Flofr contains all the ingredients ready 
mi.xed, and may therefore be kneaded with water, and baked 
at once, without further additions. To 1 cwt. of perfectly 
dry wheat flour, IO5 oz. (avoird.) of dry, finely powdered 
tartaric acid are added. Mis well, pass through a flour- 
dressing machine, and allow it to remain for 2 or 3 days. 
Then add, all in fine powder and dry, 12 oz. of bicar- 
bonate of soda, 2-4 oz. of common salt, and 8 oz. of loaf 
sugar. Mi.x. all thoroughly together, and pass through a 
flour-dressing machine, when it will be ready for use. 1 lb. 
made into bread will require 10 oz. of water, or for 
biscuits 6 oz., and the dough must be baked at once in a 
well-heated oven. 

(Biscuits and cakes made without yeast, and containing no 
butter, are jn'escribed in some dyspeptic cases ; of such the 
following are examples : — ) 

Abernethy Biscuits. Make into a stiff biscuit paste, 1 
quart of milk, 6 eggs, 8 oz. of loaf sugar, and i oz. of 
caraway seeds, with flour sufficient to bring the whole to 
the required consistence. Make the biscuits thin, dock 
them with holes to prevent them from swelling up, and 
bake in an oven at a moderate heat. 

Sponge Biscuits. Beat the yolks of 12 eggs for J an hour, 
then put in 1^ lbs. of finely powdered sugar, and whisk it 
briskly until it rises in bubbles ; beat the whites to a 
strong froth, and whisk them well with the sugar and 
yolks ; then work in 14 oz. of flour, with the rinds of 2 
lemons grated. Bake in tin moulds buttered, for 1 houi' in 
a quick oven, sifting over them a little fine sugar. 

Rice Cake. Beat the yolks of 15 eggs for nearly half an 
hour with a whisk, mix well with them 10 oz. of finely 
sifted white sugar; put in ^ lb. ground rice, a little 
orange-flower water or brandy, and the rinds of 2 lemons 
grated ; then add the whites of 7 eggs, well beaten up, 



and stir the whole for ^ of an hour ; piit into a hoop, and 
bake for 5 an hour in a quick oven. 
(Bread and bisciiits made with ginger as an ingredient, may 
also be useful in assisting a weak digestion. The two fol- 
lowmg recipes are by M. Soyee : — ) 

Common GiNaER-BEEAD. Put on a slab or table 1 lb. of 
floui' ; make a ring of it ; put | a pint of treacle in, mix 
well together, working it so as to form a stiff paste. Put 
some flour into a basin, to which add this dough, which 
will keep thus for 7 or 8 weeks. "WHien wanted, put in 
any quantity of ground ginger, according to taste or desire. 
Mix well, roll thin, and cut into pieces about the size of 
a crown ; put them on a baking sheet, and bake for a few 
minutes, till crisp. To evei'y poiind of paste, an ounce of 
butter may be used, if preferred. These cakes will keep a 
long while in an air-tight case. 

Ginger Cake. Take ilb. of sugar, ^Ib. of.butter, li oz. of 
ground ginger, 6 eggs, beat well, stir in 1^ lbs. of flour, and 
add as much milk, a little warm, as will make a stiff dough 
for bread. Bake in a pan for 2 hours. 

Gluten Bread (for diabetic patients). It is made with the 
gluten of flour, a small portion only of the starch being 

Dr. Aldeidge recommends, for preparing the gluten, 
second best flour. This must be made into a stiff paste 
with cold water, and then kneaded with the hands under 
a current of water, on a slanting board placed in a two- 
gallon jar, until starch can no longer be detected by tinc- 
ture of iodine in small portions taken from the mass. A 
stone of flour yields from 3i to 4^ lbs. of gluten. The 
gluten may also be obtained from starch manufactories. 

To prepare the bread, the following materials should 
be mixed. Fresh moist gluten 24 oz., bicarbonate of 
ammonia 3i drs., common salt 1^ drs., powdered caraway 
48 grs., wheaten flour 4| oz., powdered bran IJ oz., salt 
butter 4 oz. These quantities yield 24 oz. of bread, 
when baked. It may be baked in small and flat circular 
tin pans, placed on a moderately heated hot hearth. It 
is difiicult to bake this bread properly with yeast, as pre- 
sci'ibed by BoucHAEDAX : and if made without butter, oi* 


with the total exclusion of starch, it becomes extremely 

Dr. Peecy proposes the following method : — Take the 
matter left after removing the starch fi'om 16 lbs. of rasped 
potatoes, I lb. of mutton suet, 12 eggs, i lb. of butter, and 
3 oz. of carbonate of soda ; mix, and add 2 oz. of diluted 
hydrochloric acid; divide into 8 cakes, and bake imme- 
diately in a quick oven. 

[Various alimentary preparations have lately been intro- 
duced, the basis of which is the gluten whicli remains in 
extracting the starch from wheat flour by the mechanical 
process. Mr. Gentil's gluten flour is a mixture of this 
with wheat flour. It contains 42 per cent, of gluten, and 
yields a nutritious and digestible gluten biscuit, gluten 
bread, and, \\\t\\ cocoa, gluten chocolate. Mr. Bullock's 
semola and Mr. Veron's granulated gluten are of the 
same nature. 30 parts of white flour, 10 of fresh gluten, 
and 7 of water, form a paste resembling Italian macaroni, 
vermicelli, &c.] 

BAEiNa PowDEE. Refer to Dettggists' Nosteums, further 

CiJSTARD Powder. Eub up together gum tragacanth 2 oz., 
potato starch 1 lb., powdered turmeric 2i drs., -with oil of 
bitter almonds ^ dr., and essence of lemons 1 dr. Put 
up into 1-ounce packets. (From 1 pint of new milk take 
2 tablespoonfuls to worlv up with the powder; boil the 
remaining milk with 2 ounces of lump sugar, and pom- 
it, while boiling, into the basin, stirring quickly until 
thorouglily mixed. Bake as a custard.) — Mr. Schole- 

Without the colouring, this forms Blanc-mange Poivder. 

Rennet Wine {for dyspeptic persons). Take the fresh 
rennet bag of a calf, cut off and throw away 3 inches of 
the upper or cardiac extremity, slit the rest longitudinally, 
wiping gently with a dry napkin, but not removing the 
clean mucus, cut it into small pieces, and put iuto a com- 
mon wine-bottle filled up with good sherry. Let it 
remain corked for three weeks. One teaspoonful in a 
wine-glassful of water, taken after meals, assists digestion. 
— Mr. Geo. Ellis. 



These are designed for such invalids as are likely to derive 
benefit from cod-liver oil, bvit are unable to overcome 
their disgust for that useful medicine. In such cases the 
fresh liver itself may be found of equal service. The fol- 
lowing methods of cooking it are adapted from those of M. 


Potatoes and Cod-livee. Take 1 lb. of fresh cod-liver; 
peel and steam 2 lbs. of floury potatoes. Cut the liver in 
4 pieces, jjlace it over the potatoes, then again steam 
them, letting the oil from the liver fall on them. Wlien 
done, make some incisions in the liver with a knife, to 
extract the oil remaining. Afterwards, the liver may be 
eaten with some ancliovy sauce, — and the potatoes, mixed 
with the oil, with a little salt and pepper. (Simple cod- 
oil, as tasteless as can be procured, may be made in the 
same manner to yield a palatable dish with potatoes.) 

Rice and Cod-liveh. Boil i lb. of rice in 2 quarts of 
water. When nearly done, remove 3 parts of the water, 
then put over the v'wo 1 lb. of cod-liver, cut in large dice. 
Put the saucepan in a slow oven for about 30 minutes, by 
which time it will be well cooked. Take the liver out, 
which serve as above. Stir up the rice with a fork, and 
serve it with salt and pepper. If no oven, care must be 
taken to cook over a slow fire, or else it will burn. 

Tapioca and Cod-livee. Boil i lb. of tapioca till soft, in 
2 quarts of water, drain in a cullender, then put it back 
in the pan ; season with salt and pepper, add -^ pint of 
milk, j)ut over 1 lb. of fresh cod-liver, cut in 8 pieces. Set 
the pan near the fire to simmer slowly for half an hour, 
or a little more, till the liver is quite cooked. Press on it 
with a spoon to squeeze out the oil. Take away the liver, 
and mix the tapioca. If too thick, add a little milk, boil 
for a few minutes, add a little more salt and pejiper, and 
serve. Here, again, a slow oven is better than a fire. 

COD-EOE and Cod-livee. Take a cod's roe, cut open the 

* Dr. Squib says, that a five per cent, solution of gum araliic tends 
greatly to cover the taste of cod-liver oil ; and that some suit herring eaten 
just hc.'bre taking it, would render the taste imperceptible. 


skin wliic-h surrounds it ; put the eggs in a basin, pour 
water over tliem, mashing with the hand, to separate 
them ; throw away the water. Add i lb. of salt and a 
teaspoonfiil of pepper. Let tlieni soak all night. Wash 
well 2 or 3 times, leaving about a gill at the bottom. Put 
over it now 2 lbs. of the liver, in 6 or 8 pieces; put the 

' stew-pan on a very slow lire or in an oven for an hour ; 
then take out the liver, which serve as usual. Add about 
a gill of melted butter to the roe, when it will be ready. 

Cod-lit EB Sauce. ^ lb. of cod-liver, previously boiled, and 
cut into large dice, may be added to a little anchovy sauce, 
and i pint of melted butter. (This may be eaten with 
potatoes or tish. Cod-liver oil may be used as a sauce in 
the same way, disguising its taste in the butter by pepper, 
vinegar, or anchovies, and gradually increasing its amount 
as the i)atient becomes habituated to it.) 


Curry Powder. The recipes for " true Indian Curry Pow- 
der" are numerous, and vary much in the number and 
proportion of the ingredients. The total quantity of 
powder in each of the following recipes being nearly equal, 
tlie relative proportion of the different colom'ing, heating, 
and flavouring ingredients, will at once be seen. Dr. 
Kitchener complains that the proportion of cayenne is 
generally so large, that a proper quantity of the powder 
cannot be used to obtain the benefit of the other ingredi- 
ents ; and the Editor of the Pharmaceutical Journal justly 
observes that many recipes contain too large a proportion 
of turmeric. All the ingredients should be of fine quality, 
and recently ground. 














Turmeric . . . 













Coriander seed . 













'MustaTd, scorched 










Cavenue . . . 













Pepper, black or") 
long . . . i 




































Cloves . . 











Cinnamon . 











Cardamom . 












Ginger . . 










Mace .... 












Fenugreek . 











Cumin . . 












The addition of 1 oz. of garlic, or 2 oz. of shallots, to 2 lbs. 
of either of the above,, will be approved by some palates. 

The true Indian curry sis said to be thus made: Coriander 
seed 6 drs., turmeric 5 scruples, fresh ginger 4^ drs., cumin 
seed 18 grs., black pepper 54 grs., poppy seed 94 grs., garlic 
2 heads, cinnamon a scruple, cardamom 5 seeds, 8 cloves, 
1 or 2 chillies, half a cocoa-uut grated ; all but the last to 
be ground on a stone. 

Bengal Chitni. Chillies 1^ lbs., uni'ipe mangoes (or apples) 
1 lb., red tamarinds 2 lbs., sugar candy 1 lb., fresh ginger 
root li lbs., garlic f to li- lbs., sultana raisins 1| lbs., fine 
salt 1 lb., and 5 bottles of the best ^-inegar ; soak the chil- 
lies for an hour in the vinegar, then grmd all with a stone 
and muller to a paste. 

Itaiian Tamaea. Coriander seed, cloves, and cinnamon, of 
each 8 oz. ,- anise and fennel seeds, of each 4 oz ; mix. 

Mixed Spices and Satouey Heebs. 1. Kidder's Sweet 
Spice. Equal weights of cloves, mace, nutmegs, cinna- 
mon, and sugar. 

2. Kidder's Savour^/ Spice. Equal weights of salt, pep- 
per, cloves, nutmegs, and mace. 

3. Ragout. Salt 16 oz., pepper 8 oz., nutmeg, ginger, 
and allspice, each \ oz. ; lemon-peel 8 oz., mustard flour 
8 oz., cayenne 2 oz. ; mix. 

4. Sausage. Pepper 5 lbs., cloves 1^ lbs., nutmegs Ij 



lbs., giuger 2^ lbs., aniseed i lb., coriander seed i lb. ; 

5. Dr. Kitchenee's Savoury Ragout. Salt 2 oz., mus- 
tard, black pepper, and grated lemon-peel, of eacb 1 oz., 
allspice, ginger, and nutmeg, of eacb \ oz., cayenne i oz. 

6. Soup Herh and Savoury Foivder. Mix 3 parts of 
No. 7 witb 1 part of No. 5. 

7. Dr. Kitchener's (So^^j; Herb Foioder, or Vegetable 
Relish. Dried parsley, winter savoury, sweet marjoram, 
lemon tliyme, of eacb 2 oz., dried lemon-peel and sweet 
basil, of eacb 1 oz. : mix. Tbey sbould be carefully dried 
in a Dutch oven, powdered, passed tbrougb a bair sieve, 
and kept in closely covered bottles. For sauces, soups, &c. 

8. Pease Powder. Pound togetber in a marble mortar. 

2 oz. eacb of dried mint and sage, i oz. eacb of celery 
seed and black pepper, and rub them tbrougb a bair sieve. 

HoHSE-EADisH PowDEE. Take up tbe roots in November 
or Decenaber, dry tbeni carefully with a gentle heat, and 
reduce to powder. 

SoLrBLE Cayenne. To 1 lb. of tbe best cayenne pepper, 
add as niucb rectified spirit as will form it into a paste. 
Cover tbis up for two bours ; then place it in a percolator, 
and gradually pour on it more spirit till a pint of liquid is 
procured. A little water cautiously poured on tbe pepper 
wiU displace most of tbe remaining spirit. Distil off 
most of tbe spirit for future use, and add to tbe residue 

3 lbs. of fine salt, and evaporate tbe mixture to dryness by 
tbe beat of a water-batb. It is usually coloured, but is 
better ^\itliout being so. 


Almond Elayoue. Essential oil of bitter almonds 1 part, 
rectified spirit 7 parts. Some put 1 part of oil to 15 
of spirit; others, 1 part to 3. It should not be sold 
without a caution as to tbe quantity to be used; or 
rather, the oil sbould be first purified from its hydro- 
cyanic acid, by mixing it witb a solution of chloride of 
iron and cream of lime, vnth a little peroxide of mercury, 
and, after a few days' contact, carefully re-distilling the 


FLAYomrN-G Essence. Purified oil of bitter almonds 8 
drojjs, essence of lemon 12 drops, oil of cinnamon 8 drops, 
oil of nutmeg 4 drops, higlily rectified sjiirit 1 oz. A few 
drops to be added to puddings, custards, &c. 

Lemox FLATorE. Fresh lemon-peel, cut tliin, 3 drs., essence 
of lemon 1 dr., alcohol 3 oz. [Another method is to rub 
a lump of sugar on clean, dry lemons, till the yelkiw rind 
is taken up by the sugar; then scrape off the saturated 
part of the sugar, and keep it in a closely co^'ered pot for 

TixcTUEE OF CixxAMOX (Kitchexee's). Bruiscd cinna- 
mon 3 oz., a bottle of Cognac brandy ; digest for a fort- 
night, and strain. [Tincture of Allspice, Nutmeg, Cloves, 
in the same manner.] 

Essence of Cinnamon. Bruised cinnamon 2 drs., oil of 
'cinnamon 1 dr., highly rectified spirit 3 oz. ; digest, and 

Essences of Nutmeg, Mace, Ck-OA^ES, Allspice, &c. These 
arc made from the spices and their essential oils, as 
Essence of Cinnamon. 

Essence of Celeet. Celery seed 2 oz. to 1 oz., brandy 
4 oz. ; digest for 8 or 10 days, and filter. 

Essence of Caeaway. Bruised caraway seed 1 oz., recti- 
fied spirit 8 oz., oil of caraway i oz., brown sugar | oz. ; 
digest for 8 or 10 days, and filter. 

Aeomatic Essence of Gingee. Fresh grated ginger 3 oz., 
fresh thin lemon-peel 2 oz., brandy IJ- pints ; macerate for 
10 days. — Dr. Kitchenee). 

Essence of Peae, and Essence of Pine-Apple. See 
Trade Chemicals. 

Essence of Cayenne (Kitchenee's). Put i oz. of cayenne 
pepper into half a pint of brandy ; let it steep for a fort- 
night, then jjour off the clear liquor. [A much stronger 
essence is sometimes kept, prepared by percolation, as 
directed for Soluble Cayenne.] 

Spieit of Sayouey Spices (Kitchenee's). Black pepper 
1 oz., allspice 4 oz., nutmeg ^ oz. (all pounded) ; infuse 
in 16 fluid oz. of brandy for 10 days. 

Spieit of Soup Heebs (Kitchenee's). Lemon thyme, 
winter savoury, sweet marjoram, sweet basil, of each 1 oz., 


grated Iciiion-pcfl and shallots, each 2 oz., celery seed 

1 dr. ; iufuse in a pint of brandy for 10 days. 
Spirit oi? Satoukt SriCES. Infuse half the Savoury 

Kasjont Powder (sec Mixed Spices, &c.. No. 5, further 

hack) in a quart of lirandy for 10 days. 
Kitchener's Soup Herb and Savottry Spice Si'Ikit. A 

mixture of equal measures of the last two. 


Tarragon YiNEaAR. Put fresh tarragon leaves into a stone 
jar, and pour on them a sufficient quantity of the hest 
wine vinegar to cover them. Set the jar in a warm place 
for 14 days ; then strain through a jelly -hag. [In the 
same way may he made, elder tlower, hasil, green mint, 
and burnet vinegars. Cress and celery vinegars are made 
with i oz. of tlie bruised seed to a quart of vinegar. 
Horse-radish innegar, with 3 oz. of the scraped root, 1 oz. 
of minced shallots, 1 dr. of cayenne, to a quart of vinegar. 
Garlic vinegar is made with 2 oz. of minced garlic to a 
quart of wine vinegar. Shallot vinegar in the same pro- 
portion. Chilli vinegar, with 50 English chillies, cut or 
bruised (or ^ oz. cayenne pepper), to a pint of the best 
vinegar ; digest for 1-i days.] 

Camp Vinegar. Take 12 chopped anchovies, 2 cloves of 
garlic minced, 1 dr. of cayenne, 2 oz. of soy, 4 oz. of 
walnut catsup, and a pint of the best vinegar ; digest for 
a month, and strain. 

2. Vinegar a quart, walnut catsup a pint, mushroom 
catsup 4 tablespoonfuls, garlic 4 heads, cayenne i oz., 
soy 2 tablespoonfuls, port wine 2 glasses, 3 anchovies, 
and a tablespoonful of salt ; put them into a bottle, shake 
daily for a month, and decant. 

Q'rERT Vinegar. Infuse 3 oz. of curry powder in a quart 
of vinegar, near the fire, for 3 days. 

Raspberry Vinegar. Macerate 2' lbs. of fresh raspberries 
Avith a pint of the best vinegar for 14 days and strain. 
Or to a quart of the juice add 2 oz. of strong acetic acid, 
or enough to render it sufficiently acid. 

Eschalot Wine. Bruised shallots 3 oz., sherry wine a pint ; 
infuse for 10 days. An o\ince of scraped horse-radish and 


a drachm of thin lemon-peel may be added. [" The most 
elegant preparation of the onion tribe." — Dr. Kitchenee.] 
Wines of several herbs may be made in the same propor- 
tion as the vinegars. 

Feench MtrsTAED. This is sold with a great variety of 
flavours. A good substitute may be made by mixing 
good flour of mustard with the liquor of walnut and other 
pickles ; or with the flavoured vinegars above. The fol- 
lowing is one of the published recipes : — Salt 12 oz., 

I scraped horse-radish 8 oz., a clove of garlic, ^ oz. of sugar, 
a gallon of French vinegar (hot but not boiling). Macerate 
for 24 hours, and strain. Mix with flour of mustard, q. s. 

MusTAED POE THE Table. Mix 8 spoonfuls of flour of 
mustard with 2 of salt, and 9 of water. Mix to a smooth 
paste, add 6 spoonfuls more of water, and mix. 

Essence of Anchovies. Beat 1 lb. of anchovies in a 
Wedgewood mortar, and put them into a pipkin with 4 oz. 
of vinegar J boil for a few minutes, and rub the pulp 
through a hair-sieve. Boil the bones in IJ lbs. of water, 
strain, and add 2 oz. of salt, and 2 oz. of flour of starch, 
and the pulped anchovies ; let it boil, and pass it through 
a hair-sieve. It is usually coloured with powdered bole, 
or with annatto. Gum tragacanth is sometimes used to 
stiffen it instead of flour. Another method is, to simmer 
anchovies in their own weight of water for 2 or 3 hours, 
removing any scum that may rise, strain with pressure 
through a strong canvas bag, and fllter through flannel. 
This has the pure flavour of the fish, but a little cayenne 
and salt may be added, to preserve it. 

Anchovy Paste. Pound the flsh in a mortar, and rub the 
pulp through a fine sieve. Put it into pots, and cover 
with clarified butter. 

MusHEOOM Catsup. Press the mushrooms in a tincture 
press and boil the juice with ^ oz. black pepper-cornt, 
1 oz. pimento, ^ oz. of ginger, ^ oz. cloves, 1^ oz. shallots, 
and 8 oz. of salt, to each gallon. Some add 4 oz. of 
brandy. Or sprinkle the mushrooms with salt (a pound 
to 2 pecks), stir occasionally for 2 days, then squeeze them 
gently in a hair-sieve, and boil the liquor with pepper and 
other spices. 

Walnxtt Catsup. 1. Mix 6 half sieves of green walnut- 


shells with 2 or 3 lbs. of salt in a ^yooclen vessel; let them 
stand 6 days, beating them frequently till they become 
pulpy ; then di'aiu off the juice, and boil it up with 4 oz. 
of ginger and allspice, and 2 oz. of long pepper and cloves. 
2. Juice of walnuts 1 gallon, ancho^'ies 2 lbs., shallots 

1 lb. cloves, mace, and black pepper, of each 1 oz., and a 
clove of garlic. Boil for a short time, and bottle it. 

Lemon Pickle. Slice 6 lemons, rub them with salt, lay 
them in a stone jar, with 2 oz. each of allspice and white 
pepper ; add i oz. each of mace, cloves, and cayenne, and 

2 oz. each of horseradish and mustard seed; pour over 
them 2 quarts of hot distilled \dnegar ; and, after standing 
for a few days, strain. Some add ganlic or shallots. 

QuiN Sauce. Mushroom catsup i pint, walnut pickle i 
pint, port wine ^ pint, 6 anchovies, and 6 shallots (both 
pounded) ; soy, a tablespoonful ; cayenne i dr. ; simmer 
together gently for 10 minutes, strain, and bottle. _ 

Waterloo Sauce. Vinegar 4 pints, port winel pint, cayenne 
1 oz., walnut catsup i j^iut, mushroom catsup i pint, 
essence of anchovies 4 oz., powdered cochineal 1 oz., garlic 
12 cloves. 

Epicueean Sauce. Indian soy 2 oz., walnut catsup, miash- 
room catsup, of each 8 oz., port wine 2 oz., bruised white 
pep23er ^ oz., shallots 3 oz., cayenne j oz., cloves ^ oz. 
Macerate for 14 days in a warm place, strain, and add 
white wine vinegar to make up a pint. 

Sauce, Superlative (Dr. Kitchener's). Port vnne, and 
mushroom catsuji of each a pint ; walnut or other pickle 
liquor, ^ pmt, jiowdered ancho\aes 4 oz. ; fresh lemon-peel 
cut thin, sliced shallots, and scraped horse-radish, of each 
1 oz., allspice and black pepi^er, of each i oz. ; cayenne 
1 dr. ; curry powder 3 drs. ; celery seed 1 dr. ; put them 
into a wide -mouthed bottle, stop it close, shake daily for 
a fortnight, and strain : a \ pint of soy may be added. 

[A variety of sauces may be made by mixing, in different 
proportions, the ingredients of the last 4 sauces.] 

Cassareep. The expressed juice of the roots of the bitter 
cassava ; used as a condiment in the West Indies. 

Sot. Boil a gallon of the seeds of Doliclios soja till soft, 
add a gallon of bruised wheat, keep them in a warm place 
for 24 hours ; add a gallon of salt, and 2 gallons of water, 

300 ricKLES 

and after keeping thcin hunged up in a stone jar for 2 or 
3 inoiiths, press out the li(iuor. 


A few reeipes are here given as illustrations of the nictliods 
employed in preparing these eondinieiits. For full parti- 
culars the reader is referred to the popular treatises on 
Cookery. The hest vinegar (pickling, or No. 24 vinegar) 
should be cm])loyed. Some prefer the crystal or white 
vinegar (distilled vinegar, or rather pure diluted wood- 
vinegar), espcoially for white pickles ; Init the hest wine 
vinegar is more agreeable. Stoneware jars, not glazed 
with lead, should be used to keep the pickles in j or other- 
wise green glass jars. 

Spiced Visegae, foe Pickles generally. Bruise in a 
mortar 2 oz. of black pepper, 1 oz. of ginger, ^ oz. of 
allspice, and 1 oz. of silt. If a hotter pickle is desired, 
add i dr. of cayenne, or a few capsicums. For walnuts, 
add also 1 oz. of shallots. Put these into a stone jar, 
with a quart of vinegar, and cover them with a bladder 
wetted with the pickle, and over this place a piece of leather. 
Set the jar on a trivet near the tire for 3 days, shaking 
it 3 times a day, then pour it on the \^■alnuts or other 
vegetables. For walnuts it is used hot, but for cabbage, 
&c., cold. To save time, it is usual to simmer the vinegar 
gently with the siDices ; which is best done in an enamelled 

Beet Root. Boil the roots till 3 parts done (from 11 to 
2\ hours) : then take them out, peel them, and cut them 
in thin slices. Put them into a jar, and pour on them 
sufficient cold spiced vinegar (as above) to cover them. 

Cabbage, White. Cut it into thin slices, put them into an 
earthen pan, sprinkle them with salt, and let them lie for 
2 days ; then drain them and spread them out before the 
fire for some hours : put them into a stone jar, and add 
sufficient \\hite vinegar, or pale white vinegar, to cover 
them, and add a little mace and white pepper-corns. 

Cabb'age, Bed. Eemove the outer leaves and stalks, and 
cut the cabbage in quarters, then shred them into a 
cullender, and sprinkle them with salt; next day drain 


tliem, put them into a jar, and pour on tlicni sufficient 
cold spiced vinegar to cover tlieni. Otlier.s hang uj) the 
cal)hage for a few days to dry, then shred the leaves, and 
put them in layers in a jar with a little salt, popper, and 
ginger, and fill up with cold vinegar. Others use vinegar 
without spice. 

Cauliflower and Broccoli. These should he sliced, and 
salted for 2 or 3 days, then drained, and spread upon a 
dry cloth before the fire for 24 hovu's ; then put into a jar, 
and covered with spiced vinegar. Dr. Kitchener says, 
that if vegetables are put into cold salt and water (a ^ lb. 
of salt to a quart of water) and gradually heated to boil- 
ing, it answers the same purpose as letting them lie some 
days in salt. 

Cucumbers. GherJcins. Small cucumbers, but not too 
young, are wiped clean with a dry cloth, put into a jar, 
and boiling vinegar, containing a handful of salt, poured on 
them. Boil up the vinegar every 3 days, and pour it on 
them till they become green ; then add ginger and pepper, 
and tie them up close for use. Or cover them with salt 
and water (as above) in a stone jar, cover this, and set 
them on the hearth before the fire for 2 or 3 days, till 
they turn yellow; then put away the water, and cover 
them with hot vinegar, set them near the fire, and keep 
them hot for 8 or 10 days, till they become green ; then 
pour off the \'inegai', cover them with hot spiced vinegar, 
and keep them close. 

Mangoes. Large cucumbers, or small melons, are split so 
that a marrow- spoon may be introduced, and the seeds 
scooped out ; they are then parboiled in brine strong 
enough to float an egg, dried on a cloth before the fire, 
filled with mustard-seed and a clove of garlic, and then 
covered with spiced vinegar. True mangoes the same. 

Mushrooms. Clean them with water and flannel, throw 
them into boiling salt and water in a stewpan, and 
let them boil for a few minutes. Drain them in a 
cullender, and lay them on a linen cloth, covering them 
with another. Put them into bottles with a blade or 
two of mace, and fill up \\\i\\ white vinegar, pouring 
some melted mutton fat on the top, if they are intended to 
be kept long. 


NASTURTirMS, Frekch Beans, and other small green vege- 
tables, are pickled in tlie same way as Gherkins. 

Oxiois'S. 1. Let them lie in strong salt and water for a 
fortnight ; then take them out and peel them ; put them 
in fresh salt and water for another fortnight ; take them 
out, wash them clean, and let them lie in fresh water all 
night. Next day put them on a cloth to drain ; then put 
them in ajar, and pour over them hot spiced vinegar. If 
you wish them of a nice colour, use white vinegar. 

2. Peel small silver button onions, and throw them into 
a stewpan of boiling water ; as soon as they look clear, 
take them out with a perforated spoon, and lay them on a 
folded cloth, covered with another, and when quite dry, 
put them mto a jar, and cover them with hot spiced 
\inegar. Wlien quite cold, h\mg them do\vai, and cover 
with bladder wetted with the pickle, and leather. 

Walnuts. Take 100 young walnuts, lay them in salt and 
water for 2 or 3 days, changing the water every day, 
(If required to be soon ready for use, pierce each walnut 
with a larding-pin, that the pickle may penetrate.) Wipe 
them with a soft cloth, and lay them on a folded cloth for 
some hours. Then put them in a jar, and pour on them 
sufficient of the above spiced vinegar, hot, to cover them. 
Or they may be allowed to simmer gently in strong vinegai", 
then put into a jar with a handful of mustard seed, 1 oz. 
ginger, ^ oz. mace, 1 oz. allspice, 2 heads of garlic, and 2 
split nutmegs, and pour on them sufficient boiling \anegar 
to cover them. Dr. Kitchenek recommends the walnuts 
to be gently simmered with the brine, then laid on a cloth 
for a day or two, till they turn black, put into a jar, and 
hot spiced \inegar poured on them. 

Tomatoes. As Gherkins. See CtrctiMBEES. 

Piccalilli, Indian, or Mixed Pickles. 1. To each gallon 
of strong vinegar piit 4 oz. of curry powder, 4 oz. of good 
flour of mustard, 3 oz. of bruised ginger, 2 oz. of turmeric, 
8 oz. of skinned shallots, and 2 oz. of garlic (the last two 
slightly baked in a Dutch oven), \ lb. of salt, and 2 drs. of 
cayenne pepper. Digest these near the fire, as directed 
above for spiced vinegar. Put into a jar, gherkms, sliced 
cucumbers, sliced onions, button onions, cauliflower, celery, 
broccoli, French beans, nasturtiums, capsicums, large 


encumbers, and small melons. All, except the capsicums, 
to be parboiled in salt and water, drained, and dried on a 
cloth before the fire. The melons and large cucumbers to 
be prepared as directed above for mangoes. Pour on them 
the above pickle. 

2. Take 1 lb. of ginger-root, and ^ lb. of garlic (both 
previously salted and dried), 2 gallons of vinegar, i oz. of 
turmeric, i lb. of long pepper. Digest together for 2 or 3 
days near the fire in a stone jar ; or gently simmer them 
iu a pipkin or enamelled saucepan. Then put in the above 
vegetables, or almost any except red cabbage and walnuts, 
all previously salted and dried. 

Beine, oe Pickle, eor Poek, &c. Bro'mi sugar, bay salt, 
common salt, of each 2 lbs., saltpetre i lb., water a gallon. 
Boil gently, and remove the scum. Another meat pickle 
is made with 12 lbs. of salt, 2 lbs. of sugar or treacle, ^ lb. 
of nitre, and sufiicient water to dissolve it. To cure Hams, 
mix 5 oz. of nitre with 8 oz. of coarse sugar ; rub it on 
the ham, and in 24 hours rub in 2 lbs. of salt, and in a 
fortnight 2 lbs. more. The above is for a ham of 20 lbs. ; 
it should lie in the salt a month or 5 weeks. 

Westphalian Essence — Cambeian Essence of Wood 
SiiOKE. These appear to be crude pyroligneous acid, or 
wood vinegar, and are used to give to hams, &c., the 
smoked flavour. The following has been published as 
the recipe for Essence of Smoke, but we apprehend it 
is far from being correct : — Macerate for several weeks 
i dr. of Barbadoes tar, 1 dr. of liquid burnt sugar, 5 drs. 
each of port wine and vinegar, 2 drs. of salt, and 7 oz. of 


MENT, &c. 

This division of the work comprises those chemical com- 
pounds which are employed for other jjurposes than those 
of medicine, and which have not heen noticed in the 
former parts of this volume. It includes a variety of mis- 
cellaneous articles which are sometimes sold by the retail 
druggist, or the materials of which he is expected to 
famish, or with the composition of which it is desirable 
he should be acquainted. The limits of the work do not 
admit of a minute description of the processes and mani- 
pulations employed in the manufacture of such chemicals 
as are only made on the large scale, and never by the re- 
tailer; nor of those chemical arts which have no imme- 
diate connection with the trade. 

Acetates. Such as are employed in medicme will be found 
in the Pocket Formulary. The only Acetates requiring 
notice here are the following : 

Acetate of Alumina. This is made, for the use of dyers 
and calico printers, by decomposing acetate of lime with 
alum. It may be conveniently made by adding to a 
boiling solution of 5 parts of alum, a solution of 6 parts of 
sugar of lead. Wlieu the mixture is cold, the clear liquid 
is poured ofE ; from which the dry salt may be obtained by 
careful evaporation. It contains, besides acetate of alu- 
mina, some sulphate of potash. 


Acetate of Ieon, or Iron Liquor. Usually made, for 
the use of dyers, by digesting scraps of iron in redistilled 
wood-vinegar. (See Iron Liquor, further on.) 

Acetate of Lime. Impure acetate (or pyrolignite) of lime, 
is made by neutralizing pyroligneous acid with cream of 
lime or chalk, and evaporating to. dryness. By using pure 
acetic acid a purer acetate is obtained. 

Acetate of Soda. By mixing the above impure acetate 
of lime, in solution, with a solution of sulphate of soda, 
filtering and evaporating the clear liquid, an impure 
acetate of soda is obtained; which by repeated crystal- 
lization is rendered colourless, and fit for yielding pur6 
concentrated acetic acid by distillation with sulphurici 

Acetimetrt. The strength of vinegar is estimated for the 
duty by an instrument named an acetimeter, which deter- 
mines the quantity of acetic acid present by the specific 
gi'avity of the vinegar after neutralization by slaked lime. 
Dr. Ure's plan is to add to a given weight of vinegar, bi- 
carbonate of potash till exactly neutralized; every 2 grs. 
of the bicarbonate indicate 1 gr. of real acetic acid. In 
this and the following operations it is convenient to use a 
tube graduated into 100 equal divisions, numbered from 
the top downwards (see Alkalimetry, further on). The 
quantity of test solution used is then seen at once. Ih the 
present case the 200 grs. of the alkaline bicarbonate being 
dissolved in suflacient water to fill the graduated portion 
of the measure, each of the divisions used in neutralizing 
100 grs. of vinegar is equivalent to 1 per cent, of absolute 
acetic acid. Conswlt the larger manuals. 

Acid, Acetic. See Vinegar. For the methods of pro- 
curing this concentrated acetic acid, see Acidum Aceticum, 
Pocket Formulary. Tlie process of the Edinburgh Phar- 
macopoeia yields a stronger acid than that of the London 
Pharmacopccia. The acetic acid of the British Pharma- 
copoeia contains 28 per cent, of anhydrous acetic acid. A 
strong acid, very suitable for making aromatic spirit of 
vinegar, is procured by distilling crystallized verdigris in 
an earthen retort coated with clay, into a scries of 3 globes, 
connected by opposite tubulures, and kept constantly cool, 
the last bemg furnished with a Welter's safety tube. 


The acid which comes over is iisually coloured, and re- 
quires to be rectified by a slow and careful redistillation in 
a glass retort. Acetic acid of moderate strength may be 
rendered stronger by redistilling it over acetate of potash, 
rejecting the first portions that come over, and taking care 
that the temperature does not rise above 572° F. By re- 
distilling it, and rejecting the first and last portions, glacial 
acetic acid is procured. The same acetate of potash may 
be used repeatedly. The process of the Dublin Pharma- 
copoeia yields a good product of glacial acetic acid. 

Acid, Caebolic. See Pocket Formulary. 

Acid, Chloric. Dissolve 7 parts of crystallized carbonate 
of soda, and 7i of tartaric acid, in 24 of boiling water ; 
add to the boiling solution 6 pai-ts of chlorate of potash 
in 16 of water, at 212° F., agitating the mixture. When 
quite cold filter, and add a solution of 6 parts of oxalic 
acid in 18 of water, heated not above 134° F. Agitate well, 
place the vessel in a freezing mixture of hydrocliloric acid 
and sidphate of magnesia, and filter. [Not absolutely 
pure, but sufl[iciently so for technical purposes. It may be 
obtained piu'e by decomposing chlorate of baryta by sul- 
phuric acid.] 

Acid, Chromic. It may be obtained pm-e by mixing bi- 
chromate of potash with nitrate of silver in solution, wash- 
ing the precipitate, and decomposing it with an equivalent 
quantity of hydrochloric acid. In a few minutes the clear 
solution may be poured off. See Acidum Chromicum, 
Pocket Formulary. 

Acid, Cinnamic. It is most readily procured by distilling 
genuine balsam of Tolu by a gentle heat. The white crys- 
talline mass which condenses on the neck of the retort is 
IJurified by pi'essing it between blotting paper, dissohdng 
in boiling water, and recrystallizing. 

Acid, Fluoeic — Acid, Hydeofluoeic. The anhydrous acid 
is made by distilling powdered fluor spar with twice its 
weight of oil of vitrol, in a leaden, or better, a silver 
alembic, the pipe of which fits into a bottle of the same 
material, surrounded with ice. But as it is usually re- 
quired in a diluted state, water equal in weight to the spar, 
may be put into the receiver. Great care must be taken. 


as the acid, both in its gaseous and liquid form, is very 

Acid, Hipptteic Mix the urine of the horse with milk of 
lime, boil for some minutes, and strain. Boil down the 
clear liquid to | of its bulk, avoiding burning ; add hydro- 
chloric acid, press the impure acid, boil it with fresh 
milk of lime, and again precipitate with hydrochloric 

Acid, Iodic. See Acidum lodicum, Pocket Formulary. 

Acid, Mueiatic, oe Hydeochloric. Commercial hydro- 
chloric acid is largely produced by the action of sulphuric 
acid on common salt, in the manufacture of sulphate of 
soda for the purpose of making soda ash and washing soda, 
by the decomposition of that salt. From the impurity of 
the ingredients it is apt to be contaminated with arsenic 
and sulphurous acid, as well as with sulphuric acid, and iron. 
It may be purified from arsenic by redistilling it over strips 

• of bright copper. See Acidum Hydrochloricum, Pocket 

Acid, Niteic, axd Fuming NixRors Acid. See Acidum 
Nitricum, and Acid. Nitric, fumaus. Pocket Formulary. 

Acid, Niteo-hydeochloeic. Aqua Eegia. This is used in 
the arts, chiefly as a solvent for gold. By the mutual 
action of nitric and hydrochloric acids a compoimd of chlo- 
rine, nitrogen, and oxygen, is formed. The best propor- 
tions and strength of the acid are variously stated. Colour- 
less nitric acid must be used. Mr. EiKiNaTON employs 21 
pai'ts of nitric acid, sp. gr. 1'45 ; 17 parts of hydro- 
chloric acid, 1'15 sp. gr. ; and 14 parts of water. This 
dissolves 5 parts of gold. For the nitro-hydrochloric acid 
employed by dyers as a solvent for tin, see Dyes, &c. 
further on. 

Acid, Oleic. See Pocket Formulary. 

Acid, Oxalic. Digest by the aid of heat 1 part of treacle, 
or of potato starch, in 5 parts of nitric acid, sp. gr. 1'42, 
diluted with 10 parts of water, so long as gaseous pro- 
ducts arc evolved. By evaporation the acid is obtained in 
crystals, and must be recrystallized until sufficiently pure. 
Mr. Lewis Thompson directs 28 oz. of sugar, 184 oz. of 
nitric acid of 1-245 sp. gr., to be digested at 125° F. It 
yields 30 or 31 oz. of acid. M. SchlesiNGEK directs 4 


parts of dry sugar, and 33 of nitric acid of 1"38 sp. gr, to 
be boiled to one sixth of the original volume, and allowed 
to crystallizo. This is the best method of operating on a 
small scale, when the amount of product is not the princi- 
l^al object. Considerable qviantities of oxalic acid are 
made, on the large scale, by heating sawdust with a mix- 
ture of caustic potash, and soda, and by subsequently de- 
comjjosing the oxalate of soda formed. 

Acid, Phosphoric. Phosphoric Anhydride. See Pocket 
Formulary. Dri/ phosphoric acid is thus obtained : On a 
flat plate, ]jlace a large bell glass, and under it a small 
porcelain cup or crucible. Introduce into the latter a 
piece of phosphorus, dried with blotting paper, and set it 
on fire by a heated wire. Let the bell glass be raised on 
one side to admit suflicient air to maintain combustion ; 
and as the phosphorus is consumed, introduce successive 
pieces, taking care that the glass does not become too hot. 
When the quantity of acid is considerable, knock it from 
the plate with an iron spoon, and put it into stoppered 
bottles. Several glasses may be iised at once. Dry 
phosphoric acid is used as a desiccating body, having the 
strongest attraction for water of any known substance. 
It is used also in making a stopping for teeth — see Teeth 

Acid, Pyeogallic. Heat powdered nutgalls in a dish 
covered with thin filtering paper pasted to its edges, and 
surmounted with a bell-formed receiver, kept cool. A 
solution of the condensed acid, decolorized by animal char- 
coal, and mixed with spirit, is used to stain the hair (and 
skin) browni. 

Acid, Sulphuric. This is only made on a large scale ; but 
the commercial acid requires piirification for many chemi- 
cal as well as pharmaceutical purposes. See Aciduin 
Sulphuricum punnn. Pocket Formidary. 

Dry or Anhydrous Sulphuric Acid. Into a retort, placed 
in a freezing mixtiu'e, and having a receiver attached, 
put some dry phosphoric acid (see above), and add fths 
of its weight of strong sulphuric acid. Remove the retort 
from the freezing mixture, and place the receiver attached 
to it there ; a gentle heat being now applied to the retort, 
the anhydrous acid is obtained iu silky crystals. 


Acid, Salicylic. Originally procured from the volatile oils 
of Spirrea vlmaria and Gaultkeria procumbens, but now 
obtained artificially from carbolate of soda by the action 
of carbonic acid on the former, at an elevated temperature. 
(See Pocket Formulai-y.) Kolbe, Kiersch, and Godefroy, 
have made experiments with this acid, from which it 
would appear that it possesses disinfecting, and consider- 
able antiseptic properties. 

Acid, Sulphurous. For the mode of obtaining an aqueous 
solution of this acid, see Acidum Sulphurosum, Pocket 
Formulary. The following are cheaper methods of ob- 
taining it for bleaching purposes, &c. BERTniEE directs 
a mixture of 100 parts black oxide of manganese, and 12 
or 1-4 of sulphur, to be heated in a glass retort, and the gas 
received into water kept very cold. Mr. Redwood directs 
I oz. of powdered charcoal to be acted on by 4 fluid oz. of 
oil of vitriol. Treacle is sometimes used instead of char- 
coal ; as also is linseed oil. 

Acid, Tannic. Tannin. See Acidum Tannicum, Pocket 

Acids, Mixed, tor Galvanic Batteries. 1. For troughs, 
for general purposes, medical galvanism, &c. : Nitric acid 
1 fluid oz., sulphuric acid 1^ fluid oz. water 4 pints. 

2. Dr. Faraday. Oil of vitriol 2 fluid oz., nitric acid 
1 fluid oz. water 5 pints. It should be tried by dipping 
into it a piece of sheet zinc. A continuous succession of 
small bubbles should be produced. 

3. For Mr. Smee's Battery. One measure of sulphuric 
acid to 7 of water. The intensity of its action is in- 
creased by the addition of a few drops of nitric acid, but 
this tends to destroy the plates. In electro-metallurgy the 
water should only contain a sixteenth of sulphuric acid. 

4. For Mr. Grove's Battery. For the outer vessel, 
1 pint of sulphuric acid to 7 of "water : for the inner, con- 
centrated nitric acid. 

5. For Uaniell's Battery. For the porous tube con- 
taining the zinc, 1 part of sulphuric acid with 10 of water. 
For the outer cylinder, a saturated solution of sulphate of 
copper, with a tenth part of sulphuric acid. 

6. Nitro-sulphuric acid, for Dr. T. Wright's Batteries. 
J^itric acid 1 part, sulphuric acid 5 parts. The zinc plate 


is immersed in a solution of chloride of ammonium or of 
salt, the platinized zinc in the above acid. The platinizing 
requires to be repeated every time the plate is washed. 

AciDiMETEl'. Acids generally are estimated by the quantity 
of alkalies or carbonated alkalies required to neutralize 
them. Weigh 100 grs. of the acid and dilute it with a few 
times its weight in water. Then add sufficient dry or 
crystallized carbonate of soda, or carbonate of potash, to 
exactly neutralize the acid. The alkalimeter tube may be 
used for the solution of the alkali. By a reference to the 
table of chemical equivalents, the quaijtity of real acid of 
any kind represented by the quantity of alkali required to 
neutralize it, may be estimated. Consult the larger manuals. 

Acidulated Kali. See Beyeeages. 

Albuminous Size. Beat up the white of an egg with twice 
its bulk of cold water, until well incorporated. Used as a 
varnish for leather binding and kid gloves ; also to size 
dra^^'ing paper. 

Alcohol. There is, perhaps, no better method of obtaining 
absolute alcohol than that of the Edinburgh Pharmaco- 
poeia. See Alcohol, Pocket Formulary. 

Alkalimetet. The quantity of real alkali contained in 
the commercial alkalies (common soda, soda ash, potashes, 
pearlash, salt of tartar, &c.) is ascertained by the quantity 
of an acid solution'of known strength required to neutralize 
it. For this purpose a tube, termed an Alkalimetee, is 
used, which will hold 1000 grains of water. The tube 
may be three fourths of an inch internal diameter, and 
9i inches in length ; or five-eighths of an inch diameter, 
and 14 inches in height ; and should be graduated into 100 
equal divisions numbered from the top downwards. The 
quantity of test acid used is then at once seen. This con- 
sists of suli^huric acid diluted with water, so that each 
measure (10 grains) is equivalent to one grain of pure 
soda. To use it, dissolve 100 grains of the impure soda 
in 3 oz. of hot water, filter, and wash the filter. Then 
add to the solution the test acid until the litmus ov cab- 
bage paper ceases to show an alkaline reaction. The same 
acid will serve for potash, if the number be multiplied by 
3 and divided by 4. — Paenell. There are several other 


iiiethods of performing the process giveiT in the larger 

Allots and Amalgams. A few only of these metallic 

compoimds require notice here : — 
Fusible Metal. 1. Tin 8 parts, lead 4, bismuth 3j melt 

together, removing the scum. Used as a metal-bath. 

2. Daecet's for the same purpose: Bismuth 8 parts, 
lead 5, tin 3. ^ 

3. Lead 3 parts, tm 2, bismuth 5. This melts at 197 

4. For anatomical injections : Melt together with a 
gentle heat 174 parts of tin, 312 of lead, 514 of bismuth, 
with a little charcoal : remove from the fire, and add 100 
parts of mercury, previously heated. It is fluid at 173° ; 
solid at 140° Fahrenheit. 

Brass. Mostly made of copper and zinc, the proportions 
varying acccording to the required colour and the purpose 
for which it is intended. 

Bronze. 1. For medals and small castings: Copper 95, 
tin 4. 

2. Copper 89, tin 8, zinc 3. 

3. Ancient. Copper 100, tin 7, lead 7. 

4. Kelly's. Copper 91, zmc 6, tin 2, lead 1. 

5. For gilding. Copper 14, zinc 6, tin 4. 

6. Bell-metal. Copper 78, tin 22. 

German Silver. 1. Copper 40^, nickel 31J, zinc 25|, 
iron 2^. 

2. Pure copper 55, nickel 23, zinc 17, iron 3, tin 2. 

Gold, Factitious. Platina 7, copper 16, zinc 1 ; fuse to- 
gether. See AuErM MrsivuM. 

Common Gold. Copper 16, silver 1, gold 2. 

Or-molu. Copper 45 to 48, zinc 52 to 55. 

White Brass. Poeel. Melt zinc with 10 per cent, each of 
copper and iron. This alloy has the fracture and ap- 
pearance of zinc, but is tougher than cast iron. It does 
not rust, nor adhere to metal moulds. 

Solders. 1. For Gold: Pure gold 12 parts, silver 2, 
copper 4. 

2. Soft Solder. Tin 2 parts, lead 1. 
For brass : Brass 2 parts, zinc 1. 

Alloys for Flectrotype. Clichee Moulds. Bismuth 8 parts. 


tin 4, lead 5, regulus of antimony 1 ; melt repeatedly to- 
gether, and pour out in di'ops, till perfectly mixed. 
Amalgam for Electrical Machines. 1. Fuse 1 oz. of zinc 
with i 01. of tin, at as low a temperature as possible ; then 
add 1 1 oz. of quicksilver, previously made hot ; mix, pour 
out, and when cold reduce it to a powder, and triturate it 
with sufficient quicksilver to bring it to a proper con- 

2. Zinc 1 part, tin 1, quicksilver 2 ; melt together. 

3. Zinc 2, tin 1, mercury 5. 

4. La Beaume's. Pour into a chalked wooden box 
6 oz. of quicksilver ; pour into an iron ladle ^ oz. bees'- 
wax, with 2 oz. of purified zinc, and 1 oz. of grain tin ; set 
it over a brisk fire, and when the metals are melted, pour 
them into the box, avoiding the dross. Wlien cold, reduce 
it to a powder, and mix it with lard. Keep it in a box, 
covered with tallow, and spread it on leather for use. 

Liquid Amalgam,for Silvering Globes, Sfc. Pure lead 1 oz., 
grain tin 1 oz.; melt in a clean ladle, and immediately 
add 1 oz. of bismuth. Skim off the dross, remove the 
ladle from the fij'e, and, before the metal sets, add 10 oz. 
of quicksilver. Stir together, avoiding the fumes. 

Amalgam for Varnishing Figures. Melt 2 oz. of tin with 
\ oz. of bismuth, and add \ oz. of quicksilver. When 
cold, grind it with white of egg, and apply to the 

Alum. It is prepared by lixiviating calcined albuminous 
schist, and concentrating the solution to 1"4 or 1'5 density, 
and adding the requisite quantity of chloride of potassixun, 
soap-boilers' ash, or kelp, to supply the alkali. By re- 
crystallization it is obtained colourless. In some manu- 
factories sulphate of ammonia, from gas-liquor, is added 
to the lixivium, instead of chloride of potassium. Alum 
is also manufactured from clay, cryolite or Greenland 
spa. Bauxite (a mineral containing a large proportion of 
hydrated alumina), and blast-furnace slag. Roman or 
cubic alum is crystallized from a solution, the temperature 
of which is not allowed to exceed 104° F. It differs from 
common alum in containing a large quantity of base, a 
portion of which separates, if the solution be heated to 
\'2>(f. Another kind of alum, sometimes used as a mor- 


dant, consists almost entirely of sulphate of ahnnina, and 
is probably made by boiling fine clay, free from iron, with 
sulphuric acid, and cooling the solution so as to obtain a 
solid mass. See Dyes, &c. 

AiitTMiNirrM, TO Frost. The metal is plunged into a solu- 
tion of caustic potash. The surface, becoming frosted, does 
not tarnish on exposure to the air. — Macadam. 

Aluminium Bronze. 10 parts of aluminium are melted 
with 90 parts of copper. It is said to be as tenacious as 

Amadou. Prepared from Boletus igniarius, B. fomentarius, 
and some other allied species of fungi. The fungus is 
cut into thin slices, the hard external parts removed, and 
the rest beaten with a mallet till soft. This forms sur- 
geon^ s agaric. If intended for German tinder, it is soaked 
in a solution of nitre, and sometimes sprinkled with gun- 
powder, and carefully dried. 

Amalgams. See Alloys, above. 

Ammonia, Sulphate and Carbonate of. An impure 
sulphate of ammoi»' , suitable for agricultural purposes, 
is obtained by neutv lizing the ammoniacal liquor of gas- 
works with sulphuric acid. By recrystallization and 
fi.ltration through animal charcoal, it may be obtained in 
a state of greater purity. The carbonate (hydrated sesqui- 
carbonate) is obtained by mixing either this suljihatc, or 
sal-ammoniac, with chalk, and subliming it in iron retorts 
into leaden receivers. It is further purified by resubliming 
it with a gentle heat. See Ammonia Carbonas, Pocket 

Anatomical Injections. 1. Tallow, resin, and wax, equal 
parts ; melt over a slow fire ; and add red lead or vermi- 
lion sufficient to colour. For coarse preparations. 

2. A strong solution of isinglass, coloured as required. 
For delicate preparations. 

3. Amalgam Injection. Melt together 1 oz. each of 
bismuth, lead, and zinc, and, when melted, add 2 oz. of 
quicksilver. Also for delicate parts. 

Anatomical Subjects, and Animal Substances, to Pre- 
serte. 1. M. Gannal's Solution. Common salt 2 lbs., 
alum 2 lbs., nitre 1 lb., water 4 gallons. M. Gannal injects 
into the carotid artery a solution of sulphate of alumina, 


of density 1*286. From 5 to 7 piuts are required in sum- 
mer, but less will suffice in winter. 

2. Dr. Babington injects pyroxylic spirit into the 
aorta, and a little into the cavity of the peritoneum and 
the rectum. 

3. Chlobai Hydrate is a powerful antiseptic, made 
into a weak solution ; it may be successf idly employed for 
the preservation of anatomical preparations. 

4. Mr. Go ABBY, for insects, and for preparations of their 
organs. Bay salt 4 oz., alum 2 oz., cori'osive sublimate 
from 2 to 4 grains, water 1 to 2 quarts. The weaker pro- 
portions should always be employed in the first instance. 
Let the insect or its organs be covered with the fluid, 
which should be changed frequently. 

5. For Mollusca. Bay salt ^ oz., arsenic ^ dr., subli 
mate 2 grs., water a quart ; dissolve. 

6. Mr. PiGNE, for preserving pathological specimens. 
Creasote 3 to 6 drops, water a pint. 

7. Caebolic Acid, often sold for creasote, may be used 
in the same manner. 

8. PuBE Glyceeine. Found especially useful in preserv- 
ing the fresh tints of fishes, &c., intended for exhibition in 

9. Dr. Staptiton, for patliological specimens. In a 
quart of saturated solution of alum dissolve \ dr. of nitre. 
A recent prepai'ation immersed in this liquid becomes dis- 
coloured ; but withui a few days the colour returns. It is 
then put into a saturated and filtered solution of alum. 
M. Eeboulet proposes : Water 16 parts, chloride of lime 
4, alum 2, nitre 1. 

10. Chloride of tin 4 (or corrosive sublimate 5) parts, in 
100 of water, with 2 of hydrochloric acid. — Mr. Cooley. 

11. For preserving Animals. Alum 32 oz., nux vomica 
3 oz., water 5 pints ; boil to 4^ pints. Wlien cold, filter, 
or decant. This serves for injection. The residue, mixed 
with yolk of egg, is iised for anointing the interior of the 
skin and fleshy parts left in skinning animals. 

12. For preserving Feathers. Strychnine 16 grs., recti- 
fied spirit a pint. (Dangerous.) See Stuffing Bieds, &c. 

Ankotto, Pueified. To a boiling solution of pearlash add 
as much annotto as it will dissolve. When cold, decant 


the clear solution, and neutralize with diluted sulphuric 
acid, avoiding any excess. Wash the precipitate with a 
little cold water, and dry it. 

Annotto, Solution of. Boil equal weights of annotto 
and pearlash with water, and dilute to the required 

Anti-attbition, and Axle Grease. 1. One part of fine 
black-lead, ground perfectly smooth, with 4 parts of lard. 
Some recipes add a little camphor. 

2. Booth's Axle Grease. (Expired Patent.) Dis- 
solve i lb. common soda in 1 gallon of water, add 3 lbs. of 
tallow, and 6 lbs. palm oil (or 10 lbs. palm oil only) ; heat 
tliem together to 200 or 210° F. ; mix, and keep the 
mixture constantly stirred till the composition is cooled 
down to 60° or 70° F. A thiniaer composition is made with 
i lb. of soda, a gallon of water, a gallon of rape-oil, and 
i lb. of tallow or palm-oil. [See also Lubricating Com- 

Anti-Ferment. Sulphite of lime; or equal parts of sul- 
phite of lime and ground black mustard seed. Used to 
check the fermentation of cyder, &c. 

Aqua Fortis. Double aqua fortis is nitric acid of 1*36 
specific gravity ; single aqua fortis about 1'22. — Dr. 
Pereira. a compound acid was formerly used under 
this name by dyers, and for cleaning brass, consisting of 
strone spirit of nitre 20 lbs., oil of vitrei 7 lbs., water 30 

Aqua Eegia. See Nitro- hydrochloric Acid, further back. 

Aquarium, Marine, Salts fob, &c. Artificial sea-water 
may be used instead of the natural. A rough imitation 
is formed by mixing 100 oz. of fresh water with 3 oz. 
common salt, 1 oz. of Epsom salts, 200 grs. of chloride of 
magnesium, and 40 grs. of chloride of potassium. 

Oi', more precisely, the real constitution of sea-water 
may be imitated in the following manner : — Mix with 
970,000 grains of rain-water, 27,000 of chloride of sodium, 
3600 of chloride of magnesium, 750 of chloride of potas- 
sium, 29 of bromide of magnesium, 2300 of sulphate of 
magnesia, 1400 of sulphate of lime, S^ of carbonate of 
lime, 5 of iodide of sodium. These all being finely 
powdered and mixed first, are to be stirred into the water. 


through which a stream of air may be caused to pass from 
the bottom, until the whole is dissolved. On no account is 
the water to be boiled, or even lieated. 

Into this water, w-hen clear, the rocks and seaweed may 
be introduced. As soon as the latter are in a flourishing 
state, the animals may follow. Care must be taken not 
to have too many of these, and to remove immediately 
any that die. The loss by evaporation is to be made up 
by adding clean rain-water. Tlie aquarium, whether of 
fresh or of salt water, will require occasionally artificial 
aeration. This may be done by simply blowing through 
a glass tube which reaches to near the bottom ; or, better 
still, in the following way : — Take a glass syringe which 
can be easily worked. Having filled it with water, hold 
it with the nozzle about 2 inches from the surface of the 
water in the aquarium, into which the contents are to be 
discharged quickly, and with a sort of jerk. By this 
means a multitude of small bubbles are forced down into 
the fluid. This operation should be repeated for a con- 
siderable number of times. 

Ababine. Gum arabic dissolved in water, and precipitated 
by alcohol. 

Aegentum Musivum. Fuse i oz. each of grain tin and 
bismuth in a crucible, and add ^ oz. of mercury. 

Aeboe Dian^. See Trees, Metallic. 

Aromatic Pastils. See Perfumeey. 

AuRUM MusiA'UM. Mosaic gold. Bisulphide or lisulphuret 
of tin. See Stanni sulphuretum, Pocket Formulary. 1. 
Dr. Ure directs 12 oz. of tin to be melted, and 3 oz. of 
mercury added. This amalgam is triturated with 7 oz. of 
sulphur and 3 of sal ammoniac, and the powder put into a 
matrass, which is bedded deep in sand, and kept for several 
hours at a gentle heat. The heat is then raised, and con- 
tinued for several hours, taking care not to raise it so 
high as to blacken the mass. 

2. Melt together in a crucible, over a clear fii'e, equal 
parts of snlijhur and the wliite oxide of tin ; keep it con- 
tinually stirred with a glass rod, luitil the compound 
appears as a yellow flalcy po\\'der. (Tliis is used as a 
cheap bronze powder, &c.) 

Baldwin's PnosPHORUS. Heat nitrate of lime till it melts ; 


keep it fused for 10 minutes, and pour it into a heated iron 
ladle, ^\^^en cool, break it into pieces, and keep it in a 
closely stoppered bottle. After exposure to the sun's rays, 
it emits a white light in the dark. 

Balls for Hoeses. See Veterinary Formulary. 

Balls, Ash. The ashes of fern, or other kinds of wood 
ashes, made into balls. 

Balls, Heel. 1. Melt together 4 oz. of mutton suet, 1 oz. 
of bees'-wax, 1 oz. of sweet oil, i oz. oil of turpentine, and 
stir in 1 oz. of powdered gum arable, and i oz. of fine 

2. Bees'-wax 8 oz., tallow 1 oz., powdered gum 1 oz., 
lamp-black q. s. These are used not merely by the shoe- 
maker, but to copy inscriptions, raised patterns, &c., by 
rubbing the ball on paper laid over the article to be copied. 
Ullathoene's Balls answer the purpose very well. For 
copying ancient monumental brasses, a similar compound, 
coloured with bronze-powder, instead of lamp-black, is 
sometimes employed. 

Balls foe Scoueing— Breeches Balls, Clothes Balls. 

1. Bath-brick 4 parts, pipe-clay 8 parts, pumice 1, soft- 
soap 1 ; ochre, umber, or other colour to bring it to the 
desired shade, q. s. ; ox-gall to form a paste. Make it 
into balls and dry them. 

2. PiiM-clay 4 oz., fuller's-earth i oz., whiting i oz., 
white pepper i oz., ox-gall sufficient to form it into a 

3. Pipe-clay 3 oz., white pepper 1 dr., starch 1 dr., orris 
powder li drs. It may be kept in powder, or formed into 
balls, as above. 

Balls, Blacking. See Blacking, below. 

Balls, Ftjenittjee. See Furniture Paste, 

Baeium, Peroxide of. Heat pure baryta to low redness in 
a platinum crucible ; then gradually add chlorate of pot- 
ash in the proportion of 1 part of the latter to 4 of the 
former. Cold water removes the chloride of potassium, 
and the peroxide remains as a hydrate. 

Baryta Chloeate. See Chloeate of Baryta. 

Beetle Poison. Put a di-achm of phosphorus in a flask 
with 2 oz. of water ; plunge the flask into hot water, and 
when the phosphorus is melted, pour the contents into a 


mortar with 2 or 3 oz. of lard. Triturate briskly, adding 
water, and i lb. of floui', with 1 or 2 oz. of brown sugar. 
— Phaemaceutical JouRyAL. Plaster of Paris, with 
oatmeal, is said to destroy cockroaches. 

Beetle Wafers. Picd lead 4 parts by M-eight, flour and 
brown sugar, of each 1 part. Cats and dogs will not 
touch it. 

Benzine Collas. Benzine is sold under tliis name. 

Benzol. Benzine. A volatile liquid, procured by distilling 
light coal naphtha at a temperature not exceeding 200° F., 
by the method patented by Mr. Mansfield. It is a sol- 
vent for fats and oils, and hence is used for cleansing 
silks, and other stuffs. It likewise dissolves gutta percha ; 
and also, mth heat and long digestion, India rubber. 

Benzoline. a product of the fractional distillation of 
American rock oil, sold for sponge lamps. At a temperature 
less than 100° F. it will ignite if brought near a light, so 
that great care must be taken with it, and it should not be 
kejjt in quantity. 

Beverages, and Powders for PEEPARiNa them. See 
furtlaer back. 

Bird Lime. Boil the middle bark of the hoUy 7 or 8 hours 
in water ; drain it, and lay it in heaps in the ground, 
covered with stones, for 2 or 3 weeks, till reduced to a 
mucilage. Beat this in a mortar, wash it in rain-water, 
and knead it till free from extraneous matters. Put it 
into earthern pots, and in 4 or 5 days it -R-ill be fit for use. 
An inferior kind is made by boiling linseed oil for some 
hours, until it becomes a viscid paste. 

BISULPHURET OF Carbon. Bisulphide of Carlon. Bi- 
sulphide of Carlon. Tliis is used in the arts, as a 
solvent for India rubber, gutta percha, &c. To procure 
it, MiTLDER recommends the following process as tlie most 
convenient. Provide an iron bottle (a quicksilver bottle 
answers very well), and make a second opening into it. 
To one opening adapt a copper tube bent twice at right 
angles ; and to the other a straight tube dipping into "the 
bottle. Having nearly filled the bottle with pieces of 
charcoal (recently heated to redness), and having screwed 
on the bent and straight tubes, place the bottle in a fur- 
nace, closing the mouth of the latter with a stone or clay 


cover in two pieces, hollowed in the centre so as to fit the 
npper part of the hottle, and defend it from the action of 
the fire. Connect the curved tnhe with a Woolpe's hottle 
half -filled mth water, and placed in a freezing mixture ; 
and when the iron bottle is sufiiciently heated, introduce 
by the straight tube, fragments of sulphur, and imme- 
diately close the mouth of the tube with a plug. The 
bisulphm'et, as it comes over, falls to the bottom of the 
M'ater. Separate it from the water, and distil over dry 
chloride of calcium, or it may be purified by shaking up 
with mercury. See also Wagner's 'Chemical Techno- 
Blacking, Liquid, foe Shoes, &c. {^Note. — By ivory- 
black, So?«e-black, which is usually sold under this name, 
is intended. Ti'ue ivory-black has a more intense colour, 
but is too dear for general use.] 1. Ivory-black, 3 oz., 
treacle 2 oz., sweet oil i oz. ; mix to form a paste ; add 
gradually ^ oz. of oil of vitriol, and then half a pint of 
vinegar, and If pints of water, or sour beer. Some prefer 
mixing the oil of vitriol with sweet oil. 

2. Ivory black 2 lbs., treacle 2 lbs., sweet oil -g lb. ; mix 
and add | lb. oil of vitriol, and beer or vmegar to make up 
a gallon. 

3. Ivory-black 3 lbs., treacle 4 lbs., vinegar a pint, oil of 
•vitriol 8 oz., water a gallon. 

4. Ivory-black 2 lbs., neat's-foot oil 4 oz. ; mix, and add 
3 quarts of sour beer, or ^^negar, and a spoonful of any 
kind of spirits ; stir till smooth, and add 2 oz. of oil of 
vitriol, and sprinkle on it | drachm of powdered resin. 
Then boil together 3 pints of sour ale with a little log- 
wood, and i oz. of Prussian blue, 3 oz. of honey, and 
8 oz. of treacle. Mix, but do not bottle it for 2 or 8 

5. Ivory-black 8 oz., bro^ni sugar or treacle 8 oz., 
sweet oil 1 oz., oil of vitriol | oz., vinegar 2 quarts. Mix 
the oil with the treacle, then add the oil of vitriol and 
vinegar, and lastly, the ivory-black. 

Blacking for Dress Boots. 1. Gum 8 oz., treacle 2 oz., 
ink a pint, vinegar 2 oz., spirit of wine 2 oz. Dissolve 
the ginn and treacle in the ink and vinegar, strain, and 
add the spirit. 


2. To the above add 1 oz. of sweet oil, and i oz. lamp- 
black. [These are applied with a sponge, and allowed to 
dry out of the dust. They will not bear the wet.] 

3. Beat together the whites of 2 eggs, a tablespoonful 
of spirit of wine, a lump of sugar, and a little finely 
powdered ivory-black to thicken. 

Blacking without Polishing. Treacle 4 oz., lamp-black 
^ oz., yeast a tablespoonful, 2 eggs, olive oil a teaspoon- 
ful, oil of turjjentine a teaspoonful. Mix well. To be 
applied with a sponge, without brushing. 

Blacking, India Rubber (Patent). Ivory-black 60 lbs., 
treacle 45 lbs., vinegar (No. 24) 20 gallons, powdered gum 
1 lb.. India-rubber oil 9 lbs. (The latter is made by dis- 
solving by heat, 18 oz. of India rubber in 9 lbs. of rape oil.) 
Grind the whole smooth in a paint mill, then add, by 
small quantities at a time, 12 lbs. of oil of vitriol, stirring 
it strongly for half an hour a day for a fortnight. 

Blacking, Paste. 1. These pastes may be made with the 
ingredients of liquid blacking, using sufficient vinegar, in 
which a little gum has been dissolved, to form a paste. 
Make it into cakes, and dry it. 

2. German Blacking. Powdered bone-black is mixed 
with half its weight of molasses and one eighth of its 
weight of olive oil; and to this is added afterwards one 
eighth of its weight of hydrochloric acid, and one fourth 
of its weight of sti'ong sulphuric acid. The whole is to 
be then mixed up with water into a sort of unctuous 
paste. — Liebig. 

3. Bailey's Blacking Balls. Bruised gum tragacanth 

1 oz., water 4 oz.; mix, and add 2 oz. of neat's foot-oil, 

2 oz. of fine ivory-black, 2 oz. of Prussian blue, 4 oz. of 
sugar-candy ; mix, and evaporate to a proper consistence. 

For Heel Ball, see Balls, further back. 
Blacking fok Harness. 1. Isinglass or gelatine } oz., 
powdered indigo ^ o?., soft soaj) 4 oz., logwood 4 oz., glue 
5 oz. Boil together in 2 pints of vinegar till the glue is 
dissolved ; then strain through a cloth, and bottle for use. 
This appears an unchemical composition ; but is inserted 
(as are many similar ones) because it is in actual use. 
The next is of a different character. 

2. Melt 8 oz. of bee's-wax iu au eai-theu pipkin, and 


stir into it 2 oz. of ivory-black, 1 oz. of Prussian blue 
groimd in oil, 1 oz. of oil of turpentine, and j oz. of copal 
varnish. Make it into balls. To be applied with a brush 
and polished with an old handkerchief. 

3. Treacle ^ lb., lamp black 1 oz., yeast a spoonful, 
sugar-candy, olive oil, gum tragacanth, isinglass, each 1 
oz., a cow's gall. Mix all together with 2 pints of stale 
beer, and let it stand before the tire for an hour. 

Black Eevivee. 1. Bruised nutgalls 1 lb., logwood 1 lb., 
water 5 quarts ; boil to 4 quarts, and add sulphate of 
iron 4 oz. ; dissolve, and strain. When cold, add 8 oz. of 
ox gall. 

2. Galls 3 oz., logwood 1 oz., copperas, iron filings, 
and sumach, of each 1 oz., vinegar 2 pints. — Qbay'b 

Black Japan. True asphaltum IJ oz., boiled linseed oil 
4 pints, burnt umber 4 oz. Heat together till the wh»le 
is incorporated, remove from the fire, and when suffi- 
ciently cool, add as much oil of turpentine as will bring it 
to a proper consistence. 

Bleaching Liquid. Solutions of chloride of lime, and 
chloride of soda, are sold for this purpose, with directions 
for use. The following is also used : Mix 3 lbs. of common 
salt and 1 lb. of black oxide of manganese with as much 
water as will form a paste. Put the mixture into a retort, 
and add 2 lbs. of oil of vitriol previously diluted with 4 lbs. 
of water. Pass the gas into a solution of 1 lb. of common 
pearlash, or 11 oz. of caustic potash, in 6 lbs. of water. 
The retort may be placed, after a short period, in hot 
water, to extricate the remaining gas. In bleaching 
cotton by chloride of lime, 1 lb. is dissolved in 3 gallons of 
water for each pound of cloth; it is afterwards passed 
through diluted hydrochloric or sulphuric acid (1 i^art of 
acid to 30 of water), and then washed. 

Blights, Remedies fob. 

Apple-tree canker. Having brushed ofp the white down 
and the red stain underneath it, anoint tlie places with a 
mixture of jtraiu oil and Scotch snuff. 

White Blight of Apple-tree. Apply a decoction of foxglove 
mixed with fresh cow-dung into a paste. 



J7y I'a T^xrni-pt. Steep the aeefi before sowiojz, in. traui oS ; 
or -K slaked lime over the field aa 9ooa a.^ 

pla„.„ ^. .; appeared; or contrive, if possable, to f — 
jrate the field witi. brimstone. 

M-lldevi of WTteat: L 2o prevent it. Di'solre ia. %^ ^ 
lens of cold water 3^ oz. of salphate o£ i opper for 
3 ^ :' sowing' grain . Throw thia qti. ntity "^^ 

int.. ._ _:r veseeL and poor over it the pi'-paxen - .^^- , 
Txntil it risea 5 or 6 inches above the com. Sti " thorou^ily, 
and remove all the grains that awini- Throw the mix*— 
into a basket, so aa to drain, off the liq^nid; was^. it we . 
soft water, and dry bef . z. 

2. To remjo^e H. A . . of 1 lb. of salt to *he 
gaUoa of water, sprinkled with, a flat bmsh ovar the 
growina* com. 

S/rmt in Wheat. To pretent it. Boil 3 gallona of water, 
and alake in. it abont 36 lbs. of qiiick lime ; add 3 ga" 
more of cold water, and poor the hot mirtrrre or. 
bxiahela of the grain pla<ced in a tub, .stirring inceaaa.. 
Tura over the mixture now aiid then, for 2-i hours. A^- . ■ 
the liquid to drain. ofE, and iow the Emed wheat as soon aa 
it ia sufficiently dry. See "Wheat, =t~-- ": i. 

JBlight in Tines. A solution of penti. . - of calcium 

may be pa! -r the branches aiiu. twigs tt.v 

acqpire a c- .- coating of .?ulphnr mi-rp d ^■ 

bonate of lime. M. MercenU raiaea the eaxth round the 
stCToa of the vine to about a foot deep, then places in '-" •: 
excavation a good handful of flowers of sulphur, hea 
it round the stenii?. The earth ia thai replaced. Thia .jj 
done at the beginning of Anguat. 

Tor Lice, Aphides, artd Red Spiders. See WAasES lOB 

BtrE FOB LnTES. The ordinary kinds of cake blue conaiat 
of indigo and starch. LLefchild'.? patent blue ia -" 
made : Mir 4 parts of Chinese blue, 1 of TumbuII's, . 
1 of oialic acid J gradually add boiling watar until cue 
whole is diasolved, and laatly 4 parts of sulphate of indigo. 
The latter is made with 1 part of indigo, and 4 of sul- 
phuric acid, neutralized with carbonate of ammonia. 

BorLEES, TO PB.EVE3T IscsxiTAXiQ-^i IS. M. Drcxos pro- 
poses to mix the water with, which the boilfflr is to be 


supplied with the following solution, in the proportion of 
li per cent. Chloride of barium 125 parts, hydrochloric 
acid (s. g. 1-20) 25 parts, water 450. The water must 
then be allowed to clear in large reservoirs, where both 
the sulphate and carbonate of lime become decomposed, 
with formation of chloride of calcium. Any excess of 
acid must be neutralized before using, which may be done 
by placing pieces of limestone in the pipes. 

IJoxES, SCLPHATED. To a bushel of ground bones, add 
from 10 to 14 lbs. of oil of vitriol, previously mixed with 
half its bulk of water. [It is sometimes mixed with an 
equal weight of salt and a sufficient quantity of bran. 
Turnip seed may be mixed with this compound and the 
two sowii together.] 

Boot-top Liquid. 1. Solution of chloride of tin 3 drs.j 
French chalk, or Venetian talc, in powder, 1 oz. ; salt of 
sorrel i oz., flake white 1 oz., burnt alum ^ oz., powdered 
cuttle-fish bone 1 oz., white arsenic 1 oz., boiling water a 
quart. Probably sulphate of baryta might be substituted 
for arsenic, the use of which it is desirable to discourage. 

2. -Sour milk 3 pints, cream of tartar 2 oz., oxalic acid 
1 oz., alum 1 oz. — Mr. Redwood. 

3. Wash the tops with soap and water, and scrape 
them with the back of a knife. Then apply the following 
with a barefoot brush. — Oxalic acid 1 oz., water a pint. 
Use the back of a knife as before ; then polish with the 
following : Powdered gum arable i oz., red spirits of 
lavender 2 oz., powdered turmeric i oz. ; pencil this over 
the top, let it half dry, then polish by rubbing it, one way 
only, with a flannel till it shines. 

4. Sour milk 3 pints, butter of antimony 2 oz., cream 
of tartar 2 oz., citric acid, alum, burnt alum, of each 1 oz. 

5. White Top. One ounce each of magnesia, alum, 
cream of tartar, and oxalic acid ; J oz. of salt of sorrel, and 
i oz. of sugar of lead ; dissolve in a quart of water, and 
apply with a sponge. 

6. Brown Top. Oxalic acid, alum, annotto, of each 
1 oz. ; isinglass i oz., sugar of lead i oz., salt of sorrel 
} oz. ; boil together in a quart of water for 10 minutes. 
Apply with a sjwnge. 


BoOKBiNDEEs' Stains, FOE Leathee. — Black. A solution 
of 1 part of sulphate of iron in 6 of water. Blue, A 
solution of indigo. (See Chemic Blue.) Brown. A 
solutjion of pearlasb, or of common soda. 

Boot Powdeb. Finely powdered French chalk, or Venetian 

Beead, Unfeemented. See Dietetic Aeticles, further 

Beonze Powdeb. The best methods of preparing these 
powders are probably kept secret. The following are 
some of the published recipes : 

1. Gold leaf, or alloys of gold, reduced to powder by 
grinding them with sulphate of potash, or with honey, 
and washing away the extraneous matter with hot water, 
and drying the metallic powder. 

2. Dutch metal, and other similar alloys, treated in the 
same way. 

3. Verdigris 4 oz., tutty 2 oz., sublimate 1 dr., borax 
1 dr., nitre 1 dr., mix them into a paste with oil, and fuse 
the mixture in a crucible. This has failed in some hands — 
perhaps from the tutty being factitious. 

4. Mix together 100 parts of sulphate of copper, and 
50 of crystallized carbonate of soda ; apply heat till they 
unite. Powder the mass when cold, and add 15 parts of 
copper filings ; mix well, and keep it at a white heat for 
20 minutes. Wash and dry the product. 

See also Axjeum Musiyum, and Aegentum Musivum, 
further back. 

Beonzing Liquids, foe Beonzing Coppee Medals, 
FiGUEES, Insteuments, &c. 1. Sal ammoniac 1 dr., 
oxalic acid 15 grs., vinegar a pint: after well cleaning the 
article to be bronzed, warm it gently, and brush it o\er 
with the liquid, using only a small quantity at a time. 
When rubbed dry, repeat the apj^lication till the desired 
tint is obtained. [^For copper medals, electro-type, casts, 

2. Bronze for Blaster Figures. Dissolve palm soap in 
water, and add a mixed solution of sulphate of copper and 
sulphate of iron until no further precipitate occurs. Dry 
the precipitate, and mix it with oil of turpentine, or linseed 


oil. Sulphate of copper alone produces too bright a green. 
Palmitate of iron is yellow. These may be precipitated 
separately, and mixed to the desired shade after being 
triturated with the oil. Ten ounces of soap will require 
3 ounces of sulphate of cojiper. 

3. Sal ammoniac 1 oz., cream of tartar 3 oz., salt 6 oz. ; 
dissolve in a pint of hot water, add 2 oz. of nitre, and 
2 oz. of nitrate of copper dissolved in i pint of water. 

4. Salt of sorrel 1 oz., sal ammoniac 2 oz., white vinegar 
14 oz. \_To give an antique appearance to bronze figures, 

5. A diluted solution of per chloride of platinum. [_For 
copper binding screws, and other small articles.'] 

6. A weak solution of hydro-sulphuret (liydro-sulphide) 
of ammonia, or of sulphuret (sulphide) of potassium. [For 
electrotype medals.] 

7. Immediately on removing the electrotype cast from 
the solution, brush it over with good black lead; then 
heat it moderately, and brush it over with a painting 
brush, the slightest moisture being used. 

8. Boil 2 oz. of carbonate of ammonia andl oz. of acetate 
of copper in ^ pint of vinegar, until nearly all the vinegar 
is evaporated. Pour into this a sohition of 62 grains of 
sal ammoniac, and 15i grains of oxalic acid, dissolved in 
\ l^int of vinegar ; boil tlie whole and filter. Apply it to 
the medal (which should be perfectly bright, and pre- 
viously warmed) with a camel-hair pencil for half a 
minute ; then pour boiling water on it ; wipe it with soft 
cotton very slightly moistened with linseed oil, and rub it 
with clean cotton. For electrotype copper medals. [They 
may also be bronzed by applying oxide of iron (jeweller's 
rouge, or crocus) in tlie same manner as directed al.>ove, 
for plumbago ; or a mixture of these may be used.] 

9. Tin Castings. Wash them over, after being well 
cleaned and wiped, with a solution of 1 part of sulphate 
of iron, and 1 of .sulphate of copper, in 20 parts of water : 
afterwards with a solution of 4 parts of verdigris in 11 of 
distilled vinegar ; leave for an hour to dry, then polish 
with a soft brush and colcothar. 

Proxzing Ball. See Balls (Heel). 

Buo.vzixG Pastes, Parisian. 1. Plumbago 1 oz., si^ttna 


2 Gz., rouge i oz. Add a few drops of hydrosulphate of 

ammonia, and water. 

2. Chrome lead 2 oz., Prussian blue 2 oz., plumbago 

i lb., sienna powder and lake carmine, each I lb. Add 

sufficient water to make a paste. 
Beosse db Coeail. The roots of lucerne {Medicago sativa), 

cleaned, dried, and hammered at the end. Used as a 

Beownino, oe Beonzing Liquids, fob Gun Baeeels. 1. 

Aquafortis \ oz., sweet spirit of nitre J oz., spirit of wine 

1 oz., sulphate of copper 2 oz., water 30 oz., tincture of 
perchloride of iron 1 oz. : mix. 

2. Sulphate of copper 1 oz., sweet spirit of nitre 1 oz., 
water a pint ; mix. In a few days it will be fit for use. 

3. Sweet spirit of nitre 3 oz., gum benzoin 1^ oz., 
tincture of perchloride of iron i oz., sulphate of copper 

2 drs., spirit of wme i oz., mix, and add 2 lbs. of soft 

4. Tincture of perchloride of iron ^ oz., spirit of nitric 
ether ^ oz., sulphate of copper 2 scruples, rain water 
i pint. The above are applied with a sponge, after clean- 
ing the barrel with lime and water. When dry, they are 
polished with a stiff brush or iron scratch brush. 

Beitnswick Black. Melt asphaltum, and add to it half its 
weight of boiled linseed oil; mix, and when sufficiently 
cool, add enough oil of turpentine to bring it to the proper 

Bra Poison. 1. Spirit of wine 1 oz., spirit of turpentine 
8 oz., camphor \ oz. : mix. 

2. Distilled vinegar, or diluted wood vinegar, a pint; 
camphor ^ oz. ; dissolve. 

3. Corrosive sublimate 3 oz., hydrochloric acid 3 oz., oil 
of turpentine 12 oz., water 6 pints. Or, 1 oz. of sublimate, 

, 2 oz. of hydrochloric acid, a pint of oil of turpentine, and 
a pint of decoction of tobacco. 

4. Strong mercurial ointment 1 oz., soft soap 1 oz., oil 
of turpentine a jiint. 

5. Wliite arsenic 2 oz., lard 13 oz., corrosive subUmate 
5 oz., Venetian I'ed \ oz. 

6. Scotch snuff mixed with soft soap. 

7. For Floors^ Corrosive sublimate 1 lb., sal ammo- 


Iliac 1 lb., hot water 8 gallons. [It is said that if a branch 
of narrow leaved dittany or pepperwort (lepidium ruderale) 
be suspended in a room, all the bugs will settle in it, and 
may be taken. Fumigating the rooms with sulphur is a 
troublesome and disagreeable process, and not always suc- 

Bxtenett's (Sir W.) DisiNFECTiNa Fluid. See Disinfect- 
i^Gr AND Deodorizing Compounds. 

BcTTEE, TO Preserve. Powder finely, and mix together, 
2 parts of the best salt, 1 of loaf sugar, and 1 of nitre. 
To each pound of butter, well cleansed from the milk, add 
1 oz. of this compound. It should not be used under a 
month. [Butter that has an xmpleasaut flavour, is said 
to be improved by the addition of 2^ drs. of bicarbonate 
of soda to 3 lbs. of butter. A turnipy flavour may be pre- 
A'ented by only feeding the cows with turnips immediately 
after milking them.] 

Butter of Antimony. The liquid chloride of antimony, 
commercially known by this name, is usually made by 
dissolving crude or roasted black antimony in hydrochloric 
acid with the addition of a little nitric acid. It usually 
contains pernitrate of iron. 

Butyric Ether. Saponify butter with a strong solution 
of potash, dissolve the soap in the smallest quantity of 
alcohol by the aid of heat, add a mixture of alcohol and 
sulphuric acid till the solution is acid, and distil as long 
as the product has a fruity odour. Redistil the product 
from chloride of calcium. It is sold as essence of pine- 

Camphine. JligMy rectified oil of turpentine. English's • 
patent camphine is made by passing the vapour of oil of 
turpentine through caustic solutions of potash, soda, or 
lime ; or through sulphuric acid. 

Cajiphoe, Artificial. This is formed by passing hydro- 
chloric acid gas into oil of turpentine. 

Camphor Balls. See Skin Cosmetics, after Perfumery. 

Candies. These belong rather to the confectioner than to 
the druggist. The green stalks of angelica, the peels of 
orange, lemon, and citron, green roots of ginger, &c., are 
first boiled in water till soft, then in syrup till they are 
transparent, and dried in a stove, at a heat not exceeding 


104° F. Candied lioreliound is made by boiling lump 
sugar with a little strong decoction or infusion of di'ied 
liorehound, till a portion taken out and cooled becomes 
solid. It is then poured on to a slab, or into paper or tin 
moulds dusted with powdered sugar. 

Caxthaeidine Blister, Lissonde. Melt white wax 45 parts 
in olive oil 28 parts with a gentle heat, add turpentine 24 
parts, camphor 1 part, cantharidine 2 parts ; stir, let the 
mass cool an instant, then pour out or spread on cloths. It 
raises the epidermis in a few hours. 

Caxton's PnosPHOEirs. Put calcined oyster shells in layers 
alternately with sulphur, and heat strongly in a covered 
crucible for an hour. 

Caoutchouc, Solvents foe. See Solvents. 

Capsules, Gelatinous. These are used to contain copalva 
and other nauseous liquids which do not dissolve gela- 
tine, so that they may be swallowed without inconve- 
nience. They are made by "dipping the bulbous extre- 
mity of an iron rod into a concentrated solution of gela- 
tine. Just before the rod is withdrawn, it is to be rotated, 
in order to diffuse the gelatine equally over the bulb." 
Wlien sufficiently hardened, they are removed, placed on 
pins to dry, and when dry, filled with the balsam or oil, 
and the orifice closed with liquid gelatsne. Tliey are 
usually of an olive form, and contain 10 grs. of balsam in 
each. See Dr. Peeeiea's ' Elements,' article Copaiva. 
M. GiBAUD recommends the following composition for 
capsules : Transparent gelatine 12 parts, syrup of gum 
2 parts, syrup 2 parts, water 10 parts. Melt it in a 
warm-bath, remove the scum, and dip the mould, pre- 
viously oiled, into the compound. 

Caebon. See Charcoal. 

Carbonic Acid. See Gases. 

Caemine. See Pigments. 

Case-hardening Powder. This is merely ferroprussiate 
of potash, dried, and finely powdered. By sprinkling it 
on iron heated to bright redness, the metal becomes case- 
liardened, or superficially converted into steel. The iron 
should be jjlunged into cold water as soon as the powder 
lifts acted on it. The following compound is used for the 


same purpose : Sal ammoniac 2 oz., burnt bone dust 2 
oz., Hexttood's composition J oz. Used as the former. 

Cassolettes. See Pekfumeey. 

Cayenne, SoirsLE. See Condiments, further back. 

Cements and Lvtes, VAEiors. 

Shell-lac Cement. Fine orange shell-lac, bruised, 4 oz., 
highly rectified spirit 3 oz. Digest in a warm place, fre- 
quently shaking, till the shell-lac is dissolved. Methy- 
lated spirit may be substituted for spirit of wine, 
where the smell is not objectionable. A most useful 
cement for securely joining almost any material. See 
Glue, Liquid. 

Shell-lac Cement loithout Spirit, Boil 1 oz. of borax in 
16 oz. water, add 2 oz. powdered shell-lac, and boil in 
a covered vessel till the lac is dissolved. Cheaper than 
the above, and for many purposes answers very well. 
Both are useful in fixing paper labels to tin, and to glass 
when exposed to damp. 

Armenian Cement for Glass, China, S(C. 1. Kellee's. 
Soak 2 drs. of cut isinglass in 2 oz. of water for 24 hours ; 
boil to 1 oz., add 1 oz. methylated spirit of wine, and strain 
through linen. Mix this, while hot, with a solution of 1 dr. 
of mastic in 1 oz. of methylated spirit, and triturate with \ 
dr. powdered gum ammoniac, till perfectly homogeneous. 

2. Dr. Uee's Diamond Cement. Isinglass 1 oz., dis- 
tilled water 6 oz., boil to 3 oz., and add 1^ oz. of methylated 
spirit. Boil for a minute or two, strain, and add while 
hot, first i oz. of a milky emulsion of ammoniac, and then 
5 drs. of tincture of mastic. [There are various kinds 
of this cement sold, and some of the improvements intro- 
duced by peculiar makers have not been made public] 

Cement used in the Hast for uniting jewels, glass, and 
metals. Dissolve 5 or 6 pieces of gum mastic, each about 
the size of a large pea, in just as much methylated spirit as 
will render it liquid. Soften some isinglass by steeping it in 
water; having dried it, dissolve as much of it in good 
brandy as will make a two-ounce phial of strong glue, to 
which must be added two small bits of gum ammoniacum, 
rubbing until they are dissolved. Mix the two solutions ; 
keep in a close jihial ; and when it is t-o be used, set the 
■■■ phial in boiling water. — Mr. Eton. 


Liquid Cement, for glass, porcelain, mood, S(c. Macerate for 
several hours sis parts of glue in small pieces, in 16 parts 
of water, add 1 part hydrochloric acid and \\ part of sul- 
phate of zinc, and expose the mixture for several hours to 
a temperature of 150^ F. 

Hcenle's Cement, for Glass or Earthenware. Shell-lac 2 
parts, Venice turpentine 1 part, fuse together, and form 
into sticks. 

Cheese Cement, for Earthemoare,Sfc. Mix together: — white 
of e^g beaten to a froth, quicklime, and grated cheese, 
and heat them to a paste. See Glue, Casein. 

Curd Cement. Add \ pint of %anegar to \ pint of skimmed 
milk ; mix the curd with the whites of 5 eggs well beaten, 
and sufficient powdered quicklime to form a paste. It 
resists water and a moderate degree of heat. 

Glass Flux, for mending broken China, <^-c. Mix 3 parts of 
red lead, 2 of fine white sand, and 3 of crystallized 
boracic acid, fuse the mixture, levigate it, and apply it 
with thin mucilage of tragacanth. Heat the rejjaired 
article gently, so as partly to fuse the cement. 

Cement for joining Sjjar and 3Iarhle Ornaments, Sfc. Melt 
together 8 parts of resin, 1 of wax, and stir in 4 parts, or 
as much as may be required, of Paris plaster. The pieces 
to be made hot. 

Heksler's Cement. Grind 8 parts of litharge, 2 of recently 
burnt lime, and 1 of wliite bole, with linseed oil varnish. 
\^T'ery tenacious, hut long in drying."] 

Singer's Cement for Electrical Machines and Galvanic 
Troughs. Melt together 5 lbs. of resin, and 1 lb. of bees'- 
wax, and stir in 1 lb. of red-ochre (highly dried, and still 
warm), and 4 oz. of Paris plaster, continuing the heat 
a little above 212°, and stirring constantly till all frothing 
ceases. Or {for troughs), resin 6 lbs., dried red-ochre 1 lb., 
calcined plaster of Paris \ lb., linseed oil i lb. 

Mucilage for Minerals. The following is recommended for 
mending fossils and minerals. Starch 2 drs,, wliite sugar 
1 oz., gum arabic 2 drs., water q. s. Dissolve the gum, 
add the sugar, and boil until the starch is cooked. — 
Druggist's Circular. 

Cement for Wood, Porcelain, Ola^s. Dissolve 30 grs. of 
sulphate of aluminum in two thirds'of an ounce of water, 


and add it to 8^ fluid ounces of a strong solution of gum 

Botany Bay Cement. Botany Bay gum, melted and mixed 

with an equal quantity of brickdust. 
Cap Cement. As Singer's ; but 1 lb. of dried Venetian 

red may be substituted for the red ochre and Paris 

Bottle Cement. Resin 15 parts, tallow 4 (or wax 3) parts, 

highly dried red ochre 6 parts, or ivory black q. s. The 

common kinds of sealing wax are also used. 
Turner's Cement. Bee's-wax 1 oz., resin \ oz., pitch ^ oz. 

Melt, and stir in fine brickdust q. s. 
Coppersmith's Cement. Powdered quicklime, mixed with 

bullock's blood, and applied immediately. 
'Engineers' Cement. Equal weights of i-ed and white lead, 

with drying oil, spread on tow, or canvas. For metallic 

joints, or to unite large stones, in cisterns, &c. 
Cement for Steam Bipes. Good linseed oil, varnish ground 

with equal weights of white lead, oxide of manganese, and 

Iron Cement, for closing the joints of iron pipes. Iron 

borings, coarsely powdered, 5 lbs., powdered sal ammoniac 

2 oz., sulphur 1 oz., water sufficient to moisten it. It 
quickly hardens ; but if time can be allowed, it sets more 
firmly without the sulphur. It must be used as soon as 
mixed, and rammed tightly into the joints. 

Gad's Hydraulic Cement. Powdered clay 3 lbs., oxide of iron 

1 lb., boiled oil to form a stiff paste. 
Cement for Masonry of Chamlers of Chlorine, Sfc. Equal 

parts of pitch, resin, and jjlaster of Paris. 
Boman Cement. A mixture of clay, lime, and oxide of iron, 

separately calcined, and finely powdered. It must be kept 

in closed vessels, and mixed with water when used. 
Oxychloride of Zinc Cement. In liquid chloride of zinc 

marking from 50° to 60^ of Baume's areometer, dissolve 

3 per cent, of borax or sal ammoniac : add oxide of zinc 
which has been heated to redness, until the mass is of a 
proper consistence. The cement, when hard, becomes as 
firm as marble. It may be cast in moulds, like plaster of 
Paris, or used in the constniction of mosaic works, &c. — 


Marine Cement. See Gltje, Marine. 

Maissiatt's Cement, as an air-tight covering for bottles, Sfc. 
Melt India-rubber (to which 15 per cent, of wax or tallow 
may be added), and gradually add finely powdered quick- 
lime, till a change of odour shows that a combination has 
taken place, and a proper consistence is obtained. 

Cement for attaching Metal Letters to Plate Glass. Copal 
varnish 15 parts, drying oil 5 parts, turpentine 3 parts, 
oil of turpentine 2 parts, liquefied glue 5 parts ; melted in 
a water-bath, and 10 parts of slaked lime added. 

Cement to fasten Leather to Metal. A hot solution of 
gelatin. With this wash the metal; and the leather, 
previously stepped in a hot infusion of gall-nuts, is to be 
pressed tightly on the surface and allowed to cool, when 
it will adhere very firmly. 

Cem,ent for India-ruhber. Bisulphide of carlwn 4 oz., best 
India-rubber 1 oz., isinglass 2 drs., gutta percha 1^ oz. — 
Phaem. Jouen. 

Cement to fasten India-ruhber to Wood or Metal. Dissolve 
1 part powdered gum shell-lac in 10 parts of strong solu- 
tion of ammonia: It is at first slimy, in 3 to 4 weeks 
becomes liquid, then hard and impermeable. — Drug- 
gists' ClRCCTLAR. 

Cement for fixing labels to Tin, or other Metallic Substances. 
Mucilage of tragacanth, 10 parts; honey 10 parts; dry 
wheaten flour 1 part. 

Japanese Cement. Mi.x rice flour intimately ^nth cold water, 
and boil gently. 

French Cement. Mix thick mucilage of gum arable with 
])owdered starch. 

Common Paste. To a dessert-spoonful of flour add gradually 
half a pint of cold water, and mix till quite smooth ; add 
a pinch of jwwdered alum (some add also as much pow- 
dered resin as will lie on a sixpence), and boil for a few 
moments, stirring constantly. Tlie addition of a little 
brown sugar, and a few grains of corrosive sublimate, is 
said to preserve it for years. 

Transparent Cement. Dissolve 75 parts of caoutchouc in 
parts of cliloi'oform, and add to tlie solution 15 parts of 
mastic. — Lenhee. 

Soft Cement, Melt yellow wax with half its weight of com- 

Miscellaneous peepaeatioks 333 

mon turpentine, and stir in a little Venetian red, pre- 
viously well dried, and finely powdered. [As a temporary 
stopping for joints and openings in glass and other appa- 
ratus, where the heat and pressure are not great.] See 
the next. 
iMtes or Cements for closing the joints of Apparatus. 1. 
Mix Paris plaster with water to a soft paste, and apply it 
immediately. It bears nearly a red heat. It may be ren- 
dered impervious by rubbing it over with wax and oil. 

3. Slaked lime, made into a paste with white of egg, or 
a solution of gelatine. 

3. Fat Lute. Fmely powdered clay moistened with 
water, and beaten up with boiled linseed oil. Roll it into 
cylmders, and press it on the joints of the vessels, which 
must be perfectly dry. It is rendered more secure by 
binding it with strips of linen moistened with white of 

4. Linseed meal beaten to a paste with water. 

5. SHps of moistened bladder, smeared with white of 

Luting for Acids. 1. Dissolve 1 part of India-rubber in 2 
parts of linseed oil, by heat, and work into a stiff paste 
with 3 parts, or as much as sufficient, of white clay. 

2. A concentrated solution of silicate of soda, made into 
a paste with powdered glass. 

Lutes for Coating Retorts. 1. Dissolve 1 oz. of borax in ^ 
])int of water, and add slaked lime to form a thin paste. 
Brush this over the retort, and let it dry gradually. Then 
apply a coating of slaked lime and linseed oil beaten 
together. Let it dry a day or two before use, and fill up 
any cracks which may appear with lime and linseed oil. 

2. For hearing a stronger heat : Stourbridge clay, mixed 
with a little sand to prevent it splitting off : a little cut 
tow, or horse-dung, or asbestos, is usually added, to in- 
crease its coherence. It should be beaten to a stiff paste, 
and rolled out before application. The glass should be first 
rubbed over with a little of the lute mixed with water, 
then placed in the centre of the paste, rolled out to about 
\ or -J- of an inch in thickness, and tlie edges of the latter 
raised and moulded to the glass, taking care to press out 
all the air. 


Mohr's Lute, Mix equal parts of brickclust and litharge, 
and beat tliem into a paste with linseed oil. Apply tliis 
with a stiff brush, and dust it over with coarse sand : dry 
it in a warm place. 

For Cements for plugging teeth, see Teeth Aitd Mouth 
Cosmetics, further back. 

ChaecoaI;. Wood charcoal is made by burning wood with 
only a partial access of air. For chemical purposes, that 
made in iron cylmders, in the manufacture of wood vine- 
gar, is preferred. 

Charcoal, Animal. The most common form is that of 
bone black (commonly called ivory black), made by dis- 
tilling bones (from which the grease has been removed by 
boiling) in iron or earthen retorts, the ammoniacal liquor, 
&c., being collected in proper receivers. The residue is 
bone black. When used for the pm'pose of decolorization, 
further treatment is required : either the bone earth may 
be entirely removed by hydrochloric acid, as directed in the 
Pharmacopoeia ; or more commonly, in the refining of 
sugar, and for other manufacturing purposes, tliis is only 
partially effected, in some such way as the following : Mix 
8 lbs. of the bone black, coarsely powdered, with sufficient 
water to form a paste, and add 1 lb. of hydrochloric acid. 
In an hour pour boiling water on the mass, let it settle, 
pour off the liquid, add more water, and repeat this till the 
water comes off free from taste. Drain and press the 
black in a cloth, and di'y it. Its power is increased by 
mixing it vrA\\ a little potash, heating it to dull redness in 
a covered crucible, and again M'asliing it. 

Charcoal, Aluminized. This is recommended by Dr. Sten- 
HOUSE as a cheap and very efficient decolorizing agent. 
Dissolve in water 54 parts of the sulphate of alumina of 
commerce, and mix with 92| parts of finely powdered wood 
charcoal, ^lien the charcoal is saturated, evaporate to 
dryness, and heat to redness in covered Hessian crucibles 
till the water and acid are dissipated. The charcoal con- 
tains 7i per cent, of anhydrous alumina. 

Charcoal from Coal-tar. Heat gently in an iron pot 
1 lb. by weight of coal-tar pitch till it melts. Add 2 lbs. 
of fluid coal-tar, and mix. Stir in 7 lbs. of hydrate of lime 
in very fine powder. The thick mass is now roasted, stir- 


ring all the time, till it is reduced to a fine powder. It is 
thbu ignited in a covered crucible till all the vegetable 
matter is carbonized. The charcoal when cold is digested 
with dilute hydrochloric acid, and finally washed with 
water in a filter, and di-icd. Dr. Stenhousb recommends 
this as an admirable form for decolorization. For such 
liquids as decoction of logwood it is four times as efficient 
as animal charcoal. 

Chameleon Mineral. Mix equal weights of black oxide 
of manganese and pure potash, and heat them in a crucililc. 
Keep the compound in closely stopped bottles. A solution 
of it in water passes through various shades of colour from 
green to red. 

Chemique, or Chemic Blue — Sulphate of Indigo. To 
7 or 8 parts of oil of vitriol, in a glass or earthen vessel, 
placed in cold water, add gradually 1 part of fine indigo 
in powder, stirring the mixtui-e at each addition with a 
glass rod, or piece of tobacco-pipe. Cover the vessel for 
24 hours, then dilute with an equal weight of water. 
Sometimes it is sold without diluting. The German 
(Nordhausen) fuming acid answers best, 4 or 5 parts of it 
being sufiicient for 1 of mdigo. For dyeing silk, &c., car- 
bonate of potash, soda, or ammonia, is added, to neutralize 
the acid, takuig care not to add it in excess. 

Chloralum. Chloride of aluminium is made by acting on 
alumina, the basis of clay, with hydrochloric acid, and eva- 
porating to form crystals. Under the above name it is 
extensively used as a disinfectant and deodorizer, decom- 
posing siUphui'etted hydrogen and coagulating albumen. 

Chlorate of Baryta. Satiu-ate solution of chloric acid, 
(see further back) with fresh precipitated carbonate of 
baryta, filter, and crystallize. 

Chlorate of Potash. Liebig. Dissolve chloride of lime 
in water, add solution of chloride of potassium, and boil to 
dryness. Dissolve the mass in hot water, and filter if 
necessary : on cooling, a large quantity of chlorate of pot- 
ash is deposited. For another process, see Potasste Chloras, 
Pocket Formulary. 

Chloride of Lime, or Chlorinated Lime. Bleaching 
Powder. Chlorine gas (slowly evolved from a mixture of 


10 parts of common salt and 10 to 14 parts of binoxide of 
manganese, placed in an alembic of lead, and heated by 
steam, and mth 12 to 14 parts of oil of vitriol previously 
diluted with a fourth of its weight of water, added) is 
conveyed into a chamber where sifted slaked lime is thinly 
spread on shelves. It is so cheaply made by the large 
manufacturers for bleaching purposes, that it is seldom 
prepared by druggists. The liquid chloride of lime may 
be made either by triturating the dry cliloride with a little 
cold water till jjerfectly smooth, then adding more water, 
and filtering the solution : or by passing chlorine gas into 
a mixture of lime and water. The Beit. Phaem. directs 
a solution of 1*035 sp. gr. The Paris Codex directs 1 part 
of dry bleaching powder to be diffused in 45 of water. 
SouBEiEAN directs 1 part to 50 ; but prefers passing the 
gas from 1 part of binoxide of manganese and 4 of hydro- 
chloric acid into a mixture of 1 part of lime and 50 of 
water. M. OPYL states that for the production of a good 
chloride of lime, the temperatui'e of the chambers must be 
as low as possible. Winter is always found the most 
favourable season for its manufacture. 

Chloeide oe HypocHLOEiTE OF Potash. Eau de Javelle. 
See Liq. Potassae Chlorinatae, Pocket Formulary, 

Chloeide of Soda, oe Chloeinated Soda. See Soda 
Chlorinata, and Liquor Soda? Chlorataj, in the Pocket 
Formulary. A more ready way of preparing it, for other 
purposes than for disjiensing prescriptions, is the following : 
Diffuse 1 lb. of chloride of lime in 30 lbs. of water. Dis- 
solve 2 lbs. of crystallized carbonate of soda in 15 lbs. of 
water. Mix the solutions, let the mixture settle, pour off 
the clear liquid, and filter it. 

Chloeine. See Gases. 

Chloeofoem. See Chloroformum, Pocket Formulary. 

Chocolate. See Chocolata, Pocket Formulary. 

Cheomate of Potash. Mix 4 parts of chrome iron ore (chro- 
mate of iron) with 2 of pearlash and 1 of nitre, and heat 
the mixture in a reverberatory furnace for several hours. 
Lixiviate, and crystallize. The chromate is converted into 
bichromate, by adding sulphuric acid, or rather acetic acid, 
to the solution. 

CHfioatAXE Of L£AD. See Pig^e^^xs. 


Chromic Oxide. Mix bicliromute of potash with half its 
weight of chloride of ammonium ; heat the mixture to 
redness, and wash the mass with plenty of boiling water. 
Dry the residue. 
Chromic Acid. See Acid, Chromic. 

Clothes, Powder to Keep away Moths prom. Mix pow- 
dered pipe-clay li lbs., white pepper and starch, each 1 oz., 
root of Florentine iris Ij oz., with spirits of wine 2 oz. 
To be dusted over the clothes when laid by. 
Cochineal Colouring. Macerate best carmine 1 oz. in 
strong solution of ammonia 6 oz. until it is dissolved. 
Heat gently to drive off excess of ammonia. Put into a 
quart wine* bottle, and add rectified spirit 4 oz., and white 
sugar 3 lbs. Fill up with warm water, and shake until the 
sugar is dissolved. — Mr. Palmer. 
Collodion. Mix in a glass, stoneware, or porcelain vessel, 
30 parts of strong sulphuric acid and 20 of powdered 
nitre ; place the vessel in cold water : add 1 part of carded 
cottou-wool, and open and stir it in the acid mixture by 
means of 2 glass or porcelain rods, or stems of tobacco 
pipes, for 2 or 3 minutes. Then remove the cotton into 
a large quantity of cold water, press it, and wash it in a 
stream of water, opening it with the fingers, till the water 
passes through it free from acidity. Squeeze it strongly 
in a dry cloth, and then open it, and dry it gradually in a 
warm situation, free from danger. One part of this pre- 
pared cotton, with 16 of rectified ether, and 1 of alcohol, 
agitated together, soon forms a gelatinous solution. See 
Pocket Formulary for its medical preparations. 
Coj.LO'Dio'Sf'EhkSTic (for surffical purposes). Mix together 
in a stoneware or porcelain pot, sulphuric acid (of sp. gr. 
1-817) 300 parts, very dry nitrate of potash 200 parts; 
aiul add carded cotton 10 parts. Leave in contact for 12 
minutes ; withdraw the cotton, wash it in cold water to 
remove the acid which it contains, and, after 2 or 3 rinsings, 
immerse it again in a solution of 30 ptxrts of carbonate 
of potash in 1000 of water ; plunge it again into simple 
water, agitating well ; and lastly, dry it at a temperature 
of 77° to 86° Fahr. The product is xyloidia. Place 
now 8 parts of this xyloidin, with 125 parts of sulphuric 
ether in a wide-mouthed flask, and add 8 parts of alcohol 



(sp. gr. 0"825). Agitate. Make next a mixture of Venice 
tui-pentine 2 parts, castor oil 2 parts, white wax 2 parts, 
sulphuric ether 6 parts. Heat together the first three 
substances, add the ether, and mix all with the solution of 
xyloidin.— M. Lauras. 

Collodion, Photogeaphic. See Photogbaphy. 

Colours, Various. The principal dry colours will be found 
under Pigments. Other colours are noticed below. 

Colours fob Druggists' Show Bottles. In making these, 
distilled water should be used, and rather more of the 
coloui" than will fill the carboys made, to avoid the neces- 
sity of adding water to fill up after filtration, as this 
sometimes renders them turbid. The carboys should be 
perfectly clean, and also dry, or otherwise rinsed out with 
a portion of the filtered liquid. 

1. Blues. Sulphate of copper 4 to 8 oz., water a gallon, 
oil of vitriol 1 oz. 

2. Royal Blue. Sulphate of copper 8 oz., water a 
gallon ; dissolve, and add water of ammonia till the full 
colour is developed ; then water to make up 2 gallons. 

3. Finest Royal Blue. Nitrate of copper 3 oz., water 
suflicient to dissolve it ; add water of ammonia as long as 
the colour becomes deeper, then water to make up 2 

4. Paler. Crystallized acetate of copper ^ oz., hydro- 
chloric acid 1^ oz., water of ammonia q. s., water to make 
up 2 gallons. 

5. Liglit Blue. Crystallized acetate of copper a scruple, 
water of ammonia 2 oz., water 2 gallons. 

Green. 1. An infusion of saffron added to the above 

2. Sulphate of Copper 4 oz., bichromate of potash i dr., 
water q. s. 

3. By adding to the above deep or light blues a small 
quantity of chromate or bichromate of potash till the 
desired tint is produced, various shades of green may be 

, 4. Sulphate of copper, with chloride of sodium or of 

5. Emerald Oreen. Nitrate of copper 3 oz., hydro- 
chloric acid 4 oz., nitric acid 4 oz., water 2 gallons. 


6. Very Fine Emerald. Nickel 3 oz., hydrochloric acid 
4 oz., nitrous acid 2 oz. : digest for 24 hours, add 2 gal- 
lons of water and filter. 

Red. 1. Dried rose petals 8 oz., boiling water a gallon ; 
digest for 12 hours, strain; digest the roses with more 
water, and strain ; mix the infusions, add a pint of diluted 
suli^huric acid, and filter. 

2. Cochineal ^ oz., boiling water a gallon : digest, 
strain, add i oz. of sulphuric acid, and water to make up 
2 gallons. 

3. Crimson. Iodine, and iodide of potasssium, of each 
2 drs. J triturate with a dr. of water, and add 3 gallons of 
water, and 4 oz. of hydrocldoric acid. 

4. For External Lamps. Campliine, strongly coloured 
with alkanet root. 

Pink. 1. Infuse \ oz. of good madder in a quart of 
boiling distilled water; when cold, add 1 oz. of strong 
ammonia, and filter into 2 gallons of distilled water. 

2. Dissolve chloride or nitrate of cobalt in water, and 
add sufficient carbonate of ammonia to redissolve the pre- 
cipitate first thi'own down ; then water q. s. 

Purple. To the last, add sufficient of the blue No. 3 to 
give the desired shade. 

Lilac. Smalts 4 oz., nitric acid 4 oz. ; let it stand 24 
hours, add 2 gallons of water, 1 oz. of alum, and 4 oz. of 
water of ammonia. Or rather as the purple. 

Yelloiv. 1. Chromate or bichromate of potash, with 
water q. s. 

2. Bichromate of potash 2 drs., pure water 4 oz.; dis- 
solve, and add 4 oz. sulphuric acid, and 2 gallons of 

3. Bichromate of potash, nitrate of potash, and water. 
Amber. 1. Deep chrome yellow 3 oz., pearlash 9 oz., 

water 2 gallons ; boil gently for half an hour, take it off to 
cool, and add 6 oz. hydrochloric acid, and water to the 
desired colour. 

2. Dragon's blood, digested with sulphuric acid, and 
diluted with water to the desired shade. 

Olive. Sulphate of iron 3 oz., sulphuric acid 3 oz., 
water 2 gallons ; dissolve, and add the green No. 5. q. s. to 
brighten the colour. 


Liquid Coloues foe Maps, &c. See Inks, Dyes, Chemique 
Blue, Lake Liquor, &c. Gumboge and some of the 
cake colours, mixed with water, are also used. 

Colours for Confctioxees. Many fatal accidents occur 
from confectionery being coloured with poisonous pig- 
ments. The following may be safely used: Cochineal 
and its preparations, sap green, vegetable lakes, I'russian 
blue ; a mixture of a yellow lake and Prussian blue for 

CoLOUEiNG foe Bhandy, &c. Sugar melted in a ladle 
till it is brown, and then dissolved in water or lime- 

Colours foe Liqueurs. Pink is given by cochineal ; yellow 
by saffron or safflower ; violet by litmus ; blue, by sulphate 
of indigo, saturated with chalk ; green, by the last with 
tincture of saffron, or by sap green. 

Colours for Leathee. See Bookbindeb's staixs, further 

Colours, Improved Vehicles foe. 1. One measure of 
saturated solution of borax, with 4 of linseed oil. The 
pigment may be ground with the oil, or the mixture. 

2. A solution of shell-lac with borax, as in making 
Coathupe's Writing Fluid. See Ink. 

3. Water colours, mixed with gelatine, and afterwards 
fixed by washing with a solution of alum. 

4. Curd of milk, washed and pressed, then dried on 
fine net, and when required for use, mixed with water and 
the colouring matter. 

Condt's Fluid. (Patent.) The green fluid appears to 
contain the manganates, the red fluid the permanganates, 
of soda and potash. The latt<?r is said to be double the 
strength of the Liquor PofasscB Permanganafis, B. P. 
Condy's " Ozonized Water " is a weaker solution of the 
permanganates, " for toilet purposes." 

Copper, Oxide of. The black oxide is made by caL ining 
the nitrate ; or by adding caustic potash to sulphate of 
copper, in solution, and washing and drying the preci- 
pitate. The red oxido may be made as directed for 
Bronze Powder, No. 4, or in the moist way, thus : Pour a 
solutioji of 27 parts of sugar in 60 of water, over 9 parts 
of hydrated oxide of copper, weighed in its compressed 


but still moist state. A solution of 18 parts of caustic 
potash in 60 of water is added, and the whole agitated 
together without heat, and filtered. The clear liquid 
heated in a warm bath, and continually stirred, deposits 
the red oxide, and the liquid becomes colourless. 

NiTKATE OF Copper. Dissolve copper in nitric acid to 
saturation, evaporate to dryness, redissolve, filter, aiid 
evaporate, so that the salt may crystallize. Or add a 
solution of sulphate of copper to a solution of nitrate of 
lead, so long as sulphate of lead is precipitated; filter, 
evaporate, and crystallize. For the other salts of copper, 
see Cuprum, Pocket Formulary. 

CosMOiiN. See Vaselix, further on. 

Cotton Powdeh. See Gun Cotton. 

Ceatons for Writing on Glass. Fuse in a cup 4 parts of 
spermaceti, 3 of tallow, and 2 of wax ; stir in 6 parts of 
minium, and 1 of potash ; keep warm for half an hour, and 
then pour into glass tubes of the thickness of a lead pencil. 
If cooled rapidly, the mass may be screwed up and down 
in the tube, and cut at the end to a fine point. The glass 
to be written on must be clean and dry. 

Cyanide of Potassium. See Pocket Formulary. 

Depilatories. See Hair Cosmetics, further back. 

Dextrin, or Starch Gum. Heat 4 gallons of water in a 
water-bath to between 77' and 86° Fahrenheit; stir in 1^ 
or 2 lbs. finely ground malt ; raise the temperature to 140^, 
add 10 lbs. of potato or other starch : mix all thoroughly, 
raise the heat to 158°, and keep it between that and 167°, 
for 20 or 30 minutes. When the liquor becomes thin, 
instantly raise the heat to the boiling point, to prevent 
the formation of sugar. Strain the liquor, and evaporate 
it to dryness, as the dextrin will not keep long in a liquid 
form. Another method is to boil solution of starch with 
a few drops of sulphuric acid, to filter the solution, and 
to add alcohol to throw down the dextrin. See Gum 
[Beitish] for another form of dextrin. 

Dextrin Vaenish. Dextrin 2 parts, water 6 parts, recti- 
fied spirit 1 part. — Baron de Stlvestre. 

Diastase. Macerate ground malt in cold water ; strain 
with pressure ; heat the clear solution in a M'ater-bath to 
158° Fahrenheit to coagulate the albumen ; filter again. 


and add rectified spirit as long as diastase falls. If re- 
quired very pure, redissolve it in water, and again pre- 
cipitate with spirit. Dry it at a low temperature. Well- 
malted barley contains about 1 per cent, of pure diastase ; 
one part of which is capable of converting 2000 parts of 
starch into dextrin or sugar. 

Dietetic Articles. For these see another division of the 

Disinfecting and Deodoeizing Compounds. 1. Sir Wm. 
Bfenett's Patent Solution. It is made by dissolving 
zinc in commercial hydrochloric acid to saturation. 

2. Ellerman's Deodorizing Fluid. This consists chiefly 
of perchlorides and chlorides of iron and manganese. lii 
a report addressed to the Metropolitan Board of Works in 
1859, Drs. Hoffman and Frankland stated that the per- 
chloride of iron was the cheapest and most eiiicient 
deodorizer that could be applied to sewage : ^ gallon 
deodorized 7500 gallons of sewage. 1 bushel of lime, or 3 
lbs. of chloride of lime, would do the same. 

3. Ledoyen's Solution. This is a solution of nitrate 
of lead, and contains about 20 oz. of the salt in a gallon. 
The specific gravity should be 1'40. A similar compound 
may be- made by mixing 13J oz., of litharge with 6 pints 
of watei-, and adding 12 oz. of nitric acid at 1"38 specific 
gravity (or 8 oz. at 1-50) ; and digesting at a gentle heat 
till the solution is complete. 

4. S [REt's ComiJOiind. Sulphate of iron 20 lbs., sulphate 
of zinc 3 J lbs., wood or peat charcoal 1 lb., sulphate of lime 
26g lbs. ; mix, and form into balls. To be placed in cess- 
pools, &c., to deodorize them. M. Siret has subsequently 
modified this compound, thus : Sulphate of iron 100 parts, 
sulphate of zinc 50, tan or oak-bark powder 40, tar 5, and 
oil 5 parts. 

5. Collins' Disinfecting Poivder. Mix 2 parts of dry 
chloride of lime with 1 of burnt alum. To be set in 
shallow dishes in rooms, &c., with or without the addition 
of water. 

6. Calvert's Powder. Carbolic acid (20 to 30 per 
cent.), alinnina, and silica. 

7. M'Doitgal's Poioder. Carbolate of lime 33 parts, 


sulphate of magnesia 59 parts, water 8 parts. These 
powders can he sprinkled ahout a room, thrown on sewage, 
or dissolved in water and so applied. 

8. Sanitas. The efficacy of this disinfectant depends, 
we helieve, upon its property of evolving peroxide of 
hydrogen and camphoric acid. 

9. Condy's Disinfecting Fluids. See hack. 

10. [See also Chloride of Lime, Chloride of Soda, 
Acid Salicylic, Chloealum, further hack. Peat char- 
coal also possesses powerful deodorizing properties.] 

Foot Powder. M. Patjlcke prepares a mixture of salicylic 
acid, soap, talc, and starch in the form of powder, to be 
applied to the feet, which, whilst rendering them firm, is 
said to induce an agreeable softness, and to remove all 
unpleasant smell arising from perspiration. 

Dubbing, Cueriees'. Made by boiling cuttings of sheep- 
skins in common cod-oil. 

Dryers for Painters. Wliite copperas 1 lb., sugar of lead 
1 lb., wliite lead 2 lbs. ; ground with boiled oil. 

Drying and Boiled Oil. Linseed oil is mixed with 
powdered litharge, and heated till it becomes thick. A 
pale drying oil is obtained by mixing with linseed oil, suffi- 
cient dry sulphate of lead to form a milky liquid, and 
shaking it repeatedly for some days, letting it stand 
exposed to the light. When it has become quite clear, it 
may be poured off from the dregs. The sulphate of lead, 
when washed from the mucilage, may be again used for 
the same purpose. Liebig directs 1 lb. of acetate of lead 
to be dissolved in half a gallon of rain-water, and 1 lb. of 
finely powdered litharge added : the mixture is either 
boiled, or exposed for a longer time to a moderate heat, 
and frequently stirred, till no more particles of litharge 
can be seen. A white deposit is formed, which may be 
left in the liquid or separated by filtration ; 20 lbs. of 
linseed oil, in which 1 lb. of levigated litharge has been 
diffused, are gradually added to the lead solution, pre- 
viously diluted with an equal bulk of water, and the 
mixture frequently stirred. It is then left to clear itself 
in a warm place"; but to obtain it bright it must be 
filtered through coarse paper or cotton. It may be 


bleached by exposure to the sun. Tlie lead solution 
which subsides from the mixture m.ay be filtered and 
used again, after dissolving it in 1 lb. of litharge as before. 
The oxide of lead contained in the oil may be removed 
from it by agitating it with diluted sulphuric acid, and 
letting it stand to settle. See also Oils (Linseed Oil, 

DupuYTREx's Pomade. See Haie CosiiETics, after Per- 


Dyes and Compouxds tjsed in Dyeixg. A few of the 
principal colouring matters and mordants may here be 
noticed ; for further information, the reader is referred to 
Dr. Ure's 'Dictionary of the Arts,' Calvert's 'Dyeing 
and Calico Printing,' Crooke's ' Handbook of Dyeing and 
Calico Printing.' 

Blue Dyes. The most important of these is indigo. Being 
insoluble in water, it is prepared for use by sulphate of 
iron, and alkalies, or lime, by fermentation and alkalies, and 
by solution in sulphuric acid. 

1. Triturate 1 lb, of indigo with water and a little caustic 
potash; then add 3 lbs. of lime, and afterwards 2\ lbs. of 
sulphate of iron in solution, stirring them well together. 
The solution contains refined indigo, which is soluble 
in lime and alkalies. The cotton, linen, &c., to be 
dyed is repeatedly dipped in the solution, and afterwards 
rinsed in water soured with hydrochloric acid. 

2. To 45 or 50 gallons of water, heated to 122° P., 
add 12 oz., of indigo, 8 oz. of madder, 8 oz. of bran, and 
24 oz. of potash. In 36 hours introduce 12 oz. more of 
potash, and the same in 12 hours after. In 72 hours, add 
a little lime to check the fermentation. Wool, silk, linen 
and cotton may be dyed in this bath. Another form of 
this dye is — Indigo 2 parts, common soda 5 parts, lime 2 
l»rts, clarified honey 1 part, water as much as may be 
sufiicient. Keep it warm in an earthen jar till the indigo 
is dissolved. 

4. A solution of indigo in sulphuric acid (see Chemic 
PLrE) is used as a dye, but a purer tone of colour is 
obtained by the following method : The sulphate of indigo, 
mixed with water, is heated in a copper kettle; wool is 


immersed in it, and the whole is allowed to cool for 21 
hours. The wool is then taken out, waslied till the water 
comes off colourless and free from acid ; it is then boiled 
in water containing about 2 per cent, of pearlash, or other 
alkaline carbonate, for a quarter of an hour. Tlie quantity 
of pearlash should be equal to one third the weight of the 

Logwood, with verdigris, or sulphate of copper, gives a blue 
dye, bordering on violet : with alum and tartar, a violet. 

Prussian Blue is sometimes used in dyeing, after being 
triturated and digested for 24 hours with its weight of 
hydrochloric acid. A blue is also given by iunnersing silk, 
&c., in a solution of peracetate of iron, then in a solution 
of prussiate of potash, and afterwards rinsing it in acidu- 
lated water. Boiling water is sufficient to discolour articles 
thus dyed. 

Hed Dyes. The various shades of red are given by madder, 
cochineal, lac dye, saffiower, &c. ; fixed by albuminous or 
tin mordants. Less permanent dyes are produced by 
Brazil wood, peach wood, and archil. Some of these 
require peculiar treatment. Saffiower contains a yellow 
as well as a red colouring matter. Tlie first, being 
soluble in cold water, is extracted by putting the saffiower 
in a bag and kneading it inider water. The saffiowei', 
thus deprived of the yellow matter, yields its red colour 
to alkaline liquids : at the time of using which, lemon 
juice or some other acid is added sufficient to saturate the 
alkali. Pink saucers are made l)y adding lemon juice 
to an alkaline infusion of washed saffiower aiul allowing 
the colouring to deposit. Madder also contains a duu 
colouring matter which deteriorates the red iniless pre- 
viously removed. This may be partially effected by 
\\'ashing it in cold water : another mode is to treat the 
madder with its own weight of sulphuric acid, which 
carbonizes the other matters, but leaves the red colour 
uninjured. As nuidder gives out but little of its red 
colouring matter to water, the decoction is not sti'aincd 
off, but the madder left in the bath. With acetate of iron, 
madder yields a purple tuit. Lac dye, as imported from 
India, requires acids for its solution. See Lac Spirit, 
further on. 


Yellow Dyes. These are given by French berries, quer- 
citron bark, turmeric, weld, yellow wood, &c. Also by 
some mineral colours, as the following : Tlie material 
to be dyed is first padded in a solution of bichromate 
of potash (8 oz. to a gallon of water), then in a solution 
of acetate or nitrate of lead. Cotton is dyed yellow by 
alternate dippings in iron liquor and lime water, or 
solution of jjearlash. A yellow colour is given to silk by 
passing it through a mixture of equal measures of 
nitric acid (sp. gr. 1'288) and water, heated to 95° or 100° 
Fahrenheit, and from thence into a stream of water, or a 
mixture of chalk and water. This is termed mandarining. 

Nankeen Dye is made by boiling annotto with an equal 
weight of pearlash in sufficient water. Orange is given 
by annotto ; or by a mixture of red and yellow dyes ; or 
by the successive application of acetate of alumina, a bath 
of quercitron, and the madder-bath. 

Greens are given to woollens by first dyeing them blue, 
immersing the article in acetate of alumina, drying it, 
and finally immersing it iii a quercitron-bath. For silks, 
the order is reversed. 

Browns are given by catechu, by walnut-peels with alum, 
by redwood and copperas, by madder and black dye, &c. 

Drabs are give by fustic with iron liquor. 

Blacks. These are given by salts of iron, with galls, smnach, 
and logwood. The best black cloths are pre\'iously dyed 
blue with indigo. 

By the mixture of various dyes, every variety of shade 
is produced : and often several tints from one colouring 
matter by the use of different mordants. 

(The beautiful new dyes of the Aniline series, Mauve, 
Magenta, Artificial Alizarine, Aniline Blue, Violet Impe- 
rial, Aurine, &c., are obtained fi'om coal-tar by various 
patented processes.) 

Mordants are earthy and metallic compounds, the bases of 
which unites both with the fibres of the material to be 
dyed and the colouring matter, thus rendering the dyes 
fixed. In calico printing, the mordants are formed into a 
a paste Mith some gum or other thickening material, and 
printed with wooden blocks on the cloth ; which, after 
being dried, &c., is passed through the liquid dyes. The 


colouring mattei* combines with the parts so printed, but 
is easily discharged from the other parts. 

The principal Mordants are the following : — 
Ahim Mordants. 1. Alum with one fourth its weiglit of 

2. Acetate of Alumina. (See further back.) This is 
commmonly prepared in solution for the purpose ; 100 
parts of alum in solution, with 150 parts of pyrolignite 
of lime of 20° B. density, is sometimes employed. 

3. A solution of alum, with crytallized carbonate of 
soda, in the proportion of 1 oz. to each pound of alum. 

4. Hatjsmann's. This consists of a solution of alum 
with sufficient strong solution of caustic potash to re- 
dissolve the precipitated alumina; to which mixtm'e a 
portion of luiseed oil is added. 

5. To 50 gallons of boiling water add 100 lbs. of alum ; 
dissolve, and add slowly 10 lbs. of crystrallized carbonate 
of soda. "Wlien the effervescence is over, add 75 lbs. of 
sugar of lead. 

Tin Mordants. 1. ProtocMoride of Tin. To strong hydro- 
chloric acid, add gradually small pieces of grain tin till no 
more is dissolved. It may be obtained in crystals liy 
evaporation. In redissolviug them, it is necessary to add 
to the water a few drops of hydrochloric acid. 

2. Nitro-muriate, or Perchloride of Tin. Mix 1 mea- 
sure of nitric acid with 4 of hydrochloric acid, and add tin 
in small quantities as long as any is dissolved. Or mix 
4 oz. of hydi'ochloric with 1 of nitric acid and 1 of water ; 
dissolve in it, by small portions at a time, 2 drachms of 
grain tin. 

3. Aqua fortis (or equal parts of nitric acid and water) 
8 parts, sal ammoniac 1 part ; mix, and add gradually 1 
part, or as much as it will dissolve, of grain tin. 

4. Dr. Banceoft's Murio-stdphate of Tin. Digest 2 
parts of tm with 3 of strong hydrochloric acid for an hour. 
Add very cautiously 1^ part of oil of vitriol. Keep iip the 
heat as long as hydrogen is evolved ; on cooling, it crystal- 
lizes. Dissolve this salt in water, so as to form a solution 
containing 1 part of tin in 8. 

5. New Tin Crystals. Add 3 lbs. of sal ammoniac to a 
gallon of solution of tin ; evaporate, and crystallize. 


6. Mordant for Lac Dye. Mix 27 lbs. of hydrochloric 
acid with 1^ lb. of nitric acid (sp. gr. 1-19), put it into a 
stone bottle, and add tin in small bits till 4 lbs. are dis- 

7. Stannate of Soda. Digest litharge 36 parts, or 
niiniuni 27 parts, in a metallic vessel, with a soda ley of 
1-35 dens. ; when dissolved, 8 parts of tin in grains arc 
gradually added. The lead separates at once in a spongy 
state, and the solution of stannate of soda may be de- 

Lac Spirit, used as a Solvent for lac dye, in preference to 
hydrochloric acid alone, is thus made : Add gradually 3 lbs. 
of tin to 60 lbs. of hydrochloric acid. Digest | lb. of this 
solvent on each pound of the dye for 6 hours. Plum or 
puce spirit, peach spirit, and grain or scarlet spirit, are 
names given by dyers to different solutions of tin employed 
in dyeing these colours. For scarlet, the nitro-hydi-ochloric 
solutions (Nos. 2 and 3, above) are used. 

Iron Liquor. Scraps of iron are placed in casks or other 
vessels, and covered with rectified raw pyroligneous acid. 
There are usually a series of vessels, through which the 
solution is successively passed till it is fully satm-ated. 

[To produce good and permanent dyes, several successive 
processes are required, which cannot be described here. 
In domestic dyeing, for trifling articles, the dye and 
mordant are often boiled together, and tlie silk, &c., im- 
mersed in the liquid. The following are some examples : 
Crimson. — Boil 1 oz. Brazil-wood, with 1 dr. of alum 
and I dr. of cream of tartar in a quart of wat€r. Furjjie, 
or Lilac. — Archil 1 oz. (or cudbear 1 oz.), pearlash 1 dr., 
hot water a cpiart. Base, or Flesh Colour.— Fink saucers, 
with a little lemon-juice, will be found convenient. Violet. 
— Boil 4 oz. of logwood with 1 oz. alum and ^ oz of tartar 
ill a quart of water. Blue. — Add to tlie water as nmch 
sulphate of indigo (chemic blue) as will give it the re- 
quired colour. Or one of the other solutions of indigo 
(see back) may be used. Yellow.— lid\\ 2 oz. of turmeric, 
or 4 oz. quercitron, or a drachm of saffron, with ^ oz of 
alum, in a quart of water. Green.— KM to the yellow 
dye, sufficient chemic blue to render it green. Ease-red, 
for silk. — Put your silk into a hot solution of alum and 


tartar ; then into a hot decoction of madder. Scarlet, for 
silk. — Dye it yellow with s-ifpron and ahnn ; then put it 
into a decoction of cochineal and madder. Black. — Boil 
1 oz of logwood, 5 oz. snmach, and 1 dr. of cojiperas, in 
4 pints of water. Buff. — Boil 1 oz. of fustic, 1 dr. of 
alum, in 4 pints of water.] 

Eau de Javelle. See Chloride oe Potash. 

Eggs, to Presekte. Jatne's Liquid (expii-ed patent) is 
thus made : — Take a hushel of lime, 2 lbs. of salt, i lb. of 
cream of tartar, and water sufficient to form a solution 
strong enough to float an egg. In this liquid, it is stated 
eggs may be preserved for two years. Eggs may be pre- 
served for several months if rubbed over with linseed oil 
or poppy oil. 

Elaine. See Oleine. 

Electric Tissue. Steep linen or cotton in a mixture of 1 part 
of strong sulphuric acid, and 3 of pure nitric acid, for an 
hour. Squeeze out the acid, wash with water until no 
sensible acidity remains, plunge it in a weak alkaline 
solution, then in water, and dry. By friction it yields a 
large quantity of resinous electricity. 

Electro-brassixg. Mr. Watt. Dissolve powdered acetate 
of copper, 5 oz., in \ gallon of water ; add 1 pint of liquid 
ammonia; dissolve sulphate of zinc, 10 oz., in 1 gallon 
of water, at 180'^ F., and when cool, add liquid ammonia 
1 pint ; dissolve potash, 4^ lbs., in 1 gallon of water ; 
lastly, cyanide of potassium, 8oz., in 1 gallon of hot water. 
Now mi.v in the following order : add the copper solution 
to the zinc, and then the potash and cyanide, digest for an 
hour or so, add water to make up 8 gallons. AVork with 
a brass anode and active battery power, adding occasion- 
ally a little more ammonia and cyanide. 

Blectro-bronzing. Brunel's Patent. Dissolve chloride 
of copper, 1 lb., in water 5 gallon, then carbonate of potash, 
25 lbs., in water 6 gallons ; and sulphate of zinc, 2 lbs., in 
hot water ^ gallon. Mix the solutions : add nitrate of 
ammonia, I25 lbs. ; stir, and add water to 20 gallons. 
Work with an anode of brass and an active battery of two 
or more cells. Add occasionally some liquid ammonia 
and cyanide of potassium. These will prevent incrusta- 
tions on the anode. 


Electeo-coppering, for Iron or Zinc. The article must 
first be well cleaned, and ' pickled ' in dilute acid. Then 
dissoh'e sulphate of copper, 2 oz., in boiling rain-water ; 
when cold add carbonate of potash, 4 oz., and liquid 
ammonia 2 oz. A precipitate forms, which is redissolved. 
Add cyanide of potassium (6 oz.) until all the ^blue colour 
disappears. Make up to 1 gallon, and work with a two- 
cell battery. The surface obtained may be bronzed. (See 
back, Bronzing Liquids.) 

Electro-gilding. See Gilding, further on. 

Electro-silveeing. See Silvering, further on. 

Electrotype Moitlds. These are sometimes made with 
fusible metals ; sometimes with non-metallic compounds, 
having their surface covered with a conducting substance. 
The fusible metal is composed of 8 parts of bismuth, 3 of 
tin, and 5 of lead. The French cHchee moulds consist of 
8 parts of bismuth, 4 of tin, 5 of lead, and i of antimony. 
These are repeatedly melted together till perfectly mixed ; 
and after being poured out on a suitable surface, are well 
stirred, and the medal forcibly pressed on the compound at 
the moment it is about to become solid. Composition 
3Ioulds are made with 8 oz. of spermaceti. If oz. of white 
wax, and the same of strained mutton suet. These are 
melted together, and a little fine plumbago or flake-white, 
stirred in. To copy plaster casts, the cast is set in a 
plate of hot water, -n-ith its face above the water, till it has 
absorbed water ; it is then surrounded with a ring of card- 
board, and the melted composition poured on it. The 
composition mould requires to be brushed over with finely 
powdered genuine black-lead. 

Electrotype Moulds. Elastic. [For copying medals 
when the figures are in high relief] To 12 parts of care- 
fully melted glue, add 3 parts of treacle, and incorporate 
them perfectly. Gtitta Percha Moulds are made by soften- 
ing a piece of gutta-percha by warm water (150° to 160°) 
and pressing the metal into it by a screw. See Solu- 

Engravings, Process foe Cleaning. Put the engraving 
on a smooth board, and cover it thinly with common salt, 
finely powdered ; pour and squeeze lemon-juice upon this 
salt, so as to dissolve a consideralile portion of it. Now 


elevate one end of the board, that it may form an angle of 
about 45° with the horizon. Pour lastly on the engraving, 
boiling water from a tea-kettle, until the salt and lemon- 
juice are all washed off j the engravingjwill then appear 
perfectly clean, and free from stains. It must be dried 
gradually, on the same board, or on some smooth surface. — 

Engbating mixtuee, foe Writing on Steel. Sulphate 
of copper 1 oz., sal auunoniac i oz. Pulverize separately, 
adding a little vermillion to colour it, and mis with 1^ oz. 
of vinegar. Rub the steel with soft soap, and write with 
a clean hard pen, without a slit, dipped in the mixture. 

Essence of Jargonelle Pear. Acetate of amylene is 
sold under this name. It is made by distilling a mixture 
of 1 part of oil of grain, 2 of acetate of potash, and 1 of 
oil^ of vitriol. Wash the diluted liquid with alkaline water, 
agitate with dry chloride of calcium, and redistil it from 

Essence of Pine Apple. See Butyric Ether. 

[For Perfumed Essences, see Peefumeet, For 
CuLiNAEY Essences, see further back.] 

Etching Fluids. For Lithograiihy. Dissolve 3 oz. of 
fused chloride of calcium in 9^ oz. of water, add to the 
solution 2 oz. of gum arabic, and 1 oz of pure hydrochloric 
acid. — Chevalliee. 

For Copper. 1. Aqua fortis 2 oz., water 5 oz. ; mix. 

2. Iodine 2 parts, iodide of potassium 5 parts, water 5 
to 8 parts. 

3. Callot's Fau Forte, for Fine Touches. Dissolve 4 
parts each of verdigris, alum, sea-salt, and sal ammoniac, 
in 8 parts of vinegar ; add 16 parts of water, Ijoil for a 
minute, and let it cool. 

For Steel. 1. Iodine 1 oz., iron filings ^ drachm, water 4 
oz. ; digest till the iron is dissolved. 

2. Pyi'oligneous acid 4 parts by measiire, alcohol 1 part ; 
mix, and add 1 part of double aqua fortis (sp. gr. 1-28). 
Apply it from 1^ to fifteen minutes. 

3. Mix 10 i«rts of jnire hydrochloric acid, 70 of dis- 
tilled water, and a solution of 2 parts of chlorate of potash 
in 20 of water. Dilute before using with from 100 to 200 
parts of water. See Engravings, Photographic. 


Etching Varnishes. 1. White wax 2 oz., aspliiiltum 2 oz., 
melt the wax in a clean pipkin, add the asphaltum in 
powder, and boil to a proijer consistence. Pour it into 
warm water, and form it into balls, which must be kneaded, 
and put into tafPeta for use. 

2. White wax 2 oz.. Burgundy pitch and black pitch 
each i oz. ; melt together, and add by degrees 2 oz. of 
asphaltum in powder, and boil till a drop cooled on a plate 
becomes brittle. 

3. Equal quantities of linseed oil and mastic, melted 

Fats, to obviate Eancidity in. Add oil of pimento or 
balsam of peru, 2 drops to the ounce of lard or other fat. 
—Mr. T. B. Groves. 

Filtering Powder. Fullers' earth washed, dried, and 
coarsely powdered ; mixed with prepared bono black (see 
Charcoai, Animal) coarsely powdered. 

Filter for Corrosive Liquids. Powdered glass or asbes- 
tos, or gun-cotton loosely packed in the neck of a funnel. 

Finings, for Gin. Carbonate of potash 4 oz., roche 
alum 8 oz. Brewers' finings consist of isinglass dissolved 
in stale beer. 

Fires, to Extinottish. Dr. Clanny's Solution consists 

of 5 oz. of sal ammoniac to a gallon of water. The 

.compound used in Phillips's Fire Annihilator is said to 

consist of dried jirussiate of potash, sugar, and chlorate of 


Fires, COLorHED. The ingredients for these compounds 
must be dry, not too finely powdered, and mixed very 
uniformly. The nitrate of strontian requires to be gently 
heated in an iron pan till its falls to powder. The 
ingredients should always be reduced to powder separately, 
and mixed very lightly with the other powders; the 
whole must then be passed through a sieve once or twice. 
Great caution is required when dealing with chlorate of 

White Fires. 1. Nitre 30, sulphur 10, black antimony 5 ; 

2. Nitre 48, sulphur 13i, black antimony 5 parts ; mix. 

3. Nitre 12, sul^jhur 16, black antimony 4, charcoal j, 
white arsenic ^ ; mix. 


4. Nitre 46^, sulphur 23, meal powder 12i-, ziuc filings 

5. For stars. Nitre 57, sulplnu- 28, zinc filings 15. 
Blue and Purple Fires. 1. Chlorate of potash 9, dried ver- 
digris 2, sulphur 1 oz. ; mix. 

2. Nitre 12, sulphur 16, black antimony 4, charcoal i, 
orpiment i. 

3. Chlorate of potash 9, sulphur 12, refiner's blue ver- 
diter 3 oz. ,• mix. 

4. Purple. Chlorate of potash 5, nitrate of strontian 
16, realgar 1, sulphur 2, lamp black 1 ; mix. 

5. Nitre 5, sulphur 2, metallic antimony 1 ; mix. 

6. Purple. Chlorate of potash 2 oz., sulphur 1 drachm, 
oxide of copper 1 oz. ; mix. 

7. Violet. Chlorate of potash 1 di:, pure copper i dr., 
sulphur a scruple, charcoal 16 grs. ; mix. 

Yellow Fires. 1. Nitre 3 oz., meal powder 3 oz., flowers of 

sulphur 3 oz., dried salt 2 oz. ; mix. 

2. Nitrate of soda 6, sulphur 1, lamp black 1 ; mix. 
Bed Fires. 1. Chlorate of potash 10, nitrate of strontian 80, 

sulphur 26, charcoal 6 ; mix. 

2. Chlorate of potash 3, nitrate of strontian 24, sulphur 
7 lamp black 1, sulphuret of antimony 2. [Half the 
lamp black or charcoal only may be added at first ; and if 
on trial it does not burn freely, add more.] 

3. Clilorate of potash 1, nitrate of strontian 5, sulphur 
1, black sulphuret of antimony 1 ; mix. 

4. Chlorate of potash 2i, nitrate of strontian 20, sul- 
phur 62, sulphuret of antimony 2, charcoal J ; mix. 

5. Chlorate of potash 5, nitrate of strontian 28, sulphur 
13, sulphuret of antimony 4, lamp black 1. 

6. Chlorate of potash 35, nitrate of strontian 360, sul- 
phur 93, sulphuret of antimony 60, charcoal 10. 

7. Nitrate of strontian 72, sulphur 20, coal dust 2, gim- 
powder 6 ; mix. 

8. 40 parts of nitrate of strontian, 13 of sulphur, 2 of 
lime-tree charcoal. Mix, and add by mixing with a horn 
spatula, 5 parts of diy and finely-powdered chlorate of 

9. Nitrate of strontian 9 parts, shell-lac in powder 3 
parts, chlorate of potash 1^ parts. 



Lilac Fire. Chlorate of potash 49, sulphur 25, dry chalk 
20, black oxide of copper 6 parts. For pans. 

Green Fires. 1. Sulphur lOj, nitrate of baryta 622, 
chlorate of potash 23^, sulphuret of arsenic If, charcoal 
or lamp black 1^ ; mix. 

2. Sulphur 13, nitrate of baryta 77, chlorate of potash 
5, metallic arsenic 2, charcoal 3 ; mix. 

3. Nitrate of baryta 20, sulphur 1+, sulphuret of anti- 
mony ^, chlorate of potash 10, charcoal i ; mix. 

4. Nitrate of baryta 10^ drs., sulphur 2 drs., chlorate of 
potash 162 grs., lamp black 26 grs. ; mix. 

5. Dry nitrate of baryta 12 parts, sulphur 4, dry and 
finely-powdered chlorate of potash 5 parts. Tlie chlorate 
to be mixed by a horn spatula. 

*^* To guard against the danger sometimes arising 
from the spontaneous combustion of coloured fires con- 
taining sulphur and chlorate of potash, Mr. Saunders re- 
commends intimately mixing 120 grains of powdered bi- 
carbonate of potash with each pound of sulphur before 
using it in the manufacture of any composition into which 
chlorates enter. 

Coloured Flame Papees. Soak Swedish filtering paper 
for ten minutes in a mixture of 4 parts of oil of vitriol 
with 5 parts of strong nitric acid, both by measure. When 
the strips are removed from the acid they must be tho- 
roughly washed, first ^\itli cold, then with hot rain or 
distilled water, till the wasliings cease to be acid. Then 
make different solutions (not too strong) of such of the 
chlorates of the metals as give the desired flame reactions, 
make them slightly warm, and saturate the papers sepa- 
rately with them. 

Dry the papers before the fire previous to lighting them. 
They show to best advantage when a slip is loosely 
crumpled up into a pellet, lighted quickly art; one corner, 
and thrown into the air against a dai-k background. Pa- 
per prepared with a salt of potassa will give a violet flame; 
that with soda a yellow one, that with liaryta a green, and 
that with strontian a crimson. 

Coloured Flames. The flame of alcohol may be coloured, 
by mixing certain salts with the spirit. A green colour is 
gi^'cn by chloride of copper, or boracic acid ; red by nitrate 


of strontian, nitrate of iron, or nitrate of lime ; yellow by- 
nitrate of soda, &c. 

FiRE-PEOOFiNG. For Paper, see Paper. For dresses, &c. 
A strong solution of sulphate of ammonia. The dresses of 
stage dancers may be soaked in a M'cak solution of chloride 
of zinc. Tlie tungstate of soda is said to be the only per- 
fect fire-proofer. 

Flints, Liquor OF. Soluble glass. Mix 70 parts of pearl- 
ash, 54 of washing soda, and 152 of siliceous sand, and 
fuse the mixture in a crucible. It is soluble in water, 
and the filtered solution evaporated to dryness leaves a 
transparent glass. It has been proposed to render wood, 
muslins, &c., incombustible by means of the solution. Dr. 
TuBNEE directs 3 parts of carbonate of potash, and 1 of 
silica. See Glass, Soluble. 

Flowees, Compound foe Promoting the Blowing of. 
Sulphate of ammonia 4 oz., nitre 2 oz., sugar 1 oz., hot 
water a pint. Keep it in a well-corked bottle. For hya- 
cinth glasses add 8 or 10 drops of the liquid to the water, 
changing the water every 10 or 12 days. For flowering 
plants in pots, add a few drops to the water employed to 
moisten them. 

Flowees and Plants, to Peesebve. Any vegetable siib- 
stance may be preserved moist in a solution of creosote, 
or in glycerine. The method of drying plants between 
sheets of paper needs no^ description. But the original 
form, and in many instances the colour, of a fresh flower 
may be preserved by carefully immersing it in some fine 
dry material, and then rapidly drying in a baking oven. 
Millet seed has been used for this purpose, and may 
answer well for coarse specimens. For fine ones white 
river sand in equal grams must be used. To separate 
large grains it should be passed through a sieve ; to re- 
move fine particles it is copiously washed with water. 
Wliile drying it is to be constantly agitated. 

M. Reveil recommends further, that 1000 parts of tliis 
sand be intimately mixed with 1 of stearic acid and 1 of 
spermaceti, before using. See next formula. 

Flowees, to Peeseeve in theie Natural Shape and 
CoLOUE. Provide a vessel with a moveable cover. Fit to 
the top a piece of fine metallic gauze, and replace the 


cover. Pass through a sieve into an iron pot, sand suffi- 
cient to fill this vessel, and heat it with ^ per cent, of 
stearin, carefully stirring. Place the flowers on the gauze, 
and, removing the bottom of the vessel, pour in the sand 
and stearin, so as to cover and envelope them. Place on 
the top of an oven for 48 hours. Remove the cover, in- 
vert the vessel, and the sand runs away through the 
gavize, leaving the flowers dried in their natural position. 
Joiirn. Soc. Arts. Fresh flowers may be preserved for 
some time in glycerme. 

Flowees, Cut, To Peeseete in Watee. Add to the 
water a teaspoonf ul of salt, or a teaspoonf ul of charcoal. 
Flowers in pots may be watered with a weak solution of 
sulphate of iron. 

Fluxes. In a general sense these are substances which pro- 
mote the fusion of minerals, but particularly which cleanse 
a reduced metal, by assisting its separation from its im- 
purities. They also serve to defend it from the action of 
the air, and some of them assist in the reduction of oxides. 

Stuck Flux. Into an earthen crucible, heated sufficiently 
hot to cause feeble combustion, but not to fuse the flux, 
throw successive portions of a mixture of 1 part of nitre, 
and 2 of crude (or cream of) tartar. Keep the flux in a 
close bottle. 

White Flux. Into a large earthen crucible, heated to red- 
ness, throw successive portions of a mixture of 2 parts of 
nitre and 1 of tartar. Keep it as the last. 

Crude Flux, is the mixture of nitre and tartar, before defla- 

Dr. Christiso>«'s Flux for reducing arsenic. Mix crys- 
tallized carbonate of soda with ^th of charcoal, and heat 
gradually to redness. 

Fkesenits's Flux, for reducing sulphm'et of arsenic. Dry 
carbonate of potash 3 parts, cyanide of potassium 1 part. 

Cornish Flux. Cream of tartar 10 parts, nitre 3i, borax 3. 

MoEVEAr's Flux. Pulverized glass (free from lead) 8 parts 
calcined borax i part, charcoal i part. 

Mr. Tatloe's Flux. Saturate a solution of tartaric acid 
with carbonate of soda, evaporate to dryness, and calcine < 
in a covered platinum crucible. ' 

Sal enixum (the acid sulphate of potash left in distilling I 


nitric acid), sandiver or glass-gall, fluor spar, limestone 
&c., arc also used as fluxes. 

Fly Poison. A common poison for flies consists of white 
arsenic, or King's yellow, with sugar, &c., but the use of 
such comi)ounds may lead to fatal accidents. A sweetened 
infusion of quassia answers the same purpose, and is free 
from danger. Pepper, with milk, is also used ; and also 
some adhesive comi:)ounds by which they are fatally en- 
tangled. Papier moure contains a large quantity of 

Freezing Mixtitres. The salts should be in a crystallized 
state, with as much water in them as possible without 
being damp. They should be coarsely pulverized at the 
time of using, and put into the water contained in a basin 
or other suitable vessel. The water to be frozen should 
be enclosed in a thin metallic vessel, and immersed in the 
freezing mixture. To obtain extreme degrees of cold, 
the ingredient* and vessels employed, should be previously 
cooled by one of the freezing mixtures. 

1. Sal ammoniac 5 oz., nitre 5 oz., water 16 oz. 

2. Mix -i oz. of nitrate of ammonia, 4 of crystallized 
carbonate of soda, and 4 of water. In 3 hours 10 oz. of 
water may be frozen. 

3. Nitrate of ammonia and chloride of ammonium in 
equal projiortions, water q. s. 

4. Nitrate of ammonia 5 parts, nitrate of potash 5, 
sulphate of soda 8, water 16 parts. 

5. Phosphate of soda 9 parts, dilute nitric acid 4 

6. Sulphate of soda 8 parts, hydrochloric acid 5 parts. 

7. Sulphate of soda 6 parts, nitrate of ammonia 5 parts, 
diluted nitric acid 4 parts. 

8. Mix 1 part by weight of powdered sal ammoniac 
with 2 of powdered nitre. Reduce common washing soda 
to powder. Keep tliese powders in well-closed bottles, 
and when required for use take equal measures of each, 
and add an equal bulk of water, or sufiicient to dissolve 
the salts. 

9. Chloride of ammonium 11 drs., nitre 10 drs., sulphate 
of soda 2 oz. Po^\■der separately, and mix in a tin vessel 
with 5 oz, of water, 


With Ice. 

1. Snow 01" pounded ice 2 parts, chloride of sodium 1 part. 

2. Snow 2 parts, crystallized chloride of calcium 3 parts. 

3. Snow 8 parts, hydrochloric acid 5 parts. 

4. Snow or pounded ice 12 parts, chloride of sodium 5 
parts, nitrate of ammonia 5. 

5. Snow 7 parts, diluted nitric acid 4 parts. 

6. Snow 3 i^arts, diluted sulphuric acid 2 parts. 
Feench Polish. This is an alcoholic solution of shell-lac ; 

some of the softer resinous gums are usually added, but 
too much of them renders the polisli less durable. Highly 
rectitied spirit, not less than 60 over proof, should be 
used. Rectified wood naptha is sometimes substituted, 
to which the unpleasant smell is the only objection. Me- 
thylated spirit is now almost invariably employed for the 
manufacture of French polish, and it is advised to substi- 
tute it for the rectified spirit in the following formulaj. 

1. Orange shell-lac 22 oz., rectified spirits 4 pints ; 

2. Shell-lac 3 oz., gum sandarac ^ oz., rectified spirit 
a pint. 

3. Shell-lac 4 oz., gum thus | oz., rectified spirit a piut ; 
dissolve, and add almond or poppy oil 2 oz. 

4. Shell-lac 5 oz., seed-lac 1 oz., gum juniper \ oz., 
mastic 1 oz., rectified spirit a pint. 

5. Shell-lac 3 oz., seed-lac 3 oz., gum juniper IJoz., 
mastic 1 oz., rectified si)irit a quart. 

6. Shell-lac 5 oz., oxalic acid ^ oz., rectified spirit a 
pint ; dissolve, and add linseed oil 4 oz. 

7. Shell-lac 5 oz., gum benzoin 5 oz., oxalic acid 10 drs., 
rectified spirit a quart ; dissolve, and add | pint of lin- 
seed oil. 

8. Shell-lac 8 oz., gum elemi 1 J oz., rectified spirit 4 pints. 

9. Shell-lac 10 oz., seed-lac 6 oz., gum thus 3 oz., 
sandarac 6 oz., copal varnish 6 oz., rectified naphtha 8 
innts. Or dissolve 8 oz. each of seed-lac, gum thus, and 
sandarac, separately in a pint of naphtha; and 1 lb. of 
shell-lac in 8 pints of naphtha. Then mix 6 oz. of copal 
varnish, 12 oz. of the solution of seed-lac, 6 oz. of the 
solution of frankincense, 12 of tlie solution of sandarivc, 


and 5| lbs. of tlie solution of shell-lac. Let the copal 
varnish be jnit into the tinctiire of shell-lae, and well- 
shakon, and the othei' ingredients added. A correspond- 
ent informs me that this polish cannot be excelled. 

10. Copal i oz., gum arabic 5 oz., shell-lac 1 oz. Pul- 
verize, mix, and sift the powders, and dissolve in a pint of 

11. Shell-lac 5 oz., rectified naptha a pint. 

French polish is sometimes coloured with dragon's 
blood, turmeric root, &c. The general directions for pre- 
paring the polish are to put the gums with the spirit in a 
tin bottle, and set it on the hob, or in water, so as to keep 
it at a gentle heat, shaking it frequently. The cork should 
be loosened a little before shaking it, taking care that 
there is no flame near to kindle the vapour. When the 
gums are dissolved, let it settle for a few hours, and pour 
off the solution from the dregs. The method of using it is 
to have a roll of list, over the end of which five or six folds 
of linen rag are placed. The polish is applied to the linen 
with a sponge, and a little linseed oil is dropped on the 
centre of it. 

FtTLMiXATiNa Compounds. FulmiMating Powder. Mix 
together in a warm mortar 3 parts of pulverized nitre, 
2 of dry carbonate of potash, and 1 of sulphur. A 
small quantity heated on an iron shovel or ladle till it 
fuses, suddenly explodes with great violence. It should be 
used with great caution. Another kind of fulminating or 
detonating powder is made by mixing 3 grs. of chlorate of 
potash with 1 of sulphm* : by strongly triturating it with 
strong pressure in a marble inortar, a succession of 
sharp explosions is produced. The same mixture, or 
6 grs. of chlorate of potash, 1 of sulphur, and 4 of char- 
coal, struck with a hammer on an anvil, gives a loud report. 

Chloride, or TercJiloride of Nitrogen, and Iodide, or Teriodide 
of Nitrogen cannot be nieddled with without extreme 
danger. Fulminating gold, and the fulminating silver 
prepared witli ammonia, are also dangerous compounds, 
even in minute quantities. As they serve no practical use, 
the mode of preparing them is omitted. 

Fulminating Mercurg (Howabd's, as improved by Dr. Ukk). 
Dissolve by a gentle heat 1 oz. of quicksilver in 7i fluid. 


oz. (or 10 oz. by weight) of nitric acid, of 1"4 specific 
gravity, in a glass retort, the beak of which is loosely 
inserted into a large ballooii or bottle. Wlien the mer- 
cury is dissolved, the solution, at the temperature of 130° 
Fahrenheit, should be slowly poured through a funnel 
into 10 fluid oz. of alcohol of 0'830 specific gravity, con- 
tained in a vessel that will hold 6 times the quantity of in- 
gredients. "Wlien the action ceases, pour the contents of 
the matrass on a double filter in a glass funnel ; wash out 
any powder that may remain in the matrass with a little 
cold water, and throw this also on the filter ; and wash the 
fulminate with more water till it "passes free from acid. 
When sufiiciently drained, lift the filter out of the fimnel, 
and lay it open on a copper or earthen plate, and dry the 
fulminate at 212""F, or under, by hot water or steam. Its 
manufacture requires great caution : some valuable lives 
have been sacrificed in its preparation. 

Fulminating Silver (BEiiaNATELLi's). On 100 grs, of pul- 
verized nitrate of silver, in an open glass vessel, pour first 
an oz. of alcohol, and then as much strong nitreus acid. 
The mixture boils, and gives out ethereal vapours. Wlien 
all the powdered nitrate has taken the form of white 
clouds, cold distilled water must be added to sustain ebul- 
lition, otherwise tlie fulminate will be dissolved. Collect 
the powder on a filter, and dry it at a low temperature. 
Dr. TuENER directs 1 part of silver to be dissolved in 10 
of nitric acid, at a gentle heat, 20 parts of rectified spirit 
to be added, and the mixture warmed. Wlieu it begins to 
boil, set it aside to cool, collect and wash the crystals on a 
filter, and carefully dry them. This is more violent and 
dangerous than fulminating mercury. 

Fumigations. See Fumigatio, Pocket Formulary, for their 
medicinal uses. Though not strictly belonging to this 
place, it may be useful to give a few directions for the 
management of these important agents, as disinfectants 
and purifiers. 

Carbolic Acid Fumigation, — Steep rags in it, and then 
suspend them in various parts of the room, or dilute one 
ounce with a gallon of water, and sprinkle the mixture 
over the walls and floors. 

Chlorine Fumigation, This is probably the most effective 


in destroying noxious effluvia and putrid odours, and in 
checking the spread of contagious diseases. But as the 
gas itself is deleterious, except in a very diluted state, it 
nuist he used with caution in occupied appartments. To 
disinfect rooms from which the occupants have been 
removed, mLs common salt and black oxide of manganese 
in equal quantities. Mix also in an earthen basm equal 
weights of oil of ^'itriol and water, and when it has cooled 
put it into a bottle for use. Into a china or earthen basin 
put from 1 to 3 oz. of the powder, according to the size of 
the room, and pour over it t^nce or thrice as much of the 
mixed acid. Place it in the apartment, and close the doors 
and windows for a few hours ; the doors and windows are 
then thrown open till the smell of chlorine disappears. 
Dr. A. T. Thomson directs a mixture of 1 oz. of salt and i 
oz. of black oxide of manganese to be put into a china cup, 
and 6 tliud di"s. of oil of \T.triol poured on it, the cup being 
placed in a pipkin of hot sand. Instead of the above in- 
gredients, some chloride of lime may be placed in a large 
jar or basin, and a mixture of acetic acid and water 
poured on it. "Wlien used in, or near the apartments of the 
sick, great care must be taken that the chlorine is so 
diluted with au' that it shall occasion no annoyance to the 
invalid. Some contrivances have been adopted to render 
the extrication of chlorme gradual and continual. Smith's 
Chlorine Fumigator, and the moi'e simple one of Messrs. 
Heathfield & BuEGESS, are very convenient. Another 
method is proposed by Mr. ScanIan, in the ' Pharma- 
ceutical Journal,' vol. vii, page 343. By such contrivances, 
chlorine may with care be safely employed in houses occu- 
pied by the sick (in the j)assages, stairs, &c.), to prevent 
the sjDread of infectious fevers : but chloride of lime, simijly 
mixed with water, in the proportion of not more than 1 oz. 
to a quart, is usually sufficient to purify the chamber of 
the sick. It should be occasionally sprinkled on the floor, 
and also placed about the room in shallow dishes, or a linen 
cloth moistened with it, svLspended on a line. The same 
method may be j^ursued in all places where unpleasant 
smells prevail. 
Iodine. A little placed on a plate, diffuses into the atmo- 
sphere of a sick room, and Is a useful disinfectant, 


Nifi'ic Fumigation. Put into a cliina cnp equal measures of 
sulphuric acid and water, and add to it, from time to time, 
small quantities of powdered nitre : or put 2 or 3 drs. of 
powdered nitre int<5 a cup, and pour over it about an equal 
quantity of oil of vitriol. Stir it with a piece of glass, or 
tobacco-pipe, and remove it from time to time to different 
parts of the apartment. For large rooms 2 or 3 cups may 
be required. It is often recommended to apply heat ; but 
Dr. Bateman, of the Fever Hospital, found this imneces- 
sary and objectionalile, especially in the apartments of the 
sick. No metallic or wooden stin-ers, or vessels, must be 

Muriatic Fumigation. KydrocMoric Fumigation. This is 
iiow almost disused, being less efficacious than the preced- 
ing. It is ol)taiued by putting a few drachms of common 
salt into a cup, and pouring on it an equal quantity of oil 
of vitriol. Tlie vajwursare very injurious to the lungs. 

Acetic Fumigation. The vapour of vinegar, and especially of 
strong acetic acid, is employed as a disinfectant, but its 
efficacy is now considered to be very limited. It may be 
used by keeping the vinegar boiling over a lamp. A 
coarser method sometimes used is to plunge a red-hot 
poker into a cup of vinegar. Aromatic vinegar, merely 
lield to the nose, may afford some slight protection to 
those who attend upon the sick. 

Sulphur Fumigation. The fumes of burning sulphur may 
possibly have some effect in decomposing miasmata and 
noxious effluvia; but as they have no advantage over 
chlorine and are very disagreeable, and otherwise objec- 
tionable, they are not likely to be employed. Formerly 
the following powder was burnt to destroy contagious 
miasmata. Flowers of sulphur, nitre, and powdered myrrh, 
of each 1 oz. 
Tar Fumigation. The vapour of boiling tar has been used 
as a disinfectant, as well as a pallative in some affections 
of the respiratory organs. The usual plan is k) keep the 
tar boiling over a lamp. See Fumigatio Picea, Pocket 

Benzoin, styrax, and other odoriferous gums, cascarilla 
bark, coffee berries, and the compounds termed aromatic 
pastiles, are burnt as purifiers and disinfectants. But 


little confidence is now placed in them as prophylactics 
against infection. The same may be said of camphor and 
tobacco. Tlxey should not be depended on to the exclusion 
of more efficient means, nor be made a substitute for free 
ventilation and the removal of all sources of noxious 
effluvia, when practicable. 

Fumigating Pastiles. See Peefumeet, further back. 

FuKNiTUEE Cream. 1. Soft water a gallon, soap 4 oz., 
bees'-wax in shavings 1 \h. ; boil together, and add 2 oz. of 
pearlash. To be diluted with water, laid on with a paint- 
brush, and polished ofp with a hard brush or cloth. 

2. Wax 3 oz., pearlash 2 oz., water 6 oz. ; heat them 
together, and add 4> oz. of boiled oil, and 5 oz. spirit of 

3. Tlie name is sometimes given to a mixture of 1 oz. of 
white or yellow wax, with 4 of oil of turpentine. 

FcENiTUEE Paste. 1. Melt 1 lb. of bees'-wax with i pint 
of linseed oil, and add ^ oz. of alkanet root ; keep it at a 
moderate heat till sufficiently coloured ; then remove from 
the fire, add \ pint of oil of turpentine, strain through 
muslin, and put it into small gallipots to cool. 

2. Scrape 4 oz. of wax, and put it into a pipkin with as 
much oil of turpentine as will cover it, and i oz. of pow- 
dered resin ; melt with a gentle heat, and stir in sufficient 
Indian red to colour it. 

3. Equal weights of bees'-wax, spirit of turpentine, and 
linseed oil. 

FuENiTURE Oil. 1. Linseed oil a pint, alkanet I oz. ; 
digest in a warm place till coloured, and strain. 

2. Tlie same with 5 pint of oil of turpentine. 

3. Linseed oil a pint, alkanet root 1 oz., rose pink 1 oz. ; 
let them stand in earthern vessel all night. 

4. A quart of linseed oil, 6 oz. of distilled vinegar, 3 oz. 
of spirit of turpentine, 1 oz. of hydrochloric acid, and 2 oz. 
spirit of wine. 

5. Linseed oil 8 oz., vinegar 4 oz. ; oil of turpentine, 
mucilage, rectified spirit, each ^ oz. ; butter of antimony 
5 oz. ; hydrochloric acid 1 oz. ; mix. 

6. Linseed oil 16 oz., black resin 4 oz., vinegar 4 oz., 
rectified spirit 3 oz., butter of antimony 1 oz., spirit of 
salts 3 oz. ; melt the resin, add the oil, take it off the fire, 


and] stir it in the -s-inegar ; let it boil for a few minutes, 
stirring it ; when cool put it into a bottle, add the other 
ingredients, shaking all together. [The last two are espe- 
cially used for reviving French polish.] 

7. Linseed oil a pint, oil of turpentine ^ pint, rectified 
spirit 4oz., powdered resin 1^ oz., rose pink i oz. ; mix. 

8. Linseed oil 14 oz., vinegar 1^ oz., hydrochloric acid i 
oz. ; mix. 

Fusible Metal. See Allots, further back. 

Gall, Clarified. Ox-gall is prepared for the use of 
artists in the following manner : To a pint of fresh ox-gall, 
boiled and skimmed, add 1 oz. finely powdered alum ; 
leave it on the fire till the alum is dissolved, then let it 
cool, put it into a bottle, and cork it loosely. Ti'eat 
another pint in the same way with 1 oz. of salt instead of 
alum. After standing more than 3 months, carefully de- 
cant from each bottle the clear portion, and mix them 
together. The colouring matter is precipitated, and a 
clear, colourless liquid is obtained by filtration. It is used 
for mixing artists' colours, and to prepare ivory, oiled 
paper, &c., to re-s-ive the colours. Also for taking out 
grease spots. 

Galvanic Batteries, Solutions tor. See Acids, Mixed, 
FOE Galvanic Batteries. 

Gannal's Solution. See Anatomical Injections. 

Ganteine. (a composition for cleaning kid gloves ; some- 
times improperly termed Saponine). Dissolve 3 oz. of 
soap by heat in 2 oz. of water, and when nearly cold add 
2 oz. of eau de Javelle, and 1 dr. of water of ammonia ; 
form a paste, which is to be rubbed over the glove with 
flannel till sufficiently clean. 

Garancine. Madder (sometimes the spent madder of the 
dyer's bath) is mixed -ndth its weight of oil of vitriol, 
added very gradually, so as to avoid overheating. Tlie 
acid is then washed out. 

Gaerot's Covering foe Pills. Soak 1 oz. of Purified gela- 
tin in 2 or 3 drs. of \\'ater ; keep it liquefied in a salt- 
water bath. Tlie pills are stuck on long pins, and dipped 
in the solution ; when cold the pins are withdrawn, after 
being heated by a small flame, which melts the gelatin 
and closes the liole. 


Gases. These are generated in gas bottles fitted, by grind- 
ing, with an S-formed tube; or in flasks to which a bent 
tube is adapted by means of a cork ; in a common retort ; 
or sometimes in iron bottles w-ith a metal tube.* They 
are usually collected in vessels filled with water placed 
with their open end in a vessel of water. Pepy's Gas 
Solder is very useful for receiving, retaining, and trans- 
ferring gases. The pneumatic trough consists of a vessel 
for holding water, with a shelf for sustaining the jars or 
bottles that are to be filled j these are filled by sinking 
them under water, and are then lifted on the shelf, above 
which the water rises, with their open end do\niwards. 
Tlie beak of the retort, or bent tubes, are so placed that 
the gas issuing from them rises through the water into 
the vessel, and takes the place of the water in them. 
Some gases being very easily absorbed by water, are col- 
lected over mercm'y. Sometimes they are collected in 
dry bottles. For light gases, as ammonia, place a bottle 
in a vertical position -ndth its mouth downwards over the 
tube from which the gas issues, which should touch the 
bottom of the bottle. When the bottle is filled with gas, 
and this escapes from the mouth, quietly ^^ithdraw the 
tube and close the bottle, still inverted, with a greased 
stopper. For gases hea-vier than air, as chlorine, or car- 
bonic acid, the bottle must be plaeed with its mouth 
uppermost, and the tube delivering the gas must descend 
to the bottom of the bottle. When full of the gas, close 
it with the greased stopper. The tube connected with a 
flask in which a gas is generated should have a ball blo\^'n 
in it, into which asbestos may be introduced to arrest any 
particles thrown up by effervescence. 

The following are the processes for procuring the principal 
gases : — 

Ammoniacal Gas. This is obtained by mixing equal weights 
of slaked lime (previously cooled) and powdered sal ammo- 
niac, and heating the mixture in a retort or flask. As 
water rapidly absorbs the gas, it miist be collected over 
mercury, or in a dry bottle as described above. 

Carbonic Acid Gas. Carbonic Anhydride. This is obtained 

* Whenever practicable india-rubber tubing is now largely employed 
in place of tubes of glass and metal. ^ 


by acting on marble or chalk, or carbonate of soda or potash, 
by a diluted acid. For exact experiments it must be col- 
lected over mercury ; otherwise it may be collected in a 
bottle (as above). Mr. Benson states that a saturated solu- 
tion of sulphate of magnesia may be iised in collecting 
this gas, instead of mercury. See Pocket Formulary. 

Carbonic Oxide is obtained by acting on binoxalate of pot- 
ash with 6 times its weight of oil of vitriol at a gentle 
heat ; or by strongly heating, in an iron bottle or gun- 
barrel, equal weights of chalk and iron filings. The gas 
must be passed through water containing lime or caustic 
potash to absorb the carbonic acid gas. 

Chlorine. This gas may be obtained from oxide of man- 
ganese, common salt, and sulphuric acid, as directed in 
making chloride of lime. Or from hydrochloric acid and 
oxide of manganese (see Chlorinium, Pocket Formulary). 
But more conveniently, on the small scale, by dissolving 
common salt in water, adding a sixth of its weight of 
nitric acid, and as much oxide of manganese. Apply a 
gentle heat, and the gas is abundantly produced without 
violent action. (Chemist, vol. i.) 

Hydrochloric Acid Gas. It may be obtained by heating 
together in a flask equal weights of salt and oil of vitriol j 
or simply by heating strong hydrochloric acid. It must be 
collected over mercury; or otherwise conducted to the 
bottom of a di-y bottle, as described above. 

Hydrogen Qas is readily procured by pouring on fragments 
of zinc, in a glass bottle, or flask with a bent tube, or 
retort, some diluted sulphuric acid (1 measure of strong 
acid to 5 of water). It may be collected over water. If 
zinc be not at hand, fine iron wire, or the turnings or 
filings of iron, may be substituted for it. To procure gas 
of great purity, distilled zinc must be used. 

Hydbogen, PEROXIDE. See Hycb-Qgenii peroxidum. Pocket 

Carburetted Hydrogen Oas. Light carburetted hydrogen is 
readily obtained by stirring the mud of stagnant pools. 
Heavy carburetted hydrogen is prepared by heating 1 part 
of alcohol -witli 6 or 7 of oil of vitriol, and conducting the 
mixed gases through milk of lime, which retains the sul- 
phurous acid J and afterwards through oil of vitriol, which 


absorbs water, ether, and alcohol. Coal gas is a mixture of 
these gases, with other hydrocarbons, &c. 

Phosphuretted Hydrogen. The spontaneously inflammable 
variety of this gas is made by boiling phosphorus with 
solution of potash in a small retort, the beak of which is 
kept under water : as each bubble of gas rises from the 
water, it inflames, and forms a ring of white smoke, which 
dilates as it ascends. The spontaneous inflammability of 
the gas when mixed with atmospheric air or oxygen ren- 
ders caution necessary in its preparation. The other 
varieties of phosphuretted hydrogen have no special interest 
or application. 

Sulphuretted Hydrogen, Sydrosulphuric Acid. Hydric 
Sulphide. This gas is best obtained fi-om sulphide (sul- 
phuret) of iron, broken into small lumps. On this com- 
potmd, contauied in a gas bottle, or other suitable apparatus, 
jiour sulphuric acid previously diluted with 7 parts of water. 
If more acid be afterwards required, dilute the strong acid 
with only 4 of water. It is absorbed by water. 

Nitrogen, or Azote. Atmospheric air may be made to yield 
an unlimited supply of nitrogen, by exposing it to the 
action of substances which combine with its oxygen. By 
burning phosphorus in a large bell-glass standing in water, 
and allowing it to stand over the water a few hours, 
nearly pure nitrogen is obtained, which may be further 
purified by agitating it with solution of pure potash. 
CoRENWiNDER procures it from his solution of nitrate of 
potash (which see) by mixing one measure of it with three 
of concentrated solution of sal ammoniac, and heating the 
mixture in a flask. The gas contains a little ammonia, 
from which it may be freed by passing it through diluted 
sulphuric acid. 

Protoxide of Nitrogen. Nitrous Oxide of Davy. It is most 
conveniently made by heating nitrate of ammonia (formed 
by neutralizing pure nitric acid, diluted with 3 parts of 
water, with carbonate of ammonia, and boiling tlie solu- 
tion till a drop let fall on a cold plate solidifies, adding 
a little ammonia towards the end to ensure neutrali- 
zation) in a retort, at a heat not exceeding 500° Fahren- 
heit, till it is nearly all decomposed. It may be collected 
over warm water. This gas (principally, if not wholly, in 


the liquid form) is manufactured in enormous quantities 
for the use of dentists and for dental hospitals. 

Oxygen Gas. Mix chlorate of potash with a third of its 
bulk of black oxide of manganese ; put the mixture into 
a gas-bottle, or clean flask, to which a bent tube is fitted 
by a cork, and apply gentle heat. The gas, which comes 
over freely, may be collected over M'ater. 

Ozone. This is supposed to be oxygen in an allotropic and 
more active state. It is formed by putting into a wide 
bottle pieces of clean phosphorus, with a little water, so 
that the phosphorus shall be partly in the water and partly 
uncovered. Close the bottle for some hours, when the 
air it contains, will manifest the odour and effects of ozone. 

Sulphurous Acid Gas. Sulphurous Anhydride. It is procured 
in a nearly pure state by heating 2 parts of quicksilver with 
3|of oil of vitriol, and collecting the gas over mercury. By 
passing the gas through a tube surrounded with a freezing 
mixture, it is condensed into a liquid. For ordinary purposes, 
the gas maybe obtainedas directed under Acid,St:lphueous. 

Gelatin, Pueified. Grenetine. It is made by various 
processes from gelatinous animal matters. Nelson's 
Patent Gelatine is made from cuttings of the hides of 
beasts, and skins of calves. These, freed fi'om hair, flesh, 
fat, &c., are washed and scored, then macerated for 10 
days in a ley of caustic soda, and afterwards placed in 
covered vessels at a temperature of 60° to 70° until they 
become tender ; then washed from the alkali, exposed to 
the vapour of burning sulphur until they become sensibly 
acid, dissolved in earthen vessels heated to 150°, strained, 
put into settling vessels heated to 100° or 120° for nine 
hours, the clear liquor drawn ofP, and poured on the cool- 
ing slabs to the depth of ^ an inch. "Wlien cold, the jelly 
is cut in pieces, washed till free from acid, redissolved at 
85°, poured on slabs, cut up, and dried on nets. 

Bone, Gelatin. The bones are boiled to remove the fat, 
then digested in dilute hydrochloric acid till the earthy 
matter of the bone is dissolved. The gelatin, which 
retains the form of the bone, is washed in a stream of 
water, plunged in hot water, and again in cold, to remove 
all remains of acid, and sometimes put into a solution of 
carbonate of soda. When well washed, it is dried on open 


baskets or nets. By steeping the raw gelatin in cold 
water, dissolving it in boiling water, evaporating the jelly, 
and cutting it into tablets, it may be dried and preserved 
in that form. 

German Paste, for feeding insectivorous singing -hirds. 
Blanched sweet almonds 1 lb., pea meal 2 lbs, butter 3 oz., 
saffron a few grains, honey q. s. Form the whole into u 
paste, and granulate it by pressing it through a cullender. 
Some add the yolks of 2 eggs. 

GiiDiNG. Leaf gold is affixed to various surfaces, properly 
prepared by gold size or other adhesive medium. Me- 
tallic surfaces are coated with gold, by means of amalgam 
of gold and mercury, applied with a wire brush, wet with 
an acid solution of mercury (made by dissolving 10 parts 
of mercury in 11 of nitric acid, by a gentle heat, and 
adding 2| parts of water). The article thus coated is 
heated over charcoal till the mercury is dissipated, and 
afterwards biu-nished. To give it a redder colour, it is 
covered with gilders' wax (a compound of verdigris, 
ochre, alum, and yellow wax) ; again exposed to heat, and 
afterwards washed and cleaned by a scratch brush and 
vinegar. An inferior kind of gilding is effected by dis- 
solving gold, with a fifth of its weight of copper, in nitro- 
hydrochloric acid, dipping rags in the solution, drying and 
burning them, and rubbing the ashes on the metallic sur- 
face with a cork dipped in salt and water. 

3iLDiNG, hy immersion. Dissolve teroxide or terchloride of 
gold in a solution of pyrophosphate of soda, and dip the 
article to be gilt in it. 

Electro- Gilding, hy Elkington's patent process, is thus per- 
formed : — A solution of 5 oz. of gold (see Acid, Niteo- 
HTDEOCHLOEic, further back) is prepared, and boiled till 
it ceases to give out yellow vapours : the clear solution is 
mixed with 4 gallons of water, 20 lbs. of bicarbonate of 
potash added, and the whole boiled for 2 hours. The 
articles, properly cleaned, are suspended on wires, and 
moved about in the liquid from a few seconds to a minute, 
then washed, dried, and coloured in the usual way. 

The solution used in gilding with_ the voltaic apparatus 
is made by dissolving i oz. of oxide of gold, with 2 oz. of 
cyanide of potassium, in a pint of distilled water. 



GiNGEE Beer. See Beverages. 

Ginger Bread, Purgative. See further back. 

Glass of Borax. Calcine boras with a strong heat till the 
water of crystallization is expelled, and the salt fuses into 
a clear glass. 

Glass, Soluble. Mix 10 parts of carbonate of potash, 15 
of quartz (or of sand free from iron and alumina), and 1 
part of charcoal. Fuse together. The mass is soluble in 
4 or 5 parts of water ; and the filtered solution evaporated 
to di'yness yields a transparent glass, permanent in the 
air. — FucHS. 

Glass. Glass differs considerably in composition, owing to 
the purposes for which it is intended ; but it may be said 
to consist mainly of mixtures, in varying proportions, of 
silicates of potash, soda, lime, baryta, magnesia, alumina, 
and lead, coloured by the addition of small quantities of 
different metallic oxide, particularly those of iron, manga- 
nese, cobalt, uranium, and gold. Crowai glass and green 
bottle glass contain a portion of lime. Green glass and 
some kinds of foreign white glass are free from lead, and 
should therefore be selected for chemical uses. 

Toughened Glass. M. de la Bastie's process for toughen- 
ing glass, consists in raising it to a very high temperature, 
and then plunging it while hot into a heated oleaginous bath. 
The process can only he successfully carried out by 
attention to a number of minute details. 

To mark on Glass. Glass may be written on for temporary 
purposes, by French chalk ; pencils of this substance will 
be found convenient. Glass may be written on with ink. 
if the surface is clean and di-y, and the pen held nearly 
perpendicular. The shell-lac ink (see Ink) is the best 
for labels, as it resists damp, &c. To scratch glass, 
a scratching diamond is used; or a piece of flint, or 
crystal of quartz, or the point of a small 3-square file. 
To engrave on glass, fluoric (hydrofluoric) acid is used, 
either in the liquid state or in vapour. The glass must be 
warmed, and coated \\ith wax, or engravers' cement, and 
the writing or design traced through the wax with a brad- 
awl, or other pointed instrument. The liquid fluoric acid 
is poured on it, and left to act on the uncovered portions 
of the glass ; or the fluorspar may be powdered and made 



into a paste with oil of vitriol, and laid over the prepared 
surface, and covered with lead-foil or tea-lead : or bruised 
fluorspar is put in a Wetlgewood evaporating basin, with 
sufficient oil of vitriol to form a thin paste, and the 
l)repared glass laid over the basin, so that the vapours 
may act on the portions from which the wax has been 
removed. To cut glass (besides the usual method of 
dividing cut glass by a glazier's diamond), the following 
means may be used :— To divide glass tubes or rods, form 
a deep mark round them with the edge of a sharp 3-square 
tile, then with a hand placed on either side of the mark, 
break the rod with a slightly stretching as well as bend- 
ing motion. A diamond or sharp flint may be substituted 
for a file. ^ Flasks, globes, and retorts may be divided by 
means of iron rings, having a stem fixed in a wooden 
handle. Make the ring red-hot, and apply it to the flask, 
itc. If the vessel do not break where it came in contact 
with the ring, wet the part, and it M-ill generally separate. 
Another method is to twist together 2 or 3 'threads of 
cotton, such as is used for wicks, moisten them with spirit 
of wine, and encircle the flask with them ; then holding 
the flask horizontally, set fire to the wick, and turn the 
flask with the fingers, so as to keep the flame in the direc- 
tion of the thread. If the separation does not tafej place 
the first time, the process may be repeated aft«r the glass 
has^ cooled. By these means a common oil-flask may be 
divided into an evaporating-dish and a funnel. By means 
of a stout iron rod, fixed in a wooden handle, and termi- 
nating in a blunt point, and heated to redness, broken 
retorts, globes, and flasks may be converted into useful 
evaporatmg dishes, &c. If any crack exist, it may easily 
be led in any direction, as it will follow the motion of the 
heated iron. If no crack exist, one must be produced by 
applying the point of the heated rod to any convenient 
spot on the edge of the broken glass, touching it after- 
wards with a moistened finger, if necessary. The edo-es 
of glass thus divided are rendered less apt to break by heat- 
ing them in the flame of a blowpijie, or grinding them smooth 
with emery on a flat stone. See Faeadat's Manipulations. 
Glass, to Platinize. M. Dullo. This is recommended to ■ 
prevent fusing of the end of the tube used in Marsh's 


test for arsenic. lu drawing out the end of the tube, 
leave the diameter slightly larger than is necessary ; then 
roughen the narrow end with a file. Dip in a solution of 
bichloride of platinum, containing one twentieth of the 
metal ; remove excess of the di'op, and heat cautiously till 
the glass acquires a metallic appearance. Repeat this four 
or five times. 
Glass, to Silver. 1. The term silvering is commonly appHed 
to the process of coating the surface of glass with amalga- 
mated tinfoil, in forming mirrors. The tinfoil Is rubbed 
over with quicksilver, and more of the latter poured over 
it : the plate of glass, perfectly clean and dry, is then ap- 
plied to it in such a way as to exclude all air-bubbles, and 
to bring the glass and tinfoil into perfect contact. The 
plate, after being inclined, so as to allow the superfluous 
quicksilver to drain off, is loaded with weights, under 
which it remains tiU the adhesion is complete. To convex 
and concave mirrors, tlie amalgamated foil is applied by 
means of accurately fitting plaster moulds. The interior 
of globes is silvered by introducing a liquid amalgam (see 
Amalgams), and turning about the globe, till every part 
is covered with it. 

Glass, to Silver. 2. Pettuean's process. 15-iO grs. of 
nitrate of silver are treated with 955 grs. of strong solution 
of ammonia, and afterwards with 7700' grs. of water. To 
this solution, when clear, are added 170 grs. of tartaric acid 
dissolved in 680 of water, then 152 cubic uiches more of 
water, with brisk agitation. "Wlien it has settled, the 
clear part is poured off; 152 ciibic inches of water are 
added to the sediment, to dissolve as much as possible. 
The clear fluids are mixed, and again 62 cubic inches of 
water are added. This is Silvering Solution No. 1. No. 2 
is prepared in the same manner, but with twice as much 
tartaric acid. Tlie glass plate being cleaned, and laid hori- 
zontally, an even layer of Solution No. 1 is poured on it, 
to about the depth of ^\jth of an inch. Heat is then ap- 
plied by means of a cast-iron water-bath beneath. Bright 
silver is soon deposited, "\^^len the stratum of fluid is 
exhausted, it is poured off, and solution No. 2 next applied 
in the same way. The silver surface may be polished, or 
coated with black varnish. 


3. LiEBiG proposes to silver glass without mercury by 
a solution|of ammonio-uitrate of silver, to which potash or 
soda is added, and which deposits silver at ordinary tem- 
peratures when brought in contact with an aqueous solu- 
tion of sugar of milk. 

4. Mr. Dbatton mixes 1 oz. of nitrate of silver, 3 oz. 
of water, 1 oz. of liquid ammonia, and 3 oz. of spirit 
of wine, and filters the solution after it has stood 
•i hours. To every oimce of the solution he adds + 
oz. of grape sugar, dissolved in equal quantities of water 
and alcohol. The surface to be silvered is covered with 
this liqiiid at a temperature of 160° F. maintained till the 
deposition of silver is complete. ^Tien quite dry, the 
coated surface is covered with mastic varnish. Other sub- 
stances besides sugar occasion the deposition of silver from 
the ammoniacal solution ; as oil of cassia, oil of cloves, and 
other essential oils, aldehyde, &c. Ungee recommends a 
strong alcoholic solution of tannin. M. VoHL prefers an 
alkaline solution of gun-cotton. Dissolve gun-cotton in a 
solution of caustic potash, pour it into a solution of nitrate 
of silver, and add ammonia sufficient to redissolve the pre- 
cipitate. The liquor, being slowly heated in a water-bath, 
becomes brown, efPervesces, and deposits silver of superior 

Glass, to Clean. The vessel to be cleansed is filled, or if 
large, rinsed with a moderately dilute solution of the 
permanganate of potash, contact being prolonged till a 
film of hydrated manganic oxide has been deposited ; the 
solution is then poured away, and the glass vessel rinsed 
with some strong hydrochloric acid. 

Glazes. Common earthenware is glazed ^\-ith a composition 
containing lead, on which account it is unfit for many 
pharmaceutical purposes. The following glaze has been 
proposed, among others, as a substitute : — 100 parts of 
washed sand, 80 of purified potash, 10 of nitre, and 20 of 
slaked lime ; all well mixed and heated in a blacklead 
crucible, in a reverberatory furnace, till the mass flows into 
a clear glass. It is then to be reduced to powder. The 
goods to be slightly burnt, placed under water, and 
sprinkled with the powder. 

Glaze foe Poecelain. Felspar 27 parts, borax, 18, Lynu 


sand 4, nitre 3, soda 3, Cornwall china clay 3 parts. Melt 
together to form a frit, and reduce it to a powder, with 3 
parts of calcined borax. — Rose. 

Glue is made by boiling parings of ox-hides and other sldns 
in water, evaporating the solution to a due consistence, 
allowing it to gelatinize in wooden boxes, cutting it into 
layers with a wire, and drying the layers on nets stretched 
on wooden frames. Bones also yield a pale glue, described 
under Gelatin. Bank-note glue, or mouth glue is made 
by dissolving 1 lb. of fine glue, or gelatin, in water, evapo- 
rating it till most of the water is expelled, adding ^ lb. of 
brown sugar, and pouring it into moulds. Some add a 
little lemon-juice. It is also '..lade with 2 parts of dex- 
trin, 2 of water, and 1 of spirit. 

Glue, Liquid. 1. Dissolve bruised orange shell-lac in f of its 
weight of methylated or rectified spirit, or of rectified wood 
naphtha, by a gentle heat. It is a very useful as a general 
cement and substitute for glue. 2. Anotlier kind may be 
made by dissolving 1 oz. of borax in 12 oz. of soft water, 
adding 2 oz. of bruised shell-lac, and boiling till dissolved, 
stirring it constantly. 3. Dissolve 1000 parts of glue in 
1000 parts by weight of water in a glazed pot, over a gentle 
fire. Wlien it is melted, add nitric acid (sp. gr. 1"32) 
200 parts, pouring it in very gradually. An effervescence 
is caused by the escape of hyponitrous acid. \Vlien all 
the acid is added, allow the mixture to cool. (This glue 
is found to remain unaltered on exposure to the air. It 
is applied cold, and is recommended as very convenient in 
chemical operations.) M. Dumoulin. 

Glue, Marine. Cut caoutchouc into small pieces, and 
dissolve it, by heat and agitation, in coal naphtha. Add 
to this solution powdered shell-lac, and heat the whole 
with constant stirring, until coinbination takes place, then 
pour it while hot on metal plates, to form sheets. When 
used it must be heated to 218° P., and applied with a 

Glue of Casein. 1. Braconnot. Dissolve casein in a 
strong solution of bicarbonate of soda. 2. Wagner. 
Dissolve casein in a cold saturated solution of borax. 
Suiaerior to gum, and may take the place of glue in 
many cases. May be used for the backs of adhesive tickets. 


Gluten, Vegetable. Form wheat flour into a stiff paste 
A\itli cold water ; then knead it under a stream of water 
till all the starch is washed away. What remains is im- 
pure gluten. 

Golden Compound. Anhydrous tungstate of soda, or the 
salt obtained in fusing 2 equivalents of tungstic acid with 
1 of carbonate of soda, is to be melted in a porcelain 
crucible, over a spirit lamp, at a temperature not more 
than sufficient; then add small pieces of pure tin to the 
melted mass. Cubes of a golden colour instantly form. 
The process should not be continued too long, or they 
acquire a purple hue. (See Aubum Musivum.) 

Gum, Beitish. (See Dextrin.) It is also prepared by 
heating starch alone, or previously mixed with an acid. 
PiNEL directs half a gallon of nitric and lialf a pint of 
hydrochloric acid to be mixed with 100 gallons of water, 
and as much potato fecula added as will form a paste. In 2 
hours remove the paste in buckets, prepared for the pur- 
pose, to drain off all the water. Then place the paste in 
small lumps in a drying room till dry ; pulverize it, and 
expose the powder the first day to the temperature of 
100°, the next day raise it to 150°, on the tliird day to 
190°. It is then powdered, sifted, and heated from 300° 
to 350°. To give it the appearance of gum, after it has 
gone through the stove, and is powdered and sifted, mix 
it to a paste with water to which 1 per cent, of nitric acid 
has been added, spread it on copper plates in layers | of an 
inch thick, and heat it in an oven from 240° to 300°, then 
remove it to the open air to cool. 

Gum Arabic, Purification of. Picciotto's process. The 
gum is dissolved in water, and sulphurous acid gas passed 
into it. The sulphurous acid is sufficiently removed for 
common purposes by gently boiling the mucilage in a 
retort with a receiver attached. But to obtain the gum in 
a purer state, carbonate of baryta is added, the mixture 
is filtered, afterwards agitated with gelatinous alumina, 
again filtered, and evaporated. 

Gun Barbels, to Stain. (See Browning Liquids, further 

Gun Cotton. Mix 1^- fluid oz. of each of the strongest 
nitric and sulphuric acids ; put the mixture in a Wedge- 


wood mortar, and when cool add 100 grs, of cotton wool. 
Stir it with a glass rod, and when it is fully soaked, 
squeeze out the acid with tke pestle or a porcelain spoon, 
throw the cotton into a large quantity of water, squeeze 
it again, and wash it under a stream of water till quite 
free from acid. In the specification, the patentee directs 
1 measure of nitric acid, sp. gr. 1'45 or 1'50 to be mixed 
with 3 measures of sulphuric acid, sp. gr. 1'85 ; the cotton 
to be soaked in the acid, then squeezed from it, and left 
in a covered vessel for an hour ; and after washing, to be 
dipped in a solution of 1 oz. carbonate of potash in a 
gallon of water, then pressed, and partially dried ; again 
dipped in a weak solution of nitre, then dried in a room 
heated to 150°. See Pocket Formulary. See Collo- 
Gun Powder. A compound of nitre, charcoal, and sulphur. 
The nitre should be purified by recrystallization, the 
sulphur by distillation, and the charcoal selected of the 
best quality — that of the dog-wood, alder, poplar, chestnut, 
or willow is preferred. The following is the composition 
of some of the most approved kinds : 

Nitre. Charcoal. Sulphur. 

Royal Mills, Waltham Abbey 75 

Marsh's Sporting .... 76 

Mining 65 

French (Government) ... 75 

Sporting 78 

Chinese 75 

Gun Powder, White. Well dried yellow prussiate of potash 
1 part, white sugar 1 part, chlorate of potash 2 parts. 
Let the ingredients be separately reduced to a fine jjowder, 
and the powders mixed by the hand, or by means of a 
leathern barrel turning on its axis. Or they may be 
moistened vnth water, and granulated by passing the 
paste through a wire sieve. 

Gypsum, to Harden. K eating's patent i^rocess is to 
moisten calcined gypsum with a solution of 1 lb. of borax, 
1 lb. of tartar, in 11 lbs. of water; it is then heated to red- 
ness for 6 hours, and pulverized. Eedemann recommends 















plaster figures, &c., to be soaked in a solution of Frcn's 
soluble glass. 

Hahnemann's Wine Test. See Tests. 

Haeness Jet. Take 4 oz. best glue, 1^ pints good vinegar, 
2 oz. best gum arable, i pint good black ink, 2 drs. best 
isinglass. Dissolve the gum in the ink, and melt the 
isinglass in another vessel in as much hot water as -will 
cover it. Having first steeped the glue in the ^anegar until 
soft, dissolve it completely by the aid of heat, stirring to 
prevent burning. The heat should not exceed 180°. Add 
the ink and gum, and allow the mixture again to rise to 
the same temperature. Lastly, mix in the solution of 
isinglass, and remove fi'om the fire. When used, a small 
portion must be heated until fluid, and then applied with 
a sponge, and allowed to dry on. 

Haeness, Waterproof Paste foe. Put into a pipkin 
black resin 2 oz., place on a gentle fire, and when melted 
add bees'-wax 3 oz. Wlien this is melted, remove from 
the fire, and stir in | oz. fine lamp-black and ^ dr. Prus- 
sian blue, finely powdered. When completely mixed, add 
spirits of turpentine to form a thin paste and let it cool. 
To be applied like blackmg. 

Heading foe Beee. Equal parts of alum and sulphate of 
iron. — Geat. 

Incense. See Peeftjmeey. 

India Eubbee Couet Piaster. A stout frame of ^vood 
must be made, about 3 yards long and about I5 yards wide. 
Within this frame must be placed two sides of another 
frame, running longitudinally and across, so fixed in the 
outer frame that the two'pieces may slide independently of 
each other backwards and forwards about 6 inches. Tapes 
of canvas must be tacked round the inside of the inner 
frame and the corresponding sides of the outer frame, so 
as to form a square for the material to be se^^^l in, which 
when done, the two loop frames must be dra^ra tightly to 
the outer by means of a twine passed round each, in order 
to stretch perfectly free from irregularities the silk or 
satin previous to laj-ing on the composition. 

To make the plaster. Dissolve India rubber in naphtha 
or naphtha and turpentine, lay it on witli a flat brush on 
the opposite side to that which is intended for the plaster. 


When the silk is perfectly dry and the smell in a great 
measnre dissipated, it will be ready for the adhesive ma- 
terial; to make which take eqvial parts of Salisbury or fine 
llussian glue and the best isinglass, dissolve in a sufficient 
quantity of water over a water-bath, and lay on with a flat 
hogtool while warm. It is recpiisite to use great caution 
to spread [the plaster evenly and in one direction, and a 
sufficient number of coatings must be given to form a 
smooth surface, through which the texture of the fabric 
is not perceptible. Each coating should be perfectly dry 
before the succeeding one is given, after which the frame 
is to be placed in a situation free from dust, and where a 
draught of air would facilitate the drying. The quantity 
of water used and the weight of the two materials must 
be a little varied according to the season and the gelatin 
strength they possess. Lastly, the plaster being ready to 
receive the polishing coat, which gives also the balsamic 
effect to it, a preparation is made in nearly the same 
manner as the Tinct. Benz. Co. of the P. L., with the ad- 
dition of more gums. This preparation must be laid on 
once only, and with a In-ush kept for the purpose. For 
making plasters on coloured silks it is only necessary to 
select the silk a shade deeper than the colour required, as 
the plaster causes it to appear a little lighter. 
Indigo. The principal preparations of indigo are described 
under Chemic Blue, and Dyes. Indigo may be puri- 
fied by several methods, 'of which the following is the 
mest simple : — Mix indigo with half its weight of Paris 
plaster and sufficient water to form a thin paste. Spread 
this evenly on an iron plate, about two inches wide, to the 
depth of one eighth of an inch, and let it dry in the air. 
Then apply the flame of a large spirit lamp to the under 
side of the plate, beginning at one end and advancing 
it to the other as the sublimation proceeds. The violet 
vapour condenses on the surface in brilliant prisms or 
plates. Good indigo yields from 15 to 17 per cent. — Mr. 
T. Taylor. 

Purified indigo is also obtained from the alkaline solu- 
tion of reduced indigo, described under Dyes ; or by dis- 
solving indigo in a mixture of 1 part of caustic soda, 1 of 
grape sugar, and 20 of water. To the clear solutions thus 


oUained add hydrochloric acid to throw down the iiidipfo, 
wash this perfectly with pure water, and finally with 
alcohol. If care be taken to exclude the air before and 
after adding the acid, and to wash it with recently boiled 
water, to drain it rapidly and dry it in vacuo, the indigo 
is obtained nearly white,"^ but becomes blue on exposure to 
the air. 
I>^KS. The following are specimens of the most useful 
kinds : 

BlacJc Writing Inks. 1. Bbande's. Bruised Aleppo 
galls 6 oz., soft water 6 pints ; boil together, add 4 oz. of 
sulphate of iron and 4 oz. of gum arable. Put the whole 
in a bottle, and keep it in a warm place, shaking it occa- 
sionally. In 2 mouths pour it off into glass bottles ; and 
add to each pint a grain of corrosive sublimate, or 3 or 4 
drops of creasote. 

2. Dr. Wollaston's, Galls 1 oz., gum i oz., cloves 
i dr., sul]ihate of iron ^ oz., water 8 oz. Digest with fre- 
quent shaking, till it has sufficient colour. A good durable 
ink, and will bear diluting. 

3. Prerogative Court InTc. Galls 16 oz., gum 6 oz., alum 
2 oz., sulphate of iron 7 oz., kiuo 3 oz., logwood in powder 
4 oz., water 8 lbs. — Gbat. 

4. Dr. Ure's Ink. For 12 gallons of ink take 12 lbs. 
of bruised galls, 5 lbs. of gum Senegal, 5 lbs. of green sul- 
phate of iron, and. 12 gallons of rain water. Boil the galls 
in a copper with 9 gallons of water for 3 hours, adding 
fresh water to replace what is lost by evaporation. Let 
the decoction settle, and draw off the clear liquor ; add to 
it a strained solution of the gum ; dissolvealso the sulphate 
of iron separately, and mix the whole. Instead of boiling 
the galls, they may be macerated in a portion of hot water 
for 12 hours, then put into a percolator, and the rest of 
the water passed through it. 

5. Anti-corrosive Ink. Aleppo galls 10 lbs., logwood 5 
lbs., pomegranate-peel 2i lbs., cloves 2^ oz., soft water 8 
gallons. Let the whole boil gently for an hour or two, 
then cover the copper and letive it for 12 or 14 hours, 
stirring it now and then. Strain off the decoction and 
add 2 gallons more water to the ingredients ; simmer 
gently for an hour, and strain. Mix the liquors, and let 

380 Teade chemicals 

them settle; draw off the clear liquid from the dregs; 
dissolve in a portion of it 2i lbs. of gum arable and i lb. of 
sugar candy ; and in another portion 2^ lbs. of green sul- 
phate of iron. Strain both solutions, and mix the whole 
together ; then add 1 oz. of calcined borax, and t oz. of 
creasote dissolved in \ pint of spirit of wine. [Dr. Haee 
recommends an ink free from acid, to be made with galls 
and " finery-cinder ;" but we are not sure what is intended 
by this name.] 

6. RlBATJCOtTRT's Ink. Galls 1 lb., logwood I lb., gum 
6 oz., sulphate of .'iron ^ lb., sulphate of copper 2 oz., 
sugar 2 oz., water 12 lbs. (or 5 quarts). This has the dis- 
advantage of corroding the steel pens and the penknives 
with which it comes in contact. 

7. Galls 3 oz., sulphate of iron 1 oz., logwood ^ oz., 
gum i oz., ale a quart. Let it stand in a loosely corked 
bottle in a M'arm place, for a M'cek or more, shaking it 

8. Boil 4 oz. of logwood for an hour in 6 quarts of 
water ; adding boiling water as it evaporates : then add 
16 oz. of blue galls coarsely bruised, 4 oz. of dry sul- 
phate of iron (i. e. heated till it becomes whitish and 
pulverulent), 3 oz.' of brown sugar, 6 oz. of gum arable, 
and 5 oz. acetate of copper ground with a little of the 
decoction. Keep the whole in a bottle imcorked for a 
fortnight, shaking it twice a day. 

9. Reade's Patent. This differs from common black 
ink, in containing a portion of soluble Prussian blue. 

10. Clirome Ink. Extract of logwood ^ oz., gum \ oz., 
water a pint. Dissolve also in 12 oz. of water, ^ oz. of 
yellow chromate of potash (or \ oz. each of bichromate 
and bicarbonate of potash) ; and mix the two solutions. 
The ink is ready for immediate use. 

11. Dr. Lewis's TTriting Ink. Powdered sulphate of 
iron 1 oz., powdered logwood 1 oz., powdered galls 3 oz., 
gum arable 1 oz., white wine or vinegar 1 quart. 

12. Beezelius recommends a solution of vanadiate of 
ammonia in infusion of galls. Dr. Uee states that this 
forms the most perfect ink that can be desired; but 
the scarcity and high price of the vanadiate prevents. its 



13. Ettnge's Blach Writing Fluid. Boil logwood 
22 lbs., ill enough water to yield 14 gallons of decoction. 
To 1000 parts of this decoction, when cold, add 1 part of 
clu-omate of potash. The mixture is to be weU stirred. 
The proportions are to be carefully observed, and the 
yellow chromate, not the bichromate, employed. (This 
ink is said to possess some great advantages ; to adhere 
strongly to paper, so that it can neither be washed o£E by 
water, nor even altered by weak acids ; to form no de- 
posit ; and not to be in the least act^d upon by steel pens.) 
Steel pens should be washed in an alkaline solution before 
being used with this ink. On exposure to the air, rapid 
decomposition of this fluid sometimes takes place. This 
may be prevented by adding a little carbonate of soda to 
the fluid. 

14. Alizarine Ink. Leonhabdi. Digest 24 parts 
Aleppo galls with 3 parts of Dutch madder and 120 warm 
water. Filter. Mix 1-2 parts solution of indigo, 5-2jof 
sulphate of iron, and 2 parts crude acetate of iron solu- 
tion. ;This ink contains no gum, and cannot get mouldy; 
the tannate of iron is prevented from separating by the 
sulphate of indigo. Alizarine ink may be evaporated to 
dryness and formed into cakes; 1 part with six of hot 
water will then form an excellent wTiting fluid. 

Packers' Marking Ink is merely the dregs of black ink, 
for marking parcels with a brush. 

Copying Ink. Mr. Brande directs 1 oz. of brown 
sugar to be added to Xo. 1, for copying. Another kind is 
made by dissolving | oz. of gum, and 20 grs. of Spanish 
liquorice, in 13 drs. of water, and adding to it a drachm of 
lamp-black, pre^-iously mixed with a teaspoonful of sherry. 
If the lamp-black is greasy, it should be heated to redness 
in a covered crucible. Another published form is : — Black 
ink 3 oz., sugar candy 1 oz. 

Ink Powder. This consists of the dry ingredients for 
ink, powdered and mixed. 1. Powdered galls 4 oz., sul- 
phate of iron (heated till it becomes wliite and pulveru- 
lent) 1 oz., powdered gum 1 oz., white sugar 2 oz. ; mix. 
To make a quart of ink, with water or beer. 

2. Powdered galls 2 lbs., green vitriol 1 lb., powdered 


gum 8 oz. In 2 oz. packets, each for 1 pint of ink. — 

Red Writing Inks. 1. Best ground Brazil wood 4 oz., 
diluted acetic acid a pint, alum ^ oz. Boil them slowly 
in a covered turned copper or enamelled saucepan, for an 
hour ; strain, and add ^ qt.. gum. Some direct the Braztl 
wood to infuse for 2 or 3 days before boiling. 

2. Weber's Bed Ink. Boil 4 oz. of Pernambuca 
wood with 16 oz. of dilute acetic acid and an equal quan- 
tity of water, until 24 oz. remain. Add an ounce of alum, 
and evaporate again to 16 oz. ; add gum aralic 1 oz., 
strain : and to the cold liquid add, lastly, 1 dr. of proto- 
chloride of tin. (Said to be of a finer colour, ami more 
permanent, than cochineal ink.) 

3. Boil 2 oz. of good Brazil wood, ^ oz. of alum, and 
a" oz. of cream of tartar, in 16 oz. of ram water, till reduced 
to half ; strain, and dissolve in it | oz. of gum arable, and 
add a tincture made with 1-^ drs. of cochineal in I-2- oz. of 
spirit of wine. — Hexselee. 

4. Brazil 4 oz., alum 2 oz., water a quart. Boil for an 
hour, and strain ; then add 1 oz. of gum. 

5. Triturate 1 dr. of cochineal and 1 dr. of carbonate 
of potash, with a little boiKng water ; then add 1 dr. of 
burnt alum and 2 drs. of cream of tartar, and water to 
bring it to the desired colour. [Not so permanent as the 
Brazil ink.] 

6. Carmine Ink. Heat a scruple of carmine with 3 oz. 
of water of ammonia for some minutes, a little below boil- 
ing, and add 15 to 20 grs. of gum. (The inkstand must 
be kept well closed.) 

7. Stephen's Red Ink. (Patent). Take some common 
soda, potash, or carbonate of ammonia, and add to it, at 
intervals, twice its weight of crude argol in powder. Wlien 
effervescence has ceased, pour off the solution, or filter it 
from insoluble matter. Add to it next, by measure, half 
the quantity of oxalate of alumina, prepared by addmg 
to precipitated alumina in a damp state as much oxalic 
acid as will dissolve it. Into this mixture, when cold, put 
as much powdered cochineal as will give it a fine red colour, 
and, after letting it stand for 48 hours, strain it for use. 

Bine Inks, 1, Reade's Patent. Prepare a solution of 


iodide of iron, from iodine, iron, and water; add to the 
solntion half as much iodine as first used. Pour this 
solution into a semi-saturated solution of f erro-pi'ussiate of 
potash, containing nearly as much of the salt as the 
whole weight of iodine. Collect the precipitate, wash it, 
and finally dissolve it in water, to form the blue ink. Tlie 
solntion from which the precipitate is separated, evapo- 
rated to dryness, and the residue fused, redissolved, and 
crystallized, yields pure iodide of potassium. [This process 
being patented, ink must not be prepared by it for sale.] 

2. Add a pint of a cold solution of persulphate of iron 
(prepared as directed, further on) to a solution of 6 oz. of 
ferro-cyanide of potassium in 2 pints of water. Collect 
the precipitate, wash it with distilled water until it begins 
to dissolve, then triturate it in a mortar with snflicient 
distilled water to form a blue ink. 

3. Chemic, or Saxon blue (sulphate of indigo), diluted 
with water to the desired shade, with a little gum. 

4. Pure Prussian blue, triturated with a sixth part of 
its weight of oxalic acid, with a little water, to a smooth 
paste, and more water added to bring it to the proper 
colour. A larger proportion of the acid is ordered in some 

5. Dr. Nohmandy's Blue Ink. Chinese blue (ferro- 
cyanide of iron) is ground in water with binoxalate of 
potasli and gum arable, in the following proportions : — 
7 oz. of water to 3 drs. of Chinese blue, 1 dr. of binoxalate 
of potash, and 1 dr. of gum arabic. 

6. Stephen's Patent Blue Ink. Common Prussian blue 
is first macerated in strong sulphuric acid, then rei^eatedly 
washed in water, and afterwards dried. This process is to 
render it more soluble in oxalic acid, which is now to be 
gradually added in the propoi-tion of about 1 part to 6 of 
the Prussian blue (as before maceration), together with 
sufficient water to yield a dense blue solution. 

7. Digest 2 oz. of the cuttings of tin plate with 4 oz. of 
nitrous acid, and add the solution to a gallon of water in 
which 2 oz. of prussiate of potash have been dissolved. 
[This requires fi'equent shaking to keep the precijjitate 
(which is Prussian blue) suspended.] 

Violet Inks. 1. Boil 8oz. of logwood in 3 pints of rain 


or distilled water to li pints. Strain, and add IJ oz. of 

clean gum, and 2| oz. of alum in fine power. Agitate 
frequently till dissolved. 

2. Cudbear 1 oz., jjearlasli IJ oz., mucilage 2 oz., soft 
M'ater to make a pint. Pour the water hot on the cudbear 
and pearlash, allow the mixtixre to stand for twelve hours, 
then strain, and add the mucilage; 1 oz. of rectified 
spirit may also be added. 

Furple Inks. 1. Add a little muriate (chloride) of tin 
to a strong decoction of logwood. A Uttle gum may be 

2. Dr. NoEMANDY's Purple Ink. To 12 lbs. of Cam- 
peachy wood add as many gallons of boiling water, pour 
the solution through a funnel, with a strainer made of 
coarse flaimel, or 1 lb. of hydrate, or acetate of deutoxide of 
copper finely powdered (having at the bottom of the funnel 
a piece of sponge) ; then add immediately 14 lbs. of alum, 
and for every 340 gallons of liquid add 80 lbs. of gum arable 
or gum Senegal. Let these remain for 3 or 4 days, and a 
beautiful j)urple colour will be produced. 

Brown Ink. 1. Boil \ oz. of catechu with 8 oz. of water 
until dissolved, and strain. Dissolve 60 grains of bichro- 
mate of potash in I5 oz. of water, and add it gradually to 
the solution of catechu until the desired shade is obtained. 
It requires no gum. 

2. By adding to the violet ink finely powdered bichro- 
mate of potash, in the proportion of from 15 to 30 gi-ains 
to an ounce, various shades of brown and snuff colour are 

Yelloiv Ink. 1. Gamboge triturated with water, and a 
little alum added. 

2. Boil 8 oz. of French berries with 1 oz. of alum in a 
quart of water ; strain, and add 1 oz. of gum. 

Green Ink. 1. Dissolve 3 drs. of bichromate of potash 
in 1 oz. of water ; add to the hot solution J oz. of alcohol, 
and decompose the mixture by a little strong sulphuric 
acid till it assumes a browiT colour. Evaporate the liquid 
to half, let it cool, dilute with a suflicient quantity of 
water, and filter ; add to the filtered liquid 4 drs. of al- 
cohol, decompose with a few drops of sulphuric acid, and 
let it rest. After some time it assumes a fine green colour. 


A little gmn may be added. [There is danger of the paper 
and steel pens suffering from an excess of sulphuric acid.] 


2. Distilled verdigris 2 oz., ci-eam of tartar 1 oz., water 
8 oz. ; boil to half and filter. — Klapeoth. 

3. Add to the yellow ink No. 2 sufficient sulphate of 

4. Dissolve sap green in water with a little alum. 

5. Rub 3y drs. of Prussian blue, and 3 drs. of gamboge, 
with 2 oz. of mucilage, and add i; pint of water. 

Gold and Silver Ink. Fine bronze ijowdei-, or gold or 
silver leaf, ground with a little sulphate of potash, and 
washed from the salt, is mixed with water and a sufficient 
quantity of gum. Or, the gold leaf may be ground on a 
slab with honey, whicii is afterwards washed away. 

Indestructible Writincf Fluids. The common writing 
inks being liable to be obliterated by many chemical agents, 
several compounds more capable of resisting these agents 
have been proposed ; of which the following appear 
deserving of notice. 

1. Carbon Ink. Dissolve real Indian ink in common 
black ink ; or add a small quantity of lamp-black pre- 
viously heated to redness, and ground perfectly smooth, 
with a small portion of the ink. 

2. Stephen's (patent) Carbon Ink. Common soda of 
commerce is mixed with resinous matters (as shell-lac or 
resin), in about equal parts by weight. Water being added 
according to the strength required, the solution is boiled 
until the resin has become dissolved. Mix in a mortar 
with the requisite quantity of fine lamp-black, and add any 
suitable coloured solution. 

3. Shell-lac, Ink or Coathttpe's Writing Fluid. To 18 
oz. of water add 1 oz of powdered boraY, and 2 oz, of 
bruised shell-lac, and boil tliem in a covered vessel, stir- 
ring them occasionally, till dissolved. Filter, when cold, 
through coarse filtering paper ; add 1 oz. of mucilage ; 
boil for a few minutes, adding sufficient finely powdered 
indigo and lamp-black to colour it. Leave the mixture for 
2 or 3 hours for the coarser particles to subside ; pour it 
off from the dregs, and bottle it for use. 

4. Qluten Ink. Dissolve wheat gluten, free from starch, 



in we.ik acetic acid of the strength of coiinuon vinegar 
mix 10 grs. of hunp-bhick and 2 grs. of indigo with 4 oz. 
of tlie solution, and a drop or two of oil of cloves. 

5. HArssMANN's. Dissolve 1 part of genuine asphaltum 
^^■itll 4 parts of oil of turpentine, and sutRcient lamp-black. 
If sufficient lamp-black be used to give it a suitable con- 
sistence, it may be used with types. 

6. Beacoxnet's Indelible Ink. Take 20 parts of Dant- 
zic potash, 10 of tanned leather parings, and 5 of sulphur ; 
boil them in an iron pot with sufficient water to dryness ; 
then raise the heat, stirring the matter constantly, till the 
whole becomes soft, taking care tliat it does not ignite. 
Add sufficient water, and filter through cloth. It must 
be kept from the air. It flows freely from the pen, and 
resists many chemical agents ; but it is not strictly in- 

7. Dr. Normandy's Indelible InJc. Frankfort lamp- 
black 24 11)S., to be ground with mucilage, made by adding 
24 lbs. of gum to 60 gallons of water, and the mixture 
filtered thi-ough a very coarse flannel ; 4 lbs. of oxalic acid 
are then added, with as much decoction of cochineal 
and sulphate of indigo as will yield the shade of colour 

8. Indian Ink. Real lamp-black, produced by combus- 
tion of linseed oil, ground with gum, and infusion of galls. 
It is prepared both in a liquid and solid form, the latter 
being dried in the sun. 

9. Gold is mixed with Indian ink, equal parts. 

10. Puschee's Indelible Ink. Dissolve 4 parts of aniline 
black in 16 parts by weight of alcohol, with 60 drops of 
strong hydrochloric acid, and dilute the solution with 90 
parts by weight of water in which 6 parts of gum arabic 
have been previously dissolved. It is said not to act uijon 
steel pens, nor be altered by alkalies or acids. 

Indelible Ink, for printing Cotton and Linen fabrics 
intended for chlorine bleaching. One part of coal-tar 
mixed with one part of benzine, and one tenth part of 
lamp-black. It can be made thicker or thinner by using 
more or less benzine. — Pharm. Jottenal. 

Ink for tvriting on Zinc Labels. — Horticultural Ink : — 
1 . Dissolve 100 grs. of chloride of platinum in a pint of 


■water. A little mucilage and lamp-black may be 

2. Sal ammoniac 1 dr., verdigris 1 dr., lamp-black i dr., 
water 10 drs. ; mi.K. 

Ink for writing on Steel or Tin Plate, or Sheet Zinc. 
1. Mix 1 oz. of powdered sulphate of copper and ^ oz. of 
l)0\vdered sal ammoniac with 2 oz. of diluted acetic acid j 
adding lamp-black or vermilion. 

2. Dissolve 1 i:)art of copper in 10 of nitric acid, and 
dilute with 10 parts of water. 

White Marking for Black Bottles, in cellars. Grind 
flake white, or sulphate of baryta, with a little oil of 
turpentine, and any light coloui'ed varnish, to a pi'oper 

Lithographic Ink. 1. Lasteyrie's : — Dried soap 1 oz., 
melt, and add shell-lac 5 oz., then common soda 1 oz., 
mastic 1 oz., and lastly, lamp-black 3 drs. Melt, stir 
together, and, when completely melted, pour into moulds : 
to be used as Indian ink. 

2. Autographic. White soap 100 parts, white wax 
100, mutton suet 30, shell-lac 50, mastic 50, lamp-black 
30 or 35. Melted as above. 

3. Lithographic Ink. Heat 40 parts of yellow wax 
until its vapour kindles on coming in contact with a 
burning match j tlien remove it from the fire, and add 
gradually, in small parts, Marseilles soap 22 parts, gum- 
lac 28 parts, and mastic 10 parts. Extinguish the flame, 
and incorporate perfectly with this mixture, lamp-black 
9 parts. Then again heat until the vapour can be ignited, 
then remove it from the fire, and after the flame has been 
extinguished, pour it upon a stone. The mass is then cut 
into pieces. — M. Weishaupt. 

4. Crayons. White wax 8 oz., white soap 2 oz., shell- 
lac 2 oz., lamp-black 3 tablespoonf uls. Melt the wax and 
soap with a brisk fire ; stir in the lamp-black ; allow the 
mixture to burn for half a minute, tlicn extinguish the 
flame, and add the sheel-lac by degrees, stirring continually. 
Put the mixture on the fii-e till it kindles, or nearly so. 
Extinguish the flame, let the mixture cool a little, and 
pour it into moulds. 


Inks for MarTcing Linen. Some of these are used mtli 
types ; others with a clean quill pen. 

1. Sulphate of mangauese 1 dr., water 1 dr., powdered 
sugar 2 drs., lamp-black ^ dr. Triturate them together, 
and stamp in on the linen with types. Wlien dry, wash 
the part with liquor potassfe ; again dry, and wash with 
plenty of water. 

2. Dr. Smellie's. Sulphate of iron 1 dr., linseed oil 
1 oz. ; Vermillion \ oz. : grind perfectly smooth. Printers' 
ink is also used with type. 

3. Heat to redness equal weights of black oxide of 
manganese and caustic potash, and mix it with an equal 
weight of pipe-clay, and sufficient water to give it a due 
consistence. To be applied with types or stencils. It 
becomes brovni, and does not wash out. The following 
are used with a quill pen : 

4. Nitrate of silver 100 grs., distilled water 1 oz., gum 
arable 2 drs., sap green a scruple : dissolve. The linen 
is first to be wetted with the following pot(nce, dried and 
rubbed smooth, then written on by a clean quill or bone 
pen dipped in the ink. Pounce or Mordant. Sub- 
carbonate of soda 1 oz., water 8 oz. [A great variety of 
recipes might be given, slightly differing from the above 
in the proportion of the ingredients, and in the colouring 
matter. Gray directs 2 drs. of nitrate of silver, 6 drs. of 
water, and 2 of mucilage, and a pounce of 1 oz. of sub- 
carbonate of soda in 16 of water, with a little sap green. 
Another form is — nitrate of silver 1 oz., distilled water 
5 oz., powdered gum 1^ oz., sap green sufficient to colour 
it. The linen to be first wetted with the following pre- 
paration : — Subcarbonate of soda 1 oz., water 6 oz., gum 
1 oz. ; dissolve. Some add a little powdered bole to the 
prepai'ation ; the object in colouring it being merely that 
the part which has been wetted may be more readily 
distinguished. The quantity of nitrate of silver should 
not be much less than 100 grs. in an ounce of ink ; the 
jiroportion of the other ingredients is of less importance. 
Some direct the acUlition of a drop or two of nitric acid.] 

5. Italian. Moisten the linen with a solution of re- 
cently prepared chloride of tin, and write with a neutral 
solution of salt of gold. 


Marking Ink, without Preparation. Tliese inks merely 
require to have a hot iron passed over the part written 
on, and to be held pretty near the fire till the writing 
assumes a dark colour. 

1. Nitrate of silver 3 drs., water \\ oz. ; dissolve, and 
add as much strong liquid ammonia as will redissolve the 
precipitate formed by it ; add 2 drs. of mucilage, a little 
sap green, and water, if required, to make up the mea- 
sure to 2 oz. A little ivory-black, Indian ink, or indigo, 
is sometimes used to colour it. Some recipes contain 
nitrate of copper in addition to nitrate of silver. Several 
recipes might be given, but they will all probably be 
superseded by Mr. Redwood's. [In operating with am- 
monia and nitrate of silver, fulminating silver is some- 
times unexpectedly formed, and may pi'ove a source of 
danger. Perhaps in tliis respect, as well as others, Mr. 
Redwood's preparation claims a preference.] 

2. Mr. Redwood's. Rub together 1 oz. nitrate of 
silver, and 1 oz. of bitartrate of potash; add 4 oz. of 
liquor ammonise, and when dissolved mix in 6 drs. of 
white sugar, 10 drs. of powdered gum arable, \ oz of 
archil, and water to make up 6 oz. by measure. [Instead 
of archil, i oz. of sap green may be used to colour the 
ink; or 40 grs. of fine vegetable black, previously tri- 
turated with a little water or mucilage.] 

3. Rev. J. B. Reade's patent. This difPers from the 
last in using tartaric acid instead of bitartrate of potash. 
The quantities may be 1 oz. of nitrate of silver, 3 drs of 
tartaric acid, and the above quantities of the other ingre- 
dients. The use of tartaric acid he claims an exclusive 
right to. 

4. Add to the last an ammoniacal solution of an oxide 
or salt of gold. — Reade. [This addition prevents its 
being acted on by cyanide of potassium, and some other 
agents which the silver ink fails to resist.] 

5. Aniline Black, Marking Ink. The ink is prepared by 
means of two solutions, one of copper, the other of aniline, 
prepared as follows : 

(1.) Copper Solution. 8'52 grams of crystallized chlo- 
ride of copper, 10'65 grams of chlorate of soda, and 5"35 


grams of chloride of ammonium, are dissolved in 60 grams 
of water. 

(2.) Aniline Solution. 20 grams of hydrocliloratc of 
aniline are dissolved in 30 grams of distilled water, and to 
this are added 20 grams of solution of gum arable (1 
part of gum to 2 of water), and 10 grams of glycerine. 

By mixing in the cold 4 parts of the aniline solution 
with 1 part of the copper solution, a greenish liquid is 
obtained, which can be employed directly for the marking ; 
but as this liquid can only be preserved for a few days 
without decomposition it is advisable to keep the solution 
separately, until the ink is required for use. The ink may 
be used either with a pen or a stencil jjlate and brush ; if 
it do not flow freely from the pen it may be diluted with 
a little water without fear of weakening the intensity of 
the colour. At first the writing apjiears of a pale green 
colour, but after exposure to the air it becomes black ; or 
it may be changed to a black colour immediately by pass- 
ing a hot iron over the back of the fabric, or heating it 
over the flame of a spirit lamp. As, however, a dry heat 
is apt to make the fibre saturated with the ink bi-ittle, it 
is preferable to hold the marked fabric over a vessel con- 
taining water in full ebullition ; the heat of the vapour is 
sufficient to determine almost immediately the reaction by 
which aniline black is formed. After the steaming the 
writing should bo washed in hot soapsuds, which gives the 
ink a fine blue shade. The ink is not acted on by acids 
or alkalies, and if care be taken that the fibres are well 
saturated with it, there is no danger of its being removed 
by washing. — -Dingler's Journal. 

6. In addition to the alcove recipes, the following of 
M. Henry may deserve attention in large establishments 
where economy is an object : — Take 1 oz of iron filings 
•and 3 oz. of vinegar, or diluted acetic acid. Mix the filings 
with half the vinegar, and agitate them continually until 
the mixture becomes thick, then add the rest of the 
vinegar and 1 oz. of water. Apply heat to assist the 
action; and when the iron is dissolved, <add 3 oz. of 
sulphate of iron, and 1 oz, of gum previously dissolved in 
4 oz. of water; and mix the whole with a gentle heat. 
To be used with brush and stencil plates. 



Crimson MarJc'inri InJc. Dissolve 1 oz. nitrate of silver 
and 1^ oz. of carb. soda in crystals, separately in distilled 
water ; mix the solutions, collect and wash the precipitate 
on a filter, introduce the washed pijecipitate, still moist, 
into a Wedgewood mortar, and add to it tartaric acid 2 drs. 
40 grs., rubbing together till effervescence has ceased ; 
dissolve carmine 6 grs. in liquor ammonite (•882) 6 oz., 
and add to it the tartrate of silver, then mix in white 
sugar 6 drs., and powdered gum arable 10 drs., and add as 
much distilled water as will make 6 oz.— Pharm. 


Printing Ink. This is usually made by boiling linseed 
oil in a largo iron pot, setting fire to it, and letting it 
burn for half an hour or more. \'arious additions are 
made to it by some manufacturers, the use of which is 
not very evident. A viscid varnish is obtained, which 
is ground with lamp-black, vermilion, or other cohmring 
matters, till perfectly smooth. 2.^ oz. of lamp-black are 
sufficient for each pound of varnish. See Varnishes. 

Printers' Ink from Besin Oil. Melt together 13 oz. of 
resin, 1 lb. of resin oil, and I5 oz. of soft soap ; when cold, 
add lamp-black or other colouring matters. 

Copper-plate Printing Ink. This is not rendered so 
viscid as the former, and is coloured with Frankfort black. 

Reade's Patent Printing Inks. The blue consists of his 
soluble Prussian blue (see Blue Writing Ink, further back) 
ground with oil as above. The black, by evaporating his 
black ink, and mixing the product with oil as usual. The 
red in the same manner, from his patent red ink. 

Si/mpathetic or Secret Inks. The solutions used should 
be so nearly colourless that the M'riting cannot be seen till 
the agent is apjilied to render it visible. 

1. Digest 1 oz. of zaffre, or oxide of cobalt, at a gentle 
heat, with 4 oz. of nitro-hydrochloric acid till no more is dis- 
solved, then add 1 oz. of common salt and 16 oz. of water. 
If this bo written with, and the paper held to the fire, the 
writing becomes green, unless the cobalt should be quite 
pure, in which case it will be blue. The addition of a 
little nitrate of iron will then impart the property of be- 
coming green. It is used in chemical landscapes, for the 


2. Put into a phial I oz. of distilled water, 1 dr. of bro- 
mide of potassium, and 1 dr. of pure sulphate of co])per. 
The solution is nearly colourless, but becomes brown when 

3. Boil oxide of cobalt in acetic acid. If a little common 
salt be iidded, the writing becomes green when heated ; 
but ^\ath nitre it becomes a pale rose-colour. 

4. A solution of acetate of lead. Colourless, but becomes 
brown when exposed to sulpliuretted hydrogen gas. 

5. A weak solution of sulphate of copper. The writing 
becomes blue when exposed to the vapour of ammonia. 

6. A solution of sulphate — or preferably, persulphate — 
of iron. It becomes black when washed with infusion of 
galls ; Hue, by prussiate of potash. [This constitutes 
colourless ink, which becomes visible when written with 
on paper containmg galls, or tannin, or prussiate of 

7. Mix equal quantities of sulphate of copper and sal 
ammoniac, and dissolve in water. It becomes yellow when 

8. A weak solution of nitrate of mercury. Becomes 
black by heat. 

9. Rice water, or any solution of starch. It becomes 
blue ■when washed over with an alcoholic solution of 

10. Lemon juice, milk, juice of onions, and some other 
liquids, become black when the writing is held to the 

Ink, fo preserve from mouldiness. Add a small quantity 
. of a solution of creasote in pyroligueous acid or rectified 
spirit, or of oil of cloves dissolved in spirit. 

Insects, to kill. Insect bites, to cure. Camphor, and 
pepper, may be used to keep off moths. In Russia the 
powder of the flowers of a species of Pyi-ethrum is used as 
an insecticide. The powder of Pyrethrum roseum, or a 
diluted tincture, prevents mosquitoes from biting in the 
East Indian islands. The powder of the root of Acorns 
calamus is also recommended. Liquid ammonia, sulphate 
of copper, or a mixture of toilet vinegar and glycerine, 
are good as applications to bitten parts. Also a powder 
consisting of carbonate of lead 1 part, chalk 4 parts. 


loDATE OF Potash. Fuse iodide of potassium iu a capa- 
cious Hessian crucible, remove it from the fire and add to 
it, while still semi-fluid, successive portions of pulverized 
chlorate of potash, stirring after each addition, till no 
further action takes place. One part of iodide of potas- 
sium will require 1^ of the chlorate. Wash the residium 
in warm water, which leaves only iodate of potash. 

Iodide of Potassium. See Potassii lodidum. Pocket 

Iodine. Sec Pocket Formulary. Other methods of obtain- 
ing it are the following : 

To the mother liquor of kelp (after the crystallizable 
salts have been separated) add sulphuric acid to render 
the liqiior sour. Introduce the acid liquor into a leaden 
still, heat to 140° F., add binoxide of . manganese, and 
lute on with pipe-clay a leaden head, fitted to a series of 
spherical glass condensers, each haraig two mouths op- 
posite each other, and inserted the one into the other. 
A stopper in the head of the still allows the contents 
to be occasionally inspected, and additions of acid or 
oxide made, if necessary. See Wagnek's 'Chemical Tech- 
nology ' for a drawing of the apparatus. Soubeiean 
proposes to add siilphate of copper to the ley, -which pre- 
cipitates half the iodine. He then decants the clear 
liquor, and adds more sulphate of copper with some iron 
filings. An iodide of copper is formed, which is separated 
from the iron filings and suspended in the liquor by agita- 
tion, collected on a filter, and heated with oxide of man- 
ganese and sulphuric acid. Glasgow is the principal seat 
of the Iodine manufacture. 

Ieox Liquoe. See Dyes, further back. 

Ieon, Peesulphate, Solution of, Liq. Ferri Persulph. See 
Pocket Formulary. 

Isinglass. The air-bags, or sounds, of several kinds of 
fishes, washed, dried, and otherwise prepared. They are 
cither dried without opening (purse, pipe, and lump 
isinglass), or opened and not folded (leaf and honeycomb 
isinglass), or folded (book isinglass), or twisted into the 
shape of a lyi'e or horse-shoe (short and long staple). 
The picked or cut isinglass of the shops, consists of the 
lumps of stable ismglass, picked iu shreds by women and 


children, or cut by machines. The leaf isincrlass is some- 
times rolled out into thin plates (ribbon and rolled leaf 
isinglass). The inner membrane, which is insoluble, is 
removed, from the opened air-bags, in the best kinds. 
Tlie Eussian isinglass, wliich is most esteemed, is made 
from the air-bags of several species of Acipenser (stur- 
geon ) ; particularly A. Huso (the Bcduga) ; A. Guldex- 
STADTII (the Osseter) ; A. Kuthenus (tlie Sterlet) ; A. 
Stellatus (the Sewruga); and also from the Silurus glanis 
(the Sorti), whicli yields the iSamovey isinglass. Brazilian 
and East India isinglass are of inferior quality ; it is not 
certainly known from what genera or species of fish they 
are obtained. Xew York isinglass is the air-l)ladder of 
the common hake, macerated in water and rolled out into 
ribbons. The sounds of the cod yield an inferior kind. 
Prepared sole skins are used as a cheap substitute for 
asinglass. See Dr. Peeeira's ' Elements,' for the descrip- 
tion of each variety. 

Itort Black. Burn shavings and waste pieces of ivory 
from the ivory turners, in a covered crucible, till no more 
smoke issues. Cover it closely while cooling. It should 
be afterwards washed with diluted hydrochloric acid, then 
with water till no longer acid, dried, and again heated in 
a covered crucible. It is of a deeper colour than bone- 
black, and is used as a pigment, a tooth-powder, and to 
decolorize syrups and other liquids. 

Ivory, Flexible. The pieces of ivory or bone, already 
manufactured into the shape required, are to be steeped for 
some time in dilute hydrochloric acid, until they have lost 
their earthy parts so far as to become yellowish, flexible, 
and elastic. When dry they become again inflexible, but 
their flexibility may at any time be restored by steeping 
them in water. In this manner flexible tubes, probes, 
bougies, &c., may be constructetl. 

IvORT, TO Stain. Ivory is stained with the usual dyeing 
materials ; it should be first steeped in the mordant and 
afterwards in the hot colour. Nitro-chloride of tin is the 
mordant for red, with decoction of brazil or cocliineal ; 
for yellow, with fustic; for violet, with logwood. After 
being plunged in hot liquor it should be placed in cold 
water. A black stain is given by nitrate of silver. 


Ivory may be gilded by imincvsing it in a frosb solution 
of pro'to-suipUate of iron, and afterwards in solution of 
chloride of gold, It may be bleached by solution of sul- 
phurous acid. 

IvoKY AXD Bone to Bleach. M. Cloez recommends the 
Ivory or bones to be immersed in turpentine, and exposed 
for three or four days to sunlight. The object to be 
bleached, should be kept an eighth or a fourth of an inch 
above the bottom of the bath by means of zinc supports. 

IvoBY, Artificiai. Let a paste be made of isinglass, egg- 
shell in very fine powder, and brandy. Give it the desired 
colour, and pour it while warm into oiled moulds. Leave 
the paste in the moulds until it becomes hard. See Ivoet, 
TO Stain, above. 

Japan. See Vaknishes. 

Jellies. See Dietetic Articles. 

Kid-Glove Cleaner. Add 15 drops of strongest solution 
of ammonia to spirits of turpentine \ pint. (Having 
fitted the gloves on wooden hands, apply this mixture 
with a brush. Follow up this application with some fine 
pumice powder. Hub with some flannel or sponge dipped 
in the mixture. Rub off the sand, and repeat the same 
])rocess twice or thrice. Hang in the air to dry, and, 
when dry, place in a drawer with some scent.) 

Koumiss. An alcoholic drink, made by fermenthig the 
milk of mares, and beating it up with a whisk. It may 
be regarded as a somewhat coarse form of " rum and milk." 

Ktan's Solution, for preventing the dry rot. Dissolve 1 lb. 
of corrosive sublimate in 5 gallons of water. 

Labarraque's Chloeo-Sodaic Liquor is nearly identical 
with the Liquor Sodre Chlorata^ of the British Pharma- 
copceia. It is made by passing the chlorine gas from 2 
oz. black oxide of manganese, and 8 oz. of hydrochloric 
acid, into a solution of 15 oz. of crystallized carbonate 
of soda in 3 pints of water ; or sufficient to bring it to the 
density of 12° Baume, or 1-09 specific gravity. 

Labels, Indestructible, for acid bottles, &c. Write with 
dilute sulphuric acid (1 part to 6 of water), dry the label 
and cxix)se it to a moderate heat. 

Lac, Preparations of. Stilk-lac consists of tv\igs of 
several kinds of trees encrusted with a resinous matter 


produced by the puncture of an insect (the coccus lacca). 
This, triturated with water and dried, forms seed-lac. 
The seed-lac heated and pressed in cotton hags forms 
shell-lac. Lac-dye is the colouring matter extracted from 
stick-lac by water, evaporated to dryness with the addi- 
tion of earthy matters, and formed into square cakes. Seed- 
lac and shell-lac are chiefly used* in varnishes, dissolved in 
rectified spii'it, methylated spirit, or rectified wood naphtha. 
The alcoholic solution is rendered paler, so that it may be 
\ised for polishing light-colonred woods, by digesting it in 
the sun, or near a fire, for 2 or 3 weeks, wi£h good animal 
charcoal, and then filtering it through paper in a funnel 
heated with hot water. Shell-lac may be bleached by 
dissolving it in a solution of potash or soda, and passing 
chlorine into the solution. The precipitated lac is~ col- 
lected and well washed. Kastner directs 3 parts of 
carbonate of potash to be dissolved in 24 of water, and 3 
of lime added, and the whole digested in a close vessel for 
24 hours. The clear liquor is poured off, and boiled with 
4 parts of shell-lac. Wlien cold, dilute with 4 times its 
bulk of water, and filter; then add chloride of lime, and 
afterwards diluted hydrochloric acid. 

Lacquers. See Varnishes. 

Lake Liquor. Boil 1 oz. each of cochineal and salt of 
tartar in 8 oz. of water, then add 1 oz. of cream of tartar, 
and the same of alum. 

Lakes. These consist of vegetable colours in combination with 
alumina. Alum is usually added to an infusion or decoction 
of the colouring ingredient, and afterwards potash added, 
which throws down the colouring matter combined with 
alumina. Some of the lakes are noticed under Pigments. 

Lemon Juice, Factitious. Dissolve 4 oz. of citric acid in 
3 pints of water, with 8 drops of essence of lemon, rul>bed 
with the acid, or dissolved in a little spirit. After standing 
ing a few days, filter it, and preserve it in well-closed bottles. 

Lenses, Extemporaneous. Prociu-e a piece of thin pla- 
tinum wire, and twine it once or twice round a pin's point, 
so as to form a minute ring with a handle to it. Break 
up a piece of flint glass into fragments a little larger 

* Methylated spirit is now almost invariably used for this purpose. 


than 11 iimstaril seed ; place one of these pieces on the ring 
of wire, and hold it in the point of the flame of a candle 
or gas-light. The glass will melt and assume a complete 
lens-like or glohular form. Let it cool gradually, and 
keep it for mounting. Others are to be made in the same 
manner ; and if the operation be carefully conducted, but 
very few will be imperfect. The smaller the drop melted, 
the higher in general will be its magnifying power. It 
may be mounted by placing it between two pieces of brass 
which have corresponding circular holes cut in them of 
such a size as to hold the edge of the lens. They are then 
to be cemented together. — Fraxcis. 

Linseed Oil, Clarified, tor Varnishes.— Heat in a 
copper boiler 50 gallons of linseed oil to 280° F. ; add 2i 
lbs. of calcined white vitriol, and keep the oil at the above 
temperature for half an hour ; then remove it from the 
fire, and in 24 hours decant the clear oil, which should 
stand for a few weeks before it is used for varnish. 

Linseed Oil, Refined. (Wiles' Patent.) In 236 gallons 
of oil pour 6 lbs. of oil of vitriol, and stir them together 
for 3 hours ; then add 6 lbs. of fullers' earth, well mixed 
with 14 lbs. of hot lime, and stir for 3 hours. Put the 
oil into a copper boiler, with an equal quantity of water, 
and boil for 3 hours ; then extinguish the fire, and when 
the materials are cold draw off the water, and let the oil 
stand to settle for a few weeks before usmg. 

Liquorice, Purified Extract of. Italian or Spanish 
juice may be purified by the following method : — Take a 
sugar-mould, close the vent-hole with a stopper, place 
inside it some coarse tow, and over this some clean straw, 
laid crossways in layers of an inch each, then the sticks 
of liquorice placed upright, and packed closely in the 
mould with chopped straw cut rather long, \^^len this 
arrangement is completed to within an inch of the brim, 
pour water over the liquorice, allow it to remain for 24 
hours, then draw it off, and add more. The liquor, on 
evaporation, yields an extract perfectly soluble in water. 
Litmus. A preparation of some kind of lichen, probably 
Lecanora iartarea, or Moccella tinctorea, or both. It is 
prepared by a process similar to that used for Archil ; but 
it is moistened by a mixture of Carbonates of Ammonia 


and potash, or soda, the addition of the carbonates of ammo- 
nia, or of potash or soda, being essential to the develoi)ment 
of the blue colour. It is made up with chalk or plaster of 
Paris into small cakes for the market. See Tests. 

Lozenges. See Trochisci, Pocket Formulary, and Lozenges, 
under Patent Medicines, in this volume. 

Lubricating Compounds. See Anti-Attrition. The 
French compound term Liard is thus made : — Lito 50 
parts of finest rape oil put 1 part of caoutchouc cut small, 
and apply lieat until it is nearly all dissolved. 

Mankettrtck's ' Lubricating Compound consists of 
caoutchouc (dissolved in spirit of turpentine) 4 lbs. common 
soda 10 lbs., glue 1 lb., oil 10 gallons, water 10 gallon.-?. 
Dissolve the soda and glue in the water by heat, then add 
the oil, and lastly the caoutchouc, stirring them until per- 
fectly incorporated. 

LuciFERS. See Matches, further on. 

Luminous Phials. Nearly fill a bottle with olive or 
almond oil, and heat it in a water-bath. Drop into it 
small slices of phosphorus so long as it is dissolved. Let 
the solution cool, and pour off the oil from the undissolved 
phosphorus into clean dry phials, whicli should not be 
quite filled. When uncorked they emit light. 

Lutes. See Cements, 

Manures, Artificial. These constitute a new and impor- 
tant branch of manufacture ; 1:)ut a few of the more 
simple and readily prepared kinds are all that can be 
noticed here. 

Powder for Coailng Seeds. Fine bone-dust 20 parts, 
gypsum 1 part. The seeds are steeped in water from the 
dunghill, then strewed over with the powder, so that each 
shall receive a layer of it. Tliey are afterwards dried. 

Suljihaled Bones. f>c'0 Bones, Suljjhated. A usual pro- 
portion is 33 of sulphuric acid to 1 cwt. of bones. 

Saline Mixture, as a top dressing for potatoes, &c. 
Equal weights of nitrate of soda and dry sulphate of soda, 
li cwt. to an acre. 

Mr. Huxtable's Mixture. Bone dust 4 cwt., gypsum 
4 cwt., salt 2 cwt., ashes 2 quarters, wood ashes 30 

Another Saline Mixture. Sulphate of ammonia 42 lbs.. 


sulphate of lime 56 lbs., sulphate of potash 56 lbs., cai'bo- 
iiate of magnesia 14 lbs., salt 56 lbs., to 1 acre. 

Dr. Andeeson's Manure for Clover Suljihate of 
ammonia 98 lbs., gypsum 172 lbs., sulphate of potash 174 
lbs., sulphate of soda 333 lbs., sulphate of magnesia 246 
lbs., suli)hurie acid 98 lbs., salpetre 202 lbs., common salt 
107 lbs., chloride of potassium 149 lbs. 

Dr. Johnstone's Substitute for Guano. Bone-dust 
7 bushels, sulphate of ammonia 100 lbs, wood ashes 20 lbs., 
salt 100 lbs., dry sulphate of soda 11 lbs. 

To Promote the Blowing af Floivers. See page 355. 

Maeble, to Clean. Mix soft soap, solution of potash, and 
slaked lime, to a paste; spread it over the marble, and 
leave it for a day or two. Then wash it off. 

Maeble, to Stain. Make the marble hot, and pour on it 
the coloured liquid, also make hot. The stains usually 
employed are archil, solution of indigo, solution of ver- 
digris, decoction of Brazil wood, logwood, and sulphate of 
iron, tincture of dragons' blood, &c. But the most pene- 
trating medium is wax, which may be coloured with 
alkanet, auotto, verdigris, &c. 

Maeine Gltte. See Glue. 

Marine Soap. See Soap, Maeine, further on. 

Matches foe Instantaneofs Light. 1. Chlorate of Potash 
Matches (loithout sulphur). Chlorate of potash, separately 
powdered, 6 drs., vermilion 1 dr., lycopodiura 1 dr., fine flour 
2 drs. ; mix carefully the chlorate with the flour and lyco- 
podium, avoiding much friction, then add the vermilion, 
and mix the whole with a nmcilage made ■ttith — 1 dr. 
powdered gum arable, 10 grs. of tragacanth, 2 drs. of flour, 
and 4 oz. of hot water ; mix, add s^ifficient water to bring 
it to a proper consistence, and dip in it the wood, pre- 
viously dipped in a solution of 1 oz. of giim thus, and \ oz. 
of camphor, in 6 oz. of oil of turpentine. 

2. With Sulphur. Chlorate of jjotash 9 grs., sulphur 
2 grs., sugar 3 grs., vermilion 1 gr., flour 2 grs., spirit of 
wine q. s. The chlorate of potash, &c., must be sepa- 
rately reduced to powder, and the whole mixed with as 
little friction as possible. The wood should be previously 
prepared as above, or with camphorated spirit. [These 
are ignited by dipping them in sulphuric acid, and iu- 


stantly witlidi'awing them. The acid should be absorbed 
by asbestos.] They are now become obsolete, having given 
place to — 

Lticifer Hatches. These contain phosphorus in a finely 
divided state, to which it is reduced by agitating it in 
some warm solution of gum or glue, then adding the other 
ingredients, so as to form a paste, into which the wood or 
card is dipped. It is said that urine and artificial urea 
\vx\G the jiroperty of readily dividing phosphorus when 
warmed and agitated together. The following are some 
of the published recipes : 

1. Form 6 parts of glue into a smooth jelly, and rub 
with it 4 parts of phosphorus, at a temperature of 140° 
or 150° F. ; add 10 parts of nitre, 5 of red-ochre, and 2 
of fine smalts. The matches are first dipped in melted 
wax to the depth of ^^th of an inch, first rubbing their 
ends on a hot iron plate. 

2. Noiseless Congreves. Triturate 9 parts of phos- 
phorus with a solution of 16 parts of gum, and add 14 
parts of nitre and 16 of vermilion. — Dr. Bcettgee. 

3. Glue 6 parts, phosphorus 4, nitre 10, red lead 5, 
smalts 2 j the glue is soaked in water for 24 hours, then 
liquefied in a warm mortar, and the phosphorus added, 
taking care that the temperature is not above 167° F. 

4. Glue 21, phosphorus 17, nitre 38, red lead 24 : pro- 
ceed as befoi'e. 

Fromethean Matches. These consist of a composition 
similar to that of the chlorate of potash matches, inclosed 
at the cud of a paper spill, with a minute glass bulb filled 
with oil of vitriol in the centre of the composition. 
When struck, the vessel of acid is broken, and kindles 
the match. 
Methylated Spirit. Spirit of wine mixed with 10 per 
cent, of rectified wood spirit is allowed to be sold under 
this name, free of the excise duty. It cannot be used for 
drinking purposes, or for the preparations of medicinal 
tinctures. It is extensively employed for burning in 
lamps, and for the preparation of polishes, varnishes, and 
lacquers. The law forbids methylated spirit, or any 
prepai'ation containing it to be used internally. 


Microscope, Formulae for various strBSTAucEs required 


Heagenls. Dr. Beale's list. 

1. Alcohol, of various strengths. 

2. Ether, to dissolve oil-globules. 

3. Nitric acid, 1 part of strong acid to 5 of water. 

4. Sulphuric acid, 1 to 5. 

5. Hydrochloric acid. 

6. Acetic acid, glacial, and dilute (1 to 5). 

7. Chromic acid, very dilute, — to harden tissues. 

8. Solution of potash, saturated, and dilute (1 to 10). 

9. Solution of soda, 25 grs. of fused soda in 1 oz. 

10. Ammonia (1 part of the strongest solution to 3 of 

11. Nitrate of baryta, a cold saturated solution of. 

12. Nitrate of silver (120 grs. in 2 oz.). These two are 
tests for the mineral acids. 

13. Oxalate of ammonia, in solution. Test for lime. 

14. Solution of iodine saturated, i. e. 1 to 7000 water. 
Another solution is, 1 gr. of iodine, 3 of iodide of potas- 
sium, in 1 oz. of distilled water. 

Cements. 1. Brunswick Black. Boil together \ lb. 
of foreign asphaltum and 4i oz. of linseed oil (previously 
thickened with litharge), then mix to a proper consistence 
with oil of turpentine (about 1 pint). 

2. Gold Size. Boil 25 parts of linseed oil with 1 of 
minium and ^ part of umber for 3 hours; pour off the 
clear fluid, and mix with equal parts of powdered white 
lead and yellow ochre, added in small successive portions. 
Then boil well the whole again, and pour off the clear 
fluid. It dries slowly but firmly. Both this and the last 
are dissolved by turpentine. 

3. Ooadhy's Marine Ghte. Dissolve separately in coal 
naphtha equal parts of shell-lac and India rubber. Mix 
thoroughly with heat. 

4. Sealing-wax Varnish. Dissolve the best sealing-wax 
in enough strong spirit of wine to reduce it to the proper 
consistence. This is brittle. 

5. Canada Balsam. This dries spontaneously. 
Soiuiio-.ii of sheli-lae, gum, and various other cements, 



and glues (which see), are employed by mieroscopic mani- 

Preservative Fluids. Canada Balsam, spirit and water 
glycerin, solution of gelatin, saturated solutions of alum, 
chloride of zinc, and chloride of calcium, are all used to 
preserve microscopic objects. The following formulae will 
be found useful : 

1. Ooadby's Solution. Bay salt 4 oz., alum 2 oz., 
corrosive sublimate 4 grs., boiling water 4 pints : mix and 
filter. It may often be more diluted. 

2. Tlnvaites' Fluid. Mix spirit of wine 1 oz., with 
creasote sufficient to saturate it ; rub up with chalk to 
form a thin paste, and mix gradually with water 16 oz. 
To this may be added an equal quantity of water saturated 
with camphor. 

3. Simple Creasote Solution. Dissolve creasote 1 dr. in 
pyroligneous acid 1 dr., and mix gradually with cold water 
1 pint. 

4. Passini's Solution. For llood-glohules, nerves, and 
white tissues generally. Chloride of mercury 1 part, 
chloride of sodium 2 parts, glycerin 13 parts, distilled 
water 113 parts. 

Milk, Condensed. Cow's milk evaporated down in vacuo, 
and containing about one third its weight of svigar, when 
it is intended to be kept for any time. If required for 
early use, it contains no sugar. 

Gltcehine Jelly foe Microscopic Mounting. Soak any 
quantity of good clear gelatine in cold water for three or 
four hours. Pour off the superfluous water, and melt the 
gelatine at a gentle heat; when melted, filter through 
flannel, and to the filtrate add an equal quantity of 
Price's glycerine. The above forms a good firm jelly, 
requiring little trouble in securing the cover. — Ed. Pharm. 


Milk, Preserved (Bethel's Patent). The milk or cream is 
first scalded, and when cold, strongly charged with carbonic 
acid gas, by means of a soda-water machine. [Attempts 
have also been made to preserve milk by evaporating it to 
dryness ; but it is necessary to remove the cream in order 
to effect it.] 

Mineral, Chameleon. See Chameleon Mineral. 


MbDEirixa, Clay pob. Knead up clay to the proper con- 
sistence with glycerine. — Baeeeswil. 

MoiREE Metallique. a method for ornamenting the sur- 
face of tin plate by acids. The plates are washed with an 
alkaline solntion, then in water, heated, and sponged or 
sprinkled with the acid solution. The a]ipcarance varies 
with the degree of heat and the nature and strength of the 
acids employed. The plates, after the application of the 
acids, are plunged into water slightly acidulated, dried, 
and covered with white or coloured varnishes. The follow- 
ing are some of the acid mixtures used : — Nitro-hydro- 
chloric acid, in different degrees of dilution ,• sulphuric 
acid, with 5 parts of water ; 1 part of sulphuric acid, 2 of 
hydrochloric acid, and 8 of water ; a strong solution of 
citric acid ; 1 part nitric acid, 2 sulphuric, and 18 of 
water. Solution of potash is also used. 

MoEDANTS. See Dyes, further back, 

MuLTTJM. A name given to a compoiuid of liquorice and 
quassia, improperly sold by druggists to brewers. 

NiTEATE OF Baetya. This may be made from the carbo- 
nate by dissolving it in dilute nitric acid, evaporating, and 
crystallizing; but more cheaply from the sulphate of 
baryta, by converting it mto a soluble sulphide by heat- 
ing it with charcoal, and decomposing the filtered solution 
with nitric acid. M. Weiss recommends mixing the 
pulverized sulijliate of baryta (" ca^s'k or heavy spar") with 
one eighth of charcoal and one fourth of flour, heating it 
in a covered crucible, pulverizing the product and forming 
it into balls, with one eighth of charcoal and a little water, 
and again heating them placed between layers of charcoal. 
Hot water extracts the sulphide, which crystallizes from 
the filtered solution. By decomposing this by nitric acid 
(avoiding the gas which escapes) the nitrate is obtained. 
The other salts of baryta are obtained in a similar manner. 

Nitrate of Silver. See Aegenti Nitras. P. P. It may 
be prepared from impure silver by the following process : 
— Dissolve the silver in nitric acid, add common salt till no 
more silver remains in solution. Wash the precipitate tlio- 
roughly; then add water and a very little hydrochloric 
acid, and introduce some pieces of zinc ,• let them rcmuin 


together 24 hours, stirring frequently. Remove the zinc, 
and wash the reduced silver thoroughly. Again dissolve 
it in nitric acid, diluted with 2 or 3 parts of water ; filter 
and evaporate, that it may crystallize. 

NliHATE OF Steo>"tian. This may be obtained from the 
n itive carbonate of strontian, or more cheaply from the 
native sulphate, by the processes employed for Nitrate of 

Nitric and Niteo-htdeochloeic Acids. See Acids. 

NiTEiTE OF Potash. It is obtained mixed with a little 
nitre and potash by heating nitre to redness. To piirify 
the residuum, dissolve it in boiling water, set aside for 24 
hours, pour off the liquid from the deposited nitre, neutra- 
lize the free alkali with acetic acid, and add twice its 
volume of alcohol. In a few hours more, nitrate crystallizes, 
and the liquid separates into two layers; the upper is 
alcoholic solution of acetate of potash, the lower is solution 
of nitrite of potash, which may be evaporated to dryness 
or kept in solution. Used as a test for iodine, with starch 
paste a7id hydrochloric acid. Coeenwinder passes nitrous 
acid gas, formed by acting on 1 part of starch with 10 of 
nitric acid, through a solution of caustic potash, sp. gr. 
1'38, until it becomes acid; then adds a little caustic 
potash, so as to render it distinctly alkaline. 

NirRO-PEtrssiDE of Sodifm. To 213 parts of powdered 
ferro-prussiate of potash, in a porcelain basin, add 450 
imrts of nitric acid of 1'42 density (or 337i parts at I'oO), 
adding all the acid at once, "\\nien dissolved, transfer 
to a bolt-head, and digest in a water-bath, until the 
solution preciijitates salts of protoxide of iron of a slate 
colour. Neutralize, when cold, with a cold solution of 
carbonate of soda ; then boil, and separate the precipitate, 
by filtration. Evaporate the liquid again, filter, and allow 
the nitrates of potash and soda to crystallize out. Evapo- 
rate the liquid again, and remove the prismatic crystals of 
nitro-prusside as they form. They may be dissolved in 
water and recrystallized by cooling. 

NOA'AEGENT. This is said to consist of a solution of freshly 
precipitated chloride of silver in hyposulphite of soda (or, 
according to the Pharmaceutical Journal, of oxide of silver 
in cyanide of potassium), mixed with prepared chalk. 

MISCELLAjS'EOUS peepaeations 405 

Oils, Pueifi cation and Bleaching of. Fish and other 
fat oils are improved in smell and colour, b;^- passing hot 
air or steam through them. Dunn's method is to heat 
the oil by steam to 170^ or 200°, and force a current of air 
through it, under a chimney, till it is bleached and inivified. 
Me. Cameron's method of l)leac'hing palm oil is to keep it 
at 230° with continual agitation by passing into it high- 
pressure steam, through leiiden pipes of two inches diameter. 
Four tons of oil require 10 hours' steaming. Palm oil is 
also bleached by chloride of lime. Take from 7 to 14 lbs. of 
chloride of lime, triturate it in a mortar, adding gradually 
12 times the quantity of water, so as to form a smooth 
cream. Liquefy 112 lbs. of palm oil, remove it from the fire, 
add the solution of chloride of lime, and stir well with a 
■\\ooded stirrer. Allo^\• it to cool, and \\hen become solid, 
break into small fragments, and expose it to the air for 2 
or 3 weeks. Then put into a cast-iron boiler lined with 
lead, and add sulphuric acid in equal weight to the chloride 
of lime, diluted with 20 parts of water. Boil with a mode- 
rate heat till the oil drops clear from the stirrer ; then let 
it cool. 

To remove the fetor from fish oils, treat them in the 
same way (except the exposing to the air), usmg only 1 lb. 
chloride of lime to 112 lbs. of oil. It does not remove the 
natui'al smell of the oil. 

Freshly bvuuit animal charcoal has some power in im- 
proving the colour and smell of most kmds of oil ; but 
its effects are limited. 

Calcined magnesia has been used to deprive oils of their 

Mr. Geiseler finds that the addition of a few drops of 
nitric ether will prevent oils from becoming rancid. 

Mr. Watt's patented method of bleaching oil is by 
chromic acid. For palm oil it is thus used : — The oil 
is heated in a steam vessel, allowed to settle and cool 
down to 130° F., then remove into wooden vessels, 
taking care that no water or sediment accompany it. 
For a ton of palm oil, make a saturated solution of 25 lbs. 
of bichromate of potash ; add 8 lbs. of sulphuric acid, 
and 50 lbs. hydrochloric acid (or an equivalent quantity of salt 
and aulphurie acid) , Put the hydroeuloric acitl into the oil/ 


and let it be constantly stirred till it becomes of a ligbt- 
greeu colour. If not sufficiently decoloured, add more 
of the mixture. Let tlie oil settle for half an hour, then 
pump it into a wouden vat, boil it for a few minutes 
with fresh water by means of a steam-pipe, and let it 
settle. For linseed, rape, and mustard oil, a dilute solution 
of chromic acid is used, with a little hydrochloric acid ; for 
olive, almond, and castor oil, no hydrochloric acidis required. 
Fish oils and fats are first boiled in a steam apparatus 
with a weak soda ley (| lb. soda for 'every ton of fat) for 
half an hour ; then |- lb. sulphuric acid, diluted with 3 lbs. 
of water, is added ; the whole is boiled for 15 minutes, and 
allowed to settle for an hour or more, when the water and 
sediment are drawn off, and the oil further bleached by a 
solution of 4 lbs. of bichromate of potash and 2 lbs. of 
sulphuric acid properly diluted. 

Mr. Daa'Idsox treats whale oil first with a solution of 
tan, next with water and chloride of lime, and lastly with 
diluted sulphuric acid and warm water. Rape and other 
seed oils are also refined by means of sulphuric acid and 
twice as much water. Mr. Gray directs 2 lbs. of oil of 
vitriol to 112 lbs. of oil. The oil should be carefully washed 
from the acid, and filtered. 

Mr. Bancboft's process for refining common olive oil, 
lard, oil, &c., for lubricating purposes, is to agitate them 
with from 3J to 8 per cent, of caustic soda ley, of 1'2 
specific gi'avity. If on trial a small quantity of the ley 
be found to settle clear at the bottom, enough has been 
added. The oil is allowed to rest for 24 hours, for the 
soapy matter to subside ; the supernatant oil is then fil- 

Another plan of purifying oils (especially lamp oils) is 
to agitate them with a strong solution of common salt. 

The above methods of treating oil are of doubtful pro- 
priety in reference to such as are to be used as medicines. 
Oils which have been so carefully prepared from sound and 
fresh materials as to require no purification should be selected 
for this purpose. This is especially important in reference 
to cod-liver oil. See Linsked Oil. 
Oil por Machixery. Sperm oil, palm oil, and olive oil, 
are used. Care should be taken that they are not adul- 


terated. For compound lubricants see Anti-attrition, and 

Oleine. This may be prepared by boiling fine olive oil with 
absolute alcohol, and evaporating the solution. 

Oxygenated Watee, oe Deutoxide, ok Peeoxide of 
Hdyeogen. Thenaed's oxygenated water is thus made: — 
Expose fragments of perfectly pure baryta to a current of 
to oxygen gas, in a grcon glass tube heated to a dull redness, 
form a deutoxide of barium. To 7 oz. of water add as much 
pure hydrochloric acid as will dissolve 4 drs. of baryta ; 
add to this by degrees, 3 drs. of pulverized deutoxide of 
barium, and when this is dissolved, add sulphuric acid, 
drop by drop, till the baryta falls down in the state of sul- 
phate. Then add more deutoxide, and precipitate by sul- 
phuric acid as before. Then filter the solution ; and repeat 
the solution and precipitation several times, till about 3 oz. 
of deutoxide of barium are used, filtering the liquid after 
every second repetition. Sulphate of silver is then added 
to remove the hydrochloric acid, and afterwards pure 
baryta, to throw down the sulphuric acid, and a few drops 
of diluted sulphuric acid to remove any excess of baryta. 
See Hydrogenii Peroxidum, Pock. Form. 

This energetic compound must not be conf onndcd with the 
oxygen water formed by imjjregnating water with oxygen 
gas ; nor with the oxygenous aerated water of Scarle, which 
is water strongly charged with i)rotoxide of nitrogen. 

Oxygen Gas. See Gases. 

Papee, Copying. Mix lard with black lead or lamp-black, 
into a stiff paste, rub it over writing paper with a flannel, 
and wipe off the superfluous quantity with a soft rag. 
These sheets alternated with writing paper and written 
on with a solid pen, produce 2 or 3 copies of a letter at once. 
Lithographic Paper. Give the paper 3 coats of thin 
size, 1 of starch, and 1 of solution of gamboge. Each to 
be applied with a sponge, and allowed to dry before the 
next is applied. 

HydroqrapMc Paper. This name has been given to 
paper which may be written on with M'ater. It niay be 
made by rubbing paper over with a mixture of finely-pow- 
dered galls and sulphate of iron heated till it becomes 
white. The powder niay be pressed into the paper by 


passing it between rollers or passing a heavy iron over it. 
A mixture of dried sulphate of iron and ferro-prussiate of 
potash may be used for blue writing. Or the paper may 
be imbued with a strong solution of one ingredient tho- 
roughly dried, and the other applied in powder. Paper 
which "has been wet with a solution of ferro-prussiate of 
potash also serves for writing on with a colourless solution 
of persulphate of iron. 

Iridescent Paper. Nut-galls 8 parts, sulphate of iron 
5, sal ammoniac 1, sidphate of indigo 1, gum arabic ^th. 
To be boiled in water, and the paper washed with it and 
exposed to ammonia. 

Parchment Paper. Immerse blotting paper for a second 
or two in dilute sulphuric acid, then rinse repeatedly in 
several changes of water, and hang it up to dry. When 
dry, if it has a crumpled or ^^Tinkled appearance, this can 
be removed by wetting it, and straining it upon a glass 
plate, the edges being made to wrap over the plate. 

Photographic Paper. See Photogeapht, below. 

Tracing Paper. Paper well wetted with Canada balsam 
and camphine, and dried. Another kind is made with nut 
oil, and oil of turpentine ; the paper is moistened with it, 
and then rubbed with flour. A temporary tracing paper 
is made by moistening paper with pure alcohol ; it must 
be used while wet. 

Waxed Paper. Lay the paper on a clean hot iron 
plate, and rub it over with a piece of white wax inclosed 
in muslin. 

Oiled Paper as a substitute for oiled silk. Boiled lin- 
seed oil is reboiled with litharge, acetate of lead, sulphate 
of zinc, and burnt umber, an ounce of each to a gallon. 
The sheet of paper being laid on a square board, it is well 
covered with this mixture. The first sheet is covered on 
both sides, the second, placed on this, receives one coating, 
and so on to 20, or 50. Separate and hang up to dry. 
FlEEPEOOFiNG FOR Papee. Dip iu a strong solution of 
alum, and then dry it. Should the paper be extra thick, 
the same process may he repeated. 
Paper Paste. Boil white paper in water for 5 hours ; then 
pour off the water, and pound the pulp in a mortar ; pass 
it tln-ough a sieve, and mix with some gum water, or 


isinglass glue. It is used in modelling by artists and 

Papier-Mache. a plastic material, formed of cuttings of 
white or bro-^\ni paper boiled in water, and beaten to a 
paste iit a mortar, and tlien mixed with a solution of gum 
aralnc in size, to give tenacity. It is variously manu- 
factured by being pressed into oiled moulds, afterwards 
dried, covered with a mixture of size and lamp-black, and 

Papyeine. Dip white unsized paper for § a minute in 
strong sulphuric acid, and afterwards in water containing 
a little nmnionia. When dried it has the toughness and 
appearance of parchment. See Vegetable Paechment. 

PAEAFFiXiS. Liquid and solid jjaraffins are obtained from 
the tarry product of the distillation of peat, brown coal, 
and Boghead shale ; by Young's process, in which Boghead 
coal is heated in tubes or retorts ; a crude oil is first ob- 
tained, which, after purification by redistillation, followed 
by subsequent treatment with sulphuric acid and exjiosure 
to the action of caustic soda, is submitted to the process of 
fractional distillation. The first elevation of temperature 
drives over the lighter and more volatile portions, which, 
when purified by another distillation, yield the fluid knowai 
as " paraffin naphtha," a product used as a suljstitute for 
turpentine and as a solvent for India rubber. At a much 
higher temperature the burning oil (the paraffin oil of 
commerce) comes over. It is a jjerfectly safe lamp-oil. 
The thii'd product in point of volatility is a compara- 
ti\ely heavy liquid, (machinery oil), and from this, and 
others which come over at a ^■ery high temperature, the 
fourth commercial product is separated by the action of 
artificial cold, and is the solid paraffin now so much used 
ni the manufacture of candles. 

Pastes. See Blacking Paste, Fuenitttee Paste, &c., 
further back. For flour pastes, see Cements. For al- 
mond paste, honey paste, and tooth pastes, see Cosmetics. 
Paste for Cleaning Brass, Sfe. 1. Rotten stone in very 
fine powder 2 oz., soft soap 1 oz., oil of amber 1 dr. 

2. Neats'-foot oil 16 oz., water of ammonia 1 oz., pow- 
dered rotten stone sufficient to form a paste. 

3. Fotten stone 4f lbs., oxalic acid (dissolved in the 


water) 2 oz., soft soap 8 oz., sweet oil 8 oz.; oil of amber 
1 oz., boiling water 1 lb. Some substitute oil of turi^en- 
tine for oil of amber. 

Paste for Razors. 1. Emery very finely levigated in 
tbe same manner as prepared ebalk, mixed with lard or 
tallow ; or a mixture of these with neats'-foot oil. 

2. Equal parts of jewellers' rouge, black lead, and pre- 
pared suet. 

3. Peadiee's. Best putty powder 1 oz.,. jewellers' rouge 

1 oz., scales of iron J oz., levigated Turkey stone 3 oz. 
beef suet 1| oz. 

4. Mix equal parts of dried sulphate of iron and salt, and 
apply a gradvuilly increased heat in a closed vessel. Pul- 
verize, elutriate, and mix with lard or tallow. 

Pastilles, Aeo:.iatic. See Peefujieet. 

Payne's Peocess for eexdeeing Wood Fieepeoof. 
The wood is introduced into a close vessel, which is ex- 
hausted of air ; the liquid is then admitted, and forced in 
by the pump till the pressure is from 110 to 140 lbs. to the 
square inch. The liquids employed are the liquid sulphides 
of calcium, or of barium ; a solution of sulphate of iron is 
afterwards forced into the wood. 

Percussion Caps, Peiming for. 100 grs. of fulminating 
mercury are triturated, with a wooden nuiller on marble, 
with 30 grs. of water and 60 grs. of gunpowder. This is 
sufficient for 400 caps. Dr. Uee recommends a solution 
of gum mastic in turpentine as a medium for attaching 
the fulminate to the cap. 

Pharaoh's Serpents. The chemical toy sold under this 
name consists of the ])owder of sulphocyanide of mercury 
made up in a capsule of tin foil in a conical mass about an 
inch in height. Ignited at the apex, an ash is protruded, 
long and serpentine in shape. The fumes evolved are very 

Pharaoh's Serpents, non-poisonous. Bichromate potass. 

2 parts, nitrate potassa 1 part, and white sugar 3 parts ; 
pulverize each of the ingredients separately, and then mix 
them thoroughly. Make small paper cones of the desired 
size, and press the mixture into them. They are now ready 
for use, but must be ke])t from light and moisture. 

Phosphobesceni Oil. Dissolve 1 gr. of i)hosphorus iu 1 


oz. of olive oil in a test tube by the beat of hot water, or 
add a larger quantity to some oil of lavender, in which it 
will dissolve spontaneously. Keep in a close phial. 

Phosphorus. See Pocket Formulary. 

Phosphorus Matches. See Lucifers. The old phos- 
phorus bottles mth sulphur matches were made by melting 
phosphorus with a fourth part of wax in the bottles placed 
in warm water, and turning them about so as to coat the 
sides. — Gray. 

Phosphorus Paste for Vermin. Introduce 1 dr. of phos- 
phorus into a Florence flask, and pour over it 1 oz. of 
rectified spirit. Immerse the flask in hot water, until the 
phosphorus is melted, then put a well-fitting cork into 
the mouth of the flask, and shake briskly until cold. The 
phosphorus is now reduced to a finely divided state. This 
after pouring off the spirit, is to be mixed in a mortar 
with 1 J oz. of lard. Five oz. of flour and 1| oz. of brown 
sugar, previously mixed together, are now added, and the 
whole made into a paste with a little water. Cheese may 
be substituted for sugar when the paste is intended for 
rats or mice. (There is said to be no danger whatever of 
spontaneous ignition, either during or after the preparation 
of this paste.) — Pharm Journ. 

Photography. In all English photographic formula; the 
solid and fluid measures of apothecaries' weight are used ; 
but in buying or selling chemical articles, the avoirdupois 
weight is employed. 

Positive Collodion. Pyroxilin and iodide of cadmium 
or ammonium 15 grs. of each ; ether 3J oz., alcohol IJ oz. 
Place the first in a dry bottle, then'pour on the alcohol, 
shake the mixture well, then add the ether, shake again, 
and let it stand for 12 hours. Decant the clear portion 
into a wide-mouthed bottle, keep well stoppered and in 
the dark. Avoid shaking the bottle when about to use 
the collodion, and never use quite all the bottle contains, 
as the sediment, which will accumulate at the bottom, 
would spoil the picture. 

Nitrate of Silver Bath {for positives). Recrystallized 
nitrate of silver 5 drms., dissolved in 10 oz. of distilled 
water. Filter the solution until it is quite clear, then add 
3 drops of nitric acid and 10 drops of collodion. Shake 


well together and filter. Blue litmus paper should 
slightly redden in this bath ; should it turn very red, add 
a little ammonia, or oxide of silver ; should it not redden 
at all, add a little acid carefully drop by drop. It is pre- 
ferable to have a slight excess of acid. 

Developing Solution {for positives). Protosulphate of 
iron 2 drms. dissolved in 8 oz. of distilled water, add 2^ 
drs. of glacial acetip acid, 2^ drs. of alcohol, and 5 minims 
of nitric acid. Filter, and pour into a well-stoppered 
bottle ; do not expose to the air. 

Fixing Solution {for positives). 50 grs. of cyanide of 
potassium dissolved in 5 oz. of distilled water ; that is to 
say, for every fluid ounce of solution required, mix 10 grs. 
of cyanide of potassium in 1 oz. of distilled water. Filter 
and keep in a well-stoppered bottle, and label " Poison." 

Positive Paper. Plain paper requires preparing or salt- 
ing before it is ready for use, or it may be purchased 
already salted. 

Procure some sheets of plain Saxe paper, and immerse 
them for five minutes (removing air-bubbles) in the fol- 
lowing solution. 

Chloride of ammonium .... 100 grs. 

Chloride of barium . . . . 100 grs. 

Citrate of soda ..... 20 grs. 

Water 20 oz. 

Hang the sheets np to dry. For portraits and most other 
iises the paper is albuminized on one side. When photo- 
graphs are printed to be afterwards coloured, unalbumi- 
nized paper is used. 

Albuminized Paper. There are several well-known 
papers sold ; Hive's, which is a French paper, has a high 
glaze and fine surface ; the Saxe, which is more miiform in 
its texture, is made in Germany. Another maker is Toiv- 
good. Positive paper is albuminized by placing it in a 
mixture composed of white of eggs and salt. To the 
white of each moderate sized egg use 15 grs. of common 
salt reduced to a fine powder ; whisk until the albumin is 
all white froth. Leave this froth in a glazed earthen 
pan for about 12 hours, by \\hich time most of it has set- 
tled into clear albumin ; pour the clear portion into a flat 
porcelain tray. This tray should be siomewhafe larger 


than the sheets of paper to be albuminized. Lift the 
paper np by the ends and lay it carefully on the albumin, 
keeping the side marked as "inferior" uppei-most and dry. 

The paper should be slightly damp before it is thus 
ti'eated, as it then takes the albumin more regularly, and 
is not so liable to air-bubbles. The paper must be "lifted 
at each end, and should any air-bubbles appear, brush 
them off with a card or small brush, replacing the paper 
in the bath. Wlierever the albumin does not come into 
actual contact with the paper, a white mark will appear in 
the print. Remove the paper from the bath and place it 
to dry on a cardboard frame, or suspend it at the corners 
by clips. Paper glazed with pure albumin acquires too 
brilliant a glaze for portraits ; the albumin may be diluted 
with from a i to | its bulk of water. It should be kept 
in tin or zinc cases. 

Plain Paper. Albuminized paper may be used as plain 
paper, if, instead of sensitizing the glazed side, the plain 
side is placed in the sensitizing solution. 

Plain Collodion. Mix in a bottle gun-cotton 450 grs., 
ether 25 oz. spirits of wine 7 oz. Shake these well together, 
and leave to settle for several days. If well corked, the 
mixture will keep for a long time. 

Sensitized Collodion. Add to 1 oz. of the plain collo- 
dion 6 drs. of spirits of wine, 1| oz. of ether, and 3 drs. 
of iodide and bromide solution. Shake the bottle well ; 
the mixture is then ready, but is improved by being kept 
4 or 5 hours before using. In hot weather a little more 
alcoliol, and less ethei', in very cold weather more ether, 
and less alcohol, must be used. As sensitized collodion does 
not keep well, it is better not to mix the plahi collodion 
and the iodide and bromide solution until shortly before 
required for use. 

Iodide and Bromide Solution. Iodide cadmium 154 
grs., bromide of cadmium 54 grs., spirits of wine S-J- oz. 
Rub the iodide and bromide to fine powder in a mortar, 
add the spirits of wine gradually, and when the iodide and 
bromide are dissolved, filter through paper into a bottle. 
This solution will keep weU in a closely-stoppered bottle. 

Iodized Collodion may be made at one operation. 
It should be kept two days befo^ using, but it is less 


reliable, if kept for any length of time, than sensitized 
collodion, which has been made as above described. It is 
made as follows. Place 16 grs. of gun-cotton in a bottle, 
add 18 grs. of iodide of cadmium, and 6 grs. of bromide 
of cadmium, in powder, and 1§ oz. spirits of wine, sp. gr. 
0'805. Shake the bottle till the iodide and bromide are 
dissolved, then add 3 oz. ether, sp. gr. "720, and shake 
until the cotton is dissolved. After 24 hours decant the 
clear portion into small well-sto])pered bottles. 

Nitrate of Silver Bath, for Negatives. Recrystallized 
nitrate of silver ^ oz., distilled water 7 oz., collodion 7 
drops. Shake well together until the crystals have dis- 
solved, then filter. 

The purity of the negative bath is a matter of great 
importance, hence the necessity of employing the very best 
nitrate of silver, and also of excluding all foreign matters 
of eveiy kind. "WTien the bath gets out of order, it should 
be diluted with an equal bulk of distilled water, and 
exposed to the sun for a few days, in a white glass bottle, 
then filtered, and sufiicient nitrate of silver added to restore 
the strength to 35 grains to an ounce, as indicated by the 

The Argentometer. This instrument is for ascertaining 
the strength of the nitrate of silver solution, which becomes 
weakened to a certain extent, after the immersion of every 

Developing Solution, for Negatives. Protosulphate of 
iron 75 grs., glacial acetic acid 2 drs., alcohol 2 drs., 
distilled water 5 oz. Dissolve the crystals in the 
water, then add the acid and alcohol, and filter. In hot 
weather a little more acetic acid may be added, and if it 
does not flow readily, the alcohol may be increased. 

Intensifying Solution, No. 1 (negatives). Pyi'ogallic 
acid 10 grs., citric acid 10 grs., distilled water 5 oz. 
When it becomes brown it is useless. No. 2. Recrystallized 
nitrate of silver 40 grs., distilled water 1 oz ; dissolve and 
filter. This latter will keep for any length of time in the 

Another Intensifying Bath (negatives). A saturated 
solution of bichloride of mercury in water. Place the 
negative plate in a bath of the solution, remove when the 


film assumes a milky-white appearance, wash, and tlicn 
plunge into a solution of 1 oz. of liquid ammonia to 10 oz. 
of water. Eemove the plate, wash, and place to dry. 
This mode of intensifying may be regulated hy leaving 
the plate in the bichloride of mercury a shorter time, 
when it will require a weaker ammonia bath than that 
above given. 

Fixing Solution, for Negatives. Hyposulphite of soda, 
5 oz., distilled water 5 oz. ; dissolve and filter. 

Sensitizing Solution, for Paper. Nitrate of silver 5 
drs., distilled water 5 oz., nitric acid 2 drops, kaolin 1 oz. 
Dissolve the nitrate of silver in the water, and then add 
the acid and kaolin ; the kaolin will not dissolve, its use 
being to prevent the solution becoming discoloured after 
using. This solution will not require filtermg ; it must be 
allowed to become quite clear, and when required for use 
must be carefully decanted. This solution should be 
occasionally tested with the argentometer, and sufiicient 
nitrate of silver added to restore it to its original strength. 

Another Negative Collodion. Ether \ oz., gun-cotton 
7 grs., bromide of cadmium \ gr., bromide of ammonium 
li grs., iodide of calcium 1 gr., iodide of potassium 1 gr., 
iodide of ammonium 1 gr. For intensifying, flood with 
chloride of gold 1 gr., water 15 oz., then wash, and flood 
with pyrogallic acid 2 grs., water 3 oz. 

Toning Baths. 1. Chloride of gold 4 grs., acetate of 
soda i oz., distilled water 10 oz. ; dissolve and filter. 2. 
To produce black to bright sepia tones, according to 
length of immersion. Take carbonate of soda sufiicient to 
cover a threepenny piece, dissolve it in a teaspoonful of 
cold water in a cup, add 2 grs. of chloride of gold, then 
add 3 oz. of boiling water ; use in 15 minutes. This will 
suit Hart's albuminized paper. 

Fixing Solution, for Paper Prints. Hyposulphite of 
soda 8 oz., distilled water 1 pint. This solution must only 
be used once. 

Stopping-out Negatives. Small, round, transparent spots 
are frequently found on glass negatives, which, if not 
stopped, occasion corresponding black spots on the print. 
Lay the plate on a slab of glass, having either direct or 
reflected lii,^ht shining up through it. Then cover the spots 


wltli a mixture composed of 10 parts of ivorj black, 2 
parts of saturated solution of gum arable, 2 parts of white 
honey, 1 part of sugar-candy ; well mix and apply with a 
fine camel-hair brush. Should the spots on the negative 
be black or opaque, white spots mil be formed on the 
print ; these are easily tinted with a little water colour, to 
match the other portions of the print ; it is seldom 
necessary, therefore, to alter the negative on this ac- 

Ferrotypes. In these, instead of a glass plate being 
used to receive the picture, as in a positive glass photo- 
graph, a thin plate of black varnished iron is employed. 
Of course, no black backing is required ; with this excep- 
tion the photograph is produced in every particular, by 
the same means and in the same maimer as the glass 
positive is. 

To Clean Glass Plates. Mr. HrGHES. — The description 
of glass known as "flatted crown" is well suited for 
positives, but before using it requires careful cleaning. 
The sharp edges should be first removed \\'ith a "corundum" 
file, or by drawing the sharp edge of one piece over the 
sharp edge of another ; then place the glass on a clean flat 
surface, or put it in " a plate- cleaning holder," and pour a 
few drops of the plate-cleaning solution in the middle. 
Eub it carefully over every part with a bit of clean soft 
rag ; turn the glass over, and do the other side the same. 
Then j^olish each side v.ith a clean cloth, and finish with a 
soft chamois leather kept expressly for this pui'pose. Now, 
breathe on the glass, and if the breath deposits evenly the 
plate is clean. If the plate, however, shows patches and 
marks, it must be recleaned. Let the edges be carefully 
Anped, and the plate is ready for use. 

The following preparation makes a good plate-cleaning 
solution for glasses that require mechanical friction to 
make them clean : — Ordinary water 5 oz., alcohol 5 oz., 
iodide of potassium 15 grs., iodine 3 grs. When dissolved 
add tripoli, prepared chalk, whiting, or rotten-stone, in 
sufficient quantity to make a creamy paste. 

This thin pasty solution is to be rubbed on the plates on 
both surfaces and polished off as already described. This 
amount of cleaning will generally be sufficient for new 


glasses, but when they have been used they require more 

Tliey must then be well washed under the tap, to get rid 
of all collodion and chemicals, and be wiped on cloths 
kept expressly for the purpose. Should the plates have 
been varnished they must be soaked for some hours in a 
saturated solution of washing soda till the varnish and 
film come freely off. The glasses must then ho immersed 
for a few minutes in a solution composed of common nitric 
acid 2 oz., water 10 oz., and be well washed and treated as 
already described. It is a good plan when working, to 
have a dish of water at hand, and to place the spoilt 
pictures in it at once while they are wet, and at the end of 
the day to wash the glasses and put th.em away clean. By 
thus not alloMing the films to dry on the glasses, they are 
much easier cleaned, and fewer failures will arise from 
dirty glasses. 

Collodion is a good material for cleaning glasses when 
they are not very dirty. Pour a few drops on the glass 
and well ml) it with a clean cloth, and you will entirely 
remove all grease ; a hint may thus be taken how to use 
up waste collodion. 

Various Solutions used in the Drji Process. These are 
employed in cases where bromo-iodized collodion and the 
nitrate batli are used. 

In all processes in which the bromo-iodized collodion is 
employed, two grains of bromide of cadmium should be 
adcled to each ounce of the collodion. 

Mr. Bartholomew advises diluted alcohol to be poured 
over the plate previous to developing. 

Acid JPt/ro Developer. This developer is formed as 
follows : 

Pyrogallic acid ... I gr. 
Glacial acetic acid . . .30 minims. 
Water 1 oz. 

The plate, after being wetted with dilute alcohol and 
washed, has this solution flowed over it, to which has been 
added 2 or 3 drops of a ten-grain nitrate of silver solution. 

Plain Pj/ro Developer. Tlie strength of this may vary 
from 1 to 5 grs. in an ounce of water. Two grains may 
be taken as a medium. The dry plate being flooded with 



alcoliol and water, and washed so as to well wet the film, 
this solution is floated over it. 

Alkaline Tyro Developer. 
No. 1. — Pyrogallic acid . . . '. 96 grs. 

Absolute alcohol . . . . 1 oz. 
No. 2. — Carbonate of ammonia . . 96 grs. 

Water 1 oz. 

No. 3. — Bromide of potassium . . 10 grs. 

"Water 1 oz. 

At the time of using make up the following solution : 

Water 1 oz. 

Solution No. 1 . . . .10 minims. 

Solution No. 3 . . . . 5 „ 
Pour this over the wetted plate, allow it to remain on a 
few seconds only, and then pour back into the developing 
cup, and add to it 5 minims of solution No. 2 and apply 
" The Collodio-Alhumen Dry Process. Mr. Mudd. — In 
this process the ordinary bromo-iodized collodion is em- 
ployed. The plate being sensitized, is washed well, first 
with distilled, then with common water, and placed in a 
dish half filled with solution of iodide of potassium (3 grs. 
to the ounce), and allowed to remain while the ne-d; plate 
is being prepared. It is then removed from the solution 
and well washed with clean water, after which the follow- 
ing solution is poured over its surface : 

Distilled water . . . .2^02. 

"Wliite of eggs . . . . 10 oz. 
Iodide of potassium . . .50 grs. 

Bromide of ammonium . . .10 grs. 

Strongest solution of ammonia . 120 minims. 
Introduce these materials with some pieces of broken 
glass into a bottle capable of holding twice the quantity, 
and agitate till the whole forms a froth, and then, wlicn 
settled, it is ready. A piece of camphor placed in the solu- 
tion will help to preserve it. It must be filtered before 
using. After the plate has been coated with the above, 
it is finished by drying before the fire. 

In this process all the above operations may be performed 
in ordinary white light. To render the plate sensitive, 
heat it as hot as the hand will bear, and when cool immerse 


it again in the following aceto-nitrate of silver bath for 
one mmwte, tisinff only ayellow light, then wash thoroughly 
in clean water and dry in the dark : 

Nitrate of silver . . . .30 grs. 

Distilled water . . . . 1 oz. 

Glacial acetic acid . . . \ dram. 

The development may he commenced by either plain or 
alkaline pyro ; Mr. Mudd gives the preference to the plain, 
and intensifying after with acid silver. 

Dr. Ryley's Modified Collodio-Alhumen Dry Process. 
In this method the plate has to be sensitized as usual and 
washed thoroughly. Wlien the plate has been well drained, 
and while still wet, it is coated with the following solution : 

Albumen . , . . . 1 oz. 

Water . . . . . . 2 oz. 

Ammonia . . . . .30 minims. 
The solution is beaten to a froth, allowed to settle, and 
filtered before using. Pour sufficient over the i:)late to 
cover it, letting it flow backwards and forwards so as to 
soak into the film. Pour the albuminous solution away 
and thoroughly wash the plate, the last rinsmg being with 
distilled water. Let the plate dry; when perfectly dry 
moisten the plate with distilled water and pour over it the 
following solution : 

Gallic acid ..... 2 grs. 

Water . . . . . . 1 oz. 

Filter the solution before using. Pour it on and ofE the 
plate to well permeate the film, then set the plate up to 
drain, and dry without washing ofE the gallic acid solution. 
When the surface is dry finish by the heat of a dull fire. 

Bromide of Silver, Wet Process. To every ounce of 
good collodion add 8 grs. of bromide of cadmium. The 
nitrate bath must be made 80 grs. to the oz., and 
slightly acidulated with nitric acid. The plate must re- 
main in the bath the full time it requires to form a dense 
opaque film. When the plate is readj (it must not be 
removed from the bath until the film is much denser than 
in the ordinary wet process) it must be washed thoroughly 
to remove all silver. It must then have poured over it a 
3 grs. solution of gelatin made slightly alkaline with 
carbonate of soda, or diluted albumen (albumen 1 oz., 


water 4 oz, well beaten together). When the plate is in 
this condition it may he exposed wet, or it may be allowed 
to dry. Prior to development it must be well washed, 
and the alkaline method must always be adopted. If the 
plates are used dry, a preliminary coating of dilute albu- 
men is necessary, but if used wet, this is not necessary. 

Bromide of Silver, Emulsion Process. By this method 
the nitrate bath is not necessary as the sensitive material 
is contained in the collodion. The purchase of the 
material ready made for working this process is recom- 
mended in preference to its direct manufacture, as its 
preparation demands the use of considerable technical 
skill, together with the employment of a gun cotton not 
usually attainable. Mr. Hughes says the " Liverpool 
Dry Plate Company " supply an excellent emulsion. It is 
only necessary to pour the emulsion on to a plate and to 
allow it to dry, when the plate is ready for use. The 
development is by the alkaline process. 

Gelatino-bromide of Silver, Emulsion Process. In this 
process, tlie use both of the nitrate bath and of collodion 
are abolished. 

The material employed is very troublesome to prepare, 
and on this account, as well as because of the risk of 
failure attending the use of the home-made article, it is far 
preferable it should be purchased. It may be obtained 
imder the name of "Kennett's Sensitized Pellicle." 

This pellicle consists of shreds of dry gelatine containing 
the sensitive salts. 

Fresh directions accompany each packet of the " Sensi- 
tized Pellicle." 

The Autotype Process. In this process the material 
employed consists of a layer of gelatin containing carbon, 
or some other permanent pigment spread on paper. 

In this condition the paper is not sensitive to light, but 
if it be treated with a solution of bichromate of potash, 
dried in the dark, and afterwards exposed to sunlight under 
a negative, those portions of the paper which have been 
acted upon by the light, will become insoluble, whilst 
those parts that have been protected from it, will be 
soluble. When, therefore, after sufficient exposure, the 
prepared paper is removed from the negative, a picture 


the reverse of the negative will have been formed, in 
which the pigmented gelatine remains and performs the 
part of the reduced silver in the ordinary photograph. 
Photographic Varnish. See Varnishes. 

The reader desirous of further information on the subject 
of photography cannot do better than consult Mr. Ei'nest 
Spon's valuable manual, entitled ' Workshop Receipts 
and Mr. Hughes' ' Principles and Practice of Photo- 
graphy,' to both of which works we are largely indebted. 
Captain Abnet's work on ' Photography ' cannot be too 
highly commended. 
Photography. — Miscellaneous Recipes. 

To Clean Glass Plates. Mr. Mayall. Shake up to- 
gether, alcohol 30 parts, strong liquid ammonia 10, water 
40, and fine tripoli 30 parts. The plates are to be rubbed 
hard and evenly with balls of cotton wool dipped in this 
mixture. Rub again, when dry, with a clean ball of 
cotton ; lastly, dust the back and edges mth a clean hog's- 
hair brush. 

To Clean off Collodion Pictures. This may be done, 
whether they have been varnished or not, by means of a 
tuft of cotton wool dipped in wood spirit. 

To Colour Photograjjhic Prints. This may be done 
variously in water and oils. A siinple way is to rub in 
slowly with a small camel-hair brush a minute piece of 
dry coloiu- laid upon the part, as of flesh tint for the face, 
&c. ^Vhen properly distributed, the paper may be breathed 
upon, and the tint will not easily be rubbed off. Or it may 
be carefully coated with gelatin. 

M. Minotto has described a plan of colouring on the 
back of [the paper. The picture, being held up to the 
light, is first faintly outlined, on the reverse side ; colours 
are then laid on, of water or oil, as preferred, on this 
side. 'WHien dry, the paper is rendered transparent by 
a varnish, and the colours will then appear through it with 
all the delicacy and effect of a miniature on ivory. Good 
strong writing paper is best for this purpose ; the colours 
must be vivid ; and the varnish may consist of Canada 
balsam dissolved in turpentine, or a mastic varnish may be 
used, or turpentine and wax, or oil. 
Pigments. A few of these have been noticed before ; see 


Indigo, Lakes, Prussian Blue, Pfrpie of Cassius. 
They generally constitute a distinct branch of manufacture, 
but a brief account of the composition of some of them 
may be useful. Those of which the colouring matter is 
derived from the animal and vegetable kingdoms will 
first be noticed ; then the mineral colours. 

Carmine. Several processes have been published for 
this beautiful jiigmeut, but probably some minute precau- 
tions, not generally known, may be necessary to the pro- 
duction of the finest q\;ality. The climate and state of 
the atmosphere are said to influence the result. 

1. Madame Cenette's process. Into 6 pails of boiling, 
clear, soft water, in a copper vessel, throw 2 lbs. of powdered 
cochineal of good "quality ; boil for 2 hours, add 3 oz. of 
purified nitre, and, after a few minutes, 4 oz. of salt of 
sorrel. Eemove the vessel from the fire, let the contents 
settle for 4 hours, draw ofE the clear liquor with a syphon 
into flat jilates, and leave it at rest for 3 weeks. Carefully 
detach the pellicle of mould from the surface, withdraw 
the liquid with a syphon and pipette, and dry the deposit 
in a stove. 

2. Boil 4 quarts of soft water in a pewter kettle, add 
to it 4 oz. of finely powdered cochineal ; boil for 5 minutes, 
adding 2 di's. of powdered cream of tartar ; then add 8 
scruples of Koman alum, and keep the whole on the fire 
for a minute longer. Let the decoction settle, decant it 
into cylindrical glasses, and cover them. When the car- 
mine has subsided, pour off the clear liquor, and dry the 
sediment. By adding solution of tin to the liquid, more 
carmine is obtained. 

3. Into a 14-gallon boiler of tinned copper, put 10 gal- 
lons of distilled water, or filtered rain water; when it 
boils, sprinkle in, by small quantities, 1 lb. of powdered 
cochineal, and keep it boiling for half an hour. Then add 
3j oz. of crystallized carbonate of soda : in a minute or 
two, draw the fire, and add 1 j oz. of Roman alum in fine 
powder; stir with a glass rod till the alum is dissolved, 
leave it to settle for 25 minutes, draw off the liquor with 
a glass syphon, and strain the rest through a. coarse linen 
cloth. Clean the boiler, rctiirn into it the clear-coloured 
liquor, and stir into it the whites of 2 eggs, previously 


well beaten with a quart of Avann (not liiat) water. Then 
light the fire, and heat the liquor till it begins to boil ; 
separate the coagulum by filtration, wash it on the filter 
with distilled water, spread it thinly on earthen plates, 
and dry it in a stove, 

Inferior carmine may be improved by dissolving it in 
water of ammonia, and precipitating it iDy acetic acid and 

Cochineal Lake. Add 2 lbs. of pearlash to the red liquor 
from which the carmine has been prepared in the last 
process, and return it to the boiler with the dregs of the 
cochineal ; boil for half an hour, di-aw the fire, and when 
the sediment has subsided, draw off the clear liquid into 
an earthern vessel. Pour on the sediment a solution of 
1 lb. of pearlash in 2 gallons of water, and boil for half an 
hour. Filter, and return both liquors into the copper. 
■ When as hot as the hand can bear, add to the liquor, by 
little and little, 3 lbs. of powdered Roman alum, and let 
it simmer for 5 minutes. Allow it to settle, draw off the 
clear liquor, collect the sediment on a filter, wash it witii 
clean rain-water, and leave it covered with a cloth for a 
few days, till half dry ; form it into small lumps, and dry 
them in a stove. 

Carthamine or Safflower Lake. Wash Saftlower till 
the water conies off colourless ; mix it with water holding 
15 per cent, of carbonate of soda in solution, so as to 
form a thick paste ; leave it for several hours, tlien press 
out the red liquid, and nearly neutralize it with acetic 
acid. Then put cotton into it, and add successive small 
portions of acetic acid, so as to prevent the liquid be- 
coming alkaline. In 24 hours take out the cotton, wash 
it, and digest it for half an hour in water holding 5 per 
cent, of crystallized carbonate of soda in solution. Im- 
mediately on removing the cotton, supersaturate the 
liquid with citric acid, and collect the precipitate, which 
must be repeatedly washed in cold water. For pink 
saucers the liquor is allowed to deposit in the saucers. 
Mixed with the scrapings of French chalk it constitutes 

Lakes are also obtained from Brazil-wood and madder, 
by adding alum to a concentrated decoction of tlie f onucr, 


or to a cold infusion of the latter (made by triturating tlie 
madder, inclosed in a bag, with the water), and after- 
wards sufficient carbonate of potash or soda to throw 
down the alumina in combination with the CDlouring 
matter. The precipitate is to be washed and dried. A 
little solution of tin added with the alum improves the 
colour. Lakes may be obtained from most vegetable 
colouring matters by means of alum and an alkaline car- 
bonate. Yellow Lake is made from French or Persian 
berries, by boiling them in water, with a little soda or 
potash, and adding alum to the strained liquor as long as 
a precipitate is thrown down. Or by boiling weld, or 
quercitron bark, in water, and adding alum and chalk in 
a pasty state. 

Rose Pink. Boil 6 lbs. of Brazil-wood and 2 lbs. of 
peachwood in water, with ^ lb. of alum ; and pour the 
strained decoction on 20 lbs. of sifted whiting. 

Bistre. It is obtained from the soot of beech-wood. 

Sap Oreen. The expressed juice of buckthorn-berries 
(and sometimes of other species of rhamnns, and also of 
privet berries) is allowed to settle, and the clear liquid 
evaporated to dryness. A little gum arable is sometimes 
added to the juice. 

The beautiful colours of the mative series ai'e prepared 
from coal tar by patented jirocesses. 
Mineral Pigments. Azure Blue, or Smalts. The com- 
mon is made by fusing zaffre (roasted cobalt ore calcined 
with siliceous sand) with potash. A finer quality is 
obtained by precipitating a solution of sulphate of cobalt 
by a solution of silicate of potash. Another cobalt blue 
is obtained by adding- a solution of phosphate of soda to a 
.solution of nitrate of cobalt, and mixing the precipitate, 
washed, but not dried, with eight times its weight of 
fresh hydrated alumina. When dry, heat it to a cherry 

Egi/ptian Azure. Carbonate of soda 16 oz.,' calcined 
Hints 24 oz., copper fillings 4 oz. Pulverise, mix, and 
fuse in a crucible for two hours. When cold, reduce to 

Blue Verditer. It is generally stated to be made by 
adding chalk to a solution of nitrate of copper produced 


m the process of refining silver; but Mr. Phillips did 
not succeed in making it by this means, and found no lime 
in the best samples. 

Neio Blue. Mix equal parts of common arsenite of 
copper (see Mineral Green, below), and neutral arsenite 
of potash, fuse by heat in a largo crucible, then add to the 
fused salt -^th of its weight of nitre. Effervescence takes 
place, and the salt becomes blue. Cool, pulverise, and 

Chrome Yellow. To a solution of bichromate of potash 
add a solution of nitrate of lead as long as a precipitate 
forms. Wash the precipitate, and dry it with a gentle 
heat. An inferior kind is said to be made by 4 lbs. of 
pure white lead, 1 lb. of bichromate of potash, and 20 lbs. 
of water, and boiling till the water becomes colourless. 
Or 75 parts of precipitated sulphate of lead may be acted 
on by a hot solution of neutral chromate of potash 25 
parts. A mixed product of chromate and sulphate of lead 
is thus obtained, which is said to cover as well_as the pure 
chrome yellow, and is much cheaper. (Riot). 

Chrome Bed. Melt saltpetre in a crucible heated to 
dull redness, and add chrome yellow, by small portions, 
till no more red fumes arise. Allow the mixture to settle, 
then pour off the melted salt from the heavy sediment, 
and wash the latter with water, which should be quickly 
poured off, and dry the pigment. The liquefied salt 
poured off contains chromate of potash, and is reserved 
for making chrome yellow. 

Orange Chrome is chrome yellow acted on by an alkali, 
which deprives it of part of the chromic acid. 

King's Yellow. This is a yellow sulphide of arsenic, 
now almost superseded by chrome yellow, but occasionally 
used for killing flies. 

Naples Yellow. Mix 12 parts of metallic antimony, 
8 parts of red lead, and 4 of oxide of zinc, and calcine in 
a reverberatory furnace. The mixed oxides are rubbed 
together, fused, and the fused mass elutriated into a fine 
powder. — Dr. Uke. M. Guimel recommends 1 part of 
well-washed antimoniate of potash to be ground into a 
paste with 2 parts of red, and the powder exposed to 
a red heat for 4 or 5 hours, keeping the heat moderate. 


Brighton Oreen. A.\\ inferior colour, made with 28 11)S. 
of wliiting, or white lead, 7 lbs. sulphate of copper, 3 lbs. 
sugar of lead, and i oz. of bichromate of potash. 

Brunswiclc Green. Pour a saturated sohition of chloride 
of ammonium over copper filings in a close vessel placed in 
a warm situation ; add more of the solution from time to 
time till three parts of the chloride liave been used to two 
of copper. After standing for a few weeks the pigment is 
separated from the unoxidized copper by washing tlirough 
a sieve. It is then to be well washed, and dried slowly in 
the shade. It is often reduced with white lead; some 
samples contain arsenic. 

Arsenical Copper Greens. Of these there are sever;il 

Mineral Green, Scheele's Green, or Arsenite of Copper. 
1. Dissolve 11 oz. of white arsenic and 2 lbs. of carbonate 
of potash, by heat, in a gallon of water. Dissolve also 2 lbs . 
of sulphate of copper in 3 gallons of Avater. Filter each 
solution "separately, and add the former gradually to the 
latter as long as it occasions a precipitate. Wash the pre- 
cipitate, drain it, and dry it. 

2. Dissolve 50 lbs. of sulphate of copper and 10 lbs. of lime 
in 20 gallons of good vinegar, and add quickly a boiling 
hot solution to 50 lbs. of white arsenic. Stir repeatedly, 
then allow it to settle ; decant the clear liquor (which is 
reserved to dissolve the arsenic next time), and wash the 
precipitate, and dry it. 

3. Emerald Green. Mix 10 parts of pure verdigris 
with sufficient boiling water to form a soft pulp, and sti'ain 
this through a sieve. Dissolve 9 or 10 parts of white 
arsenic in 100 parts of boiling watei*, and whilst boiling, 
let the verdigris pulp be gradually added, constantly 
stirring the mixture till the precipitate becomes a heavy, 
granular powder. 

Green withoui Arsenic. Dissolve 48 lbs. of sulphate of 
copper, and 2 lbs. of bichromate of potash in water, and 
add to the clear solution, 2 lbs. of pearlash and 1 lb. of 

Rimnann's Green Pigment. Dissolve together in suffi- 
cient water 1 part of sulphate of cobalt and 3 of sulphate 


of zinc ; precipitate with carbonate of soda, wasli the pre- 
cipitate, and calcine it. 

Chrome Green. A mixture of chrome yellow and 
Prussian blue. [See also Chrome Oxide, further back.] 
Barth'sGreen . A mixture of Prussian blue and yellow lake. 
Ultramarine, Factitious. Take 70 parts of silica, or 
pure siliceous sand, in fine powder ; 240 parts of recrys- 
tallized alum, calcuied ; 144 parts of sulphur ; 48 parts of 
finely powdered charcoal ; 240 parts of dry carbonate of 
soda. These are mixed together with the greatest care till 
the mixture appears of uniform colour under a powerful 
magnifier, and the mLxture exposed to a moderate red heat 
in a closely covered crucible for an hour and a half. Wash 
the product with boihng water, Mix the powder with its 
own weight of sulphur and 1^ its weight of dried car- 
bonate of soda, and burn as before ; heat it again with 
sulphur and carbonate of soda, and wash it till the filtered 
fluid no longer colours acetate of lead. If a sample of the 
dried powder becomes blue when burnt with sulphur, it is 
ready for the last operation. Spread over a cast-iron plate 
a layer of sulphur a line in thickness, and over it an equal 
layer of the dried powder after having passed it through a 
gauze sieve. Heat the plate so as to burn away the sul- 
phur at the lowest possible temperature. Reduce the pig- 
ment to powder, and repeat the burning with sulphur and 
pulverization till the colour is perfect. 

White Lead is carbonate of lead p-epared by various 
processes. Zinc White is oxide of zinc, prepared by com- 
bustion. Oxychloride of Zinc is also used. Antimony 
White is oxide of antimony. 

Pink Saucers. See Red Dyes, further back. 

Plates, Dagteereottpe, are prepared by cleaning and 
polishing the silver surface, exposing it to the vapour of 
dry iodine, or tincture of iodine, or iodide of bromine, or 
bromide of calcium. After havhig the image thrown on 
them, they are exposed to the vapour of mercury. But the 
manipulations and precautious necessary to the success of 
the operation, are too mimci'ous to detail lierc. 

Plate-Boiling Powder. Equal parts of cream of tartar, 
alum, and common salt. A small quantity added to the 
water m which plate is boiled gives it a silvery whiteness. 


Plate Powdebs. 1. Jewellers Eoiige. Dissolve green 
vitriol in hot water, and add a solution of pearlash as long 
as it throws down a precipitate. Wash the precipitate 
repeatedly with warm water, drain it on calico, and finally 
calcine it till it assumes a bright colour. It is sometimes 
made by calcining the sulphate of iron with a strong 
heat, till oxide of iron only remains. Let it be triturated 
with water, and prepared in the same way as prepared 
chalk. See Polishing Potvdee, further on. 

2. French Plate Fowder. Mix one part of jewellers' 
rouge with 12 of carbonate of magnesia. 

3. Finely prepared chalk, or burnt hartshorn. One 
way in which these are used is to boil them with water, 
with pieces of rag; the finer particles are entangled 
in the fibres of the rags, which are dried and kept 
for use. 

4. Quicksilver with chalk 1 oz., prepared hartsuoni 8 
oz., prepared chalk 4 oz. Powders containing quicksilver, 
besides the necessary wearing of the surface, are supposed 
to render the plate more brittle. If used the quicklime 
should not be in larger proportion than the above. 

5. Finest putty powder 1 oz., levigated chalk 5 oz. ; a 
little rouge may be added to colour it. 

See NovAEGENT, Silveeixg Powdee, &c., for restoring 
the silver to plated goods. 

Platixa, Black (OxiPHOBors). Dissolve protochloride of 
platinum in a boiling solution of potash, add alcohol in 
small portions till effervescence ceases. Boil the black 
precipitate successively with alcohol, hydrochloric acid, 
and potash, and finally 4 or 5 times with water. 

Platinated Asbestos. Dip asbestos in a solution of 
chloride of platinum, and heat it to redness. It causes the 
inflammation of hydrogen in the same manner as sponge 
platina. — Dr. Habe. 

Platinized Siltee. Silver plates for Smee's voltaic bat- 
tery are covered witli pulverulent platinum by adding a 
little bichloride of platinum to acid water, and decompos- 
ing the solution by the use of a platinum terminal in con- 
nexion with the copper of a battery, the silver plate to be 
platinized being in connexion with the zinc. Platinum 
itself is sometimes platinized in the same way. Some- 


times the plates are "platinized witliout tlie battery. The 
following solution is used by Dr. Wright for the plates of 
his battery : — Saturated solution of chloride of platinum 
J drachm, sulphuric acid li drachm, water 2 drachms. Dip 
tlie plates in it for a few seconds, and wash tliem quickly. 

Platinum, Chlorides of. Dissolve platinum in uitro-liy- 
drochloric acid, and evaporate with a gentle heat to dry- 
ness. The red bichloride remains. Heated to 450°, the 
protochloride remains. 

Platinum Sponge. Dissolve separately in rectified spirit, 
chloride of platinum and sal ammoniac. Mix the solutions, 
and heat the precipitate to redness. For balls for hydrogen 
lamps, form the precipitate into balls while moist, and 
afterwards burn them. 

Poison. See Beetle Wafer, Bug Poisons, Rat Poison ; 
Phosphorus Paste, Blights, Remedies for, &c. 

Polish. See French Polish. 

Polish for Boots, &c. See Blacking. 

Polishing Powder for Specula. Lord Ross. Precipitate 
a dilute solution of sulphate of iron by ammonia in excess ; 
wash the precipitate, press it in a screw press till nearly 
dry ; then expose it to heat until it appears of a dull red 
colour in the dark. 

Pot Pourri. See Perfumery. 

Potash, Carbonate of. Salt of Tartar. Subcarhonate of 
potash. See Potassa) Carbonas, and Potassse Carbonas 
puruiu. Pocket Formvilary. 

Potash Chlorate. See Chlorate of Potash. 

Potato Disease, Rhmedies for. The following are some 
of the more recent propositions for the prevention of this 
terrible and well-known plant epidemic : 

1. Some direct that the haulms and leaves should be 
entirely removed as soon as the least symptom of disease 
shows itself in them. The roots may grow on to full size 
without becoming affected. 

2. The Chevalier Claussen's Cure. The iwtatoes, 
before planting, are wet with water acidulated with sul- 
phuric acid (1 part to 500), and, before they are dry, 
powdered sulphate of lime is thrown over them. This 
plan has been found a very efficient one. 

3. Mr. T. Herapath's Plan. The roots, before planting, 


are allowed to become dry, and then dipped for a short 
time in a ■weak solution of sulphate of copper. The land is 
dressed with a mineral composition (2 parts of lime to 1 of 
salt) instead of farmj-ard manure. This process also has 
been attended with considerable success. 

Pounce. Powdered gum juniper is used under this name, 
for preparing- parchment for ^vriting on. For liquid 
pounce, see Ink, Maeking. 

PouDEE CiAEiFiANTE. Beat together the whites and yolks 
of eggs, dry them with a very gentle heat, and reduce to 
powder. For clarifying wines and syrups. 

PowDEES. See Tooth Powdees, and Haie Powders, under 
Cosmetics ; Scent Powdees, under Perfumeey, &c. 

Preseeyative Liquids. See Anatomical Subjects, and 
Animal Substances, to Peeseeve. 

Peussiate OF PoTAsn (Yellow).. Wlxat is known in com- 
merce by this name is the ferro-prussiate of potash, or 
ferrocyanide of potassium. It is prepared by fusing in an 
egg-shaped iron pot a mixture of 2 parts of pearlash and 
5 parts of dry animal matters, such as horns, hoofs, tallow- 
chandler's greaves, &c., till fetid vapours cease to be pro- 
duced. Iron filings are sometimes added, but usually the 
iron necessary to the formation of this salt is derived from 
the iron pots and stirrers. The fused mass {prussiate cake) 
is allo\\-ed to cool, dissolved in warm water, and the clear 
filtei'cd or decanted solution evaporated, that crystals may 
form. These are dissolved in hot water, and the solution 
allowed to cool very slowly, that large crystals may form. 

Red Peussiate of Potash. Ferrid-cyanide of Potassium. 
Ferricyanide of Pofassium. Into a dilute solution of the 
above prussiate of potash, a current of chlorine gas is 
passed, till the solution ceases to give a blue precipitate 
with persalts of iron. It is then evaporated, crystallized, 
and recrystallized till quite pure. [M. Posselt advises 
to add a few drops of solution of i)otash to the boiling 
liquoi', to decompose the green matter that is formed ; to 
filter the hot solution, to separate some peroxide of iron 
wjiich is thrown down, and to let the liquor cool very slowly.] 
Or, boil yellow prussiate of potash with 12 or 15 parts of 
water, and while boiling add good chloride of lime until a 
filtered sample no longer yields a blue precipitate with 


]icrsalts of iron. Filter quickly, and add carbonate of 
potash till the liquid has a faintly alkaline reaction, then 
evaporate for crystallization. — Chemist, vol. viii. 

PriUssiAN Blue. Berlin Blue. Perciianide,ferrocyanide, or 
ferro-prnssiate of iron. Commercial Prussian blue is made 
by adding to a solution of prussiato of potash, or of 
prussiato cake, a solution of 2 parts of alum and 1 of sul- 
phate of iron, washing the precipitate repeatedly with 
water to which a little hydrochloric acid has been added, 
and exposing it to the air till it assumes a deep colour. A 
purer kind is made by adding a solution of persulphate or 
perchloride of iron to a solution of pure ferro-prussiate of 
potash. Tuenbull's Prussian blue (ferrid-cyanide of 
iron) is made by adding a solution of red prussiate of 
potash to one of proto-sulphate of iron ; or by adding 
proto-sulphate of iron to a mixtiu'e of yellow prussiate of 
potash, chloride of soda, and hydrochloric acid. 

Soluble Prussian Bll'e. Add a solution of proto-sulijhate 
of iron to a solution of prussiate of potash, and expose the 
precipitate to the air till it becomes blue, and wash it till 
the soluble salts are washed away. By coutimiiug the 
washing, the blue itself dissolves, forming a deep blue 
solution, which may be evaporated without decomposition. 
Or add a solution of persulphate of iron to a solution of 
ferro-prussiate of potash, keeping the latter in excess ; 
wash the precipitate until it begins to dissolve, and dry 
it. See Ink, Eeade's Patent Blue, for another method. 

Purple of Cassius. See Aurum Stanno paratum. Pocket 
Formulary. Many other processes have been proposed, 
of which the following is one : — Dissolve 3 grs. of gold in 
aqua regia, avoiding excess, and dilute with 3 oz. of water. 
Mix 30 grs. of pink salt (the bichloride of tin with sal- 
ammoniac) with3| grs. of tin filings and 2 drs. of water till 
the tin is almost entirely dissolved : add 7 drs. of water, 
and add this solution to the gold solution, slightly warmed. 
Wash tLo precipitate, and dry it. 

Pyroligneous Acid, ~\ By the destructive distillation 

Pi'UOXYLic Spirit, > of dried wood, chietiy that of 

Pi'ROACETic Spirit, &c. ) the beech ancl birch", in iron 

cylinders, an acid liquor and tar arc produced. These are 


received in proper reservoirs, and are afterwards separated. 
The tar is subjected to distillation, and yields oil of tar 
(containing creasote, eupiou, &c.)) and leaves a residiuni 
of pitch, or Enfflish asphalt. The acid liquor, separated 
from the tarry deposit, is also distilled : the first portion 
which comes over contains the pyroxlic spirit, which is 
rectified by one or more distillations. It may be further 
purified by distilling it with dried chloride of calcium, 
and finally with quicklime. This constitutes one of the 
articles sold under the name of naphtha, and is regai'ded by 
chemists as a hydrated oxide of methyle. After the 
pyroxylic spirit has come over, the crude pyroligneous acid 
distils, which still holds some tar and empyreumatic oil in 
solution. It is purified by saturating it either directly 
with common soda, or first with lime, or rather chalk, and 
when the neutral solution has become clear, evaporating it 
to l'I14 sp. gr., and adding suflicient saturated solution of 
sulphate of soda to decompose the impiu'e acetate of lime. 
The clear solution obtained by either process is then 
evaporated, that the acetate of soda may crystallize. This 
is afterwards roasted at a temperature of about 500° 
Fahrenheit, to destroy the tar, and again dissolved and 
crystallized. The purified acetate is then distilled with 
sulphuric acid. See Acidum Aceticum, Pocket Formulary. 
For some manufacturing purposes, an impure acid is ob- 
tained by merely saturating the crude pyroligneous acid 
with lime, evaporating to dryness, and distilling with 
sulphuric acid. 

If acetate of lime or acetate of lead be distilled without 
addition, and the liquid which comes over be rectified over 
lime, pyroacetic spirit is obtained : this is also termed 
PrEOPHORTTS. This name is given to several compounds, 
prepared by calcination, which take fire when exposed to 
the air, especially when breathed upon. The following are 
perhaps some of the best : 

1. Heat tartrate of lead in a tube of hard glass, and 
securely close the tube before the charred residium be- 
comes cold. A little poured out and breathed upon takes 
fire. The tartrate of lead is made by dissolving separately 
2 drs. of tartaric acid and 5 drs. of crystallized acetate of 


lead in sufficient water, mixing the solutions, and collect- 
ing, washing, and drying the precipitate. 

2. Calcine tartar emetic in a similar mamier, of in a 
closed crucihle. 

3. Mix 11 parts o£ lamp-black with 2 of powdered sul- 
pliate of potash, and heat the mixture strongly in a closely 
covered crucible. The product is so combustible that it 
can scarcely be transferred to a bottle without danger. 

4. Mix 3 parts of powdered alum with 1 of flour, and 
calcine the mixture in a common phial coated mth clay 
or placed in sand, till it ceases to emit a blue flame. Be- 
fore it is cold, close it securely with a sound cork or glass 

5. Mix neutral chromate of lead with l-6th its weight 
of sulphur ; triturate them with water sufficient to form 
a paste, and make it into pellets ; dry these perfectly, then 
heat them in a tube till the sulphur is all driven off, and 
secure as the last. 

Rat and Mice Poisons. [Such as contain arsenic are placed 
first, and afterwards several compounds which have been 
introduced as substitutes for that mineral, which has 
proved so destructive of hmnan life. According to a recent 
Act of Parliament, this dangerous compound can only be 
purchased in wholesale quantities. Among other precau- 
tions taken to prevent accident, it is provided that it be 
mixed with colouring matters, such as soot and indigo, in 
order to prevent its being taken by mistake, or to ensure 
detection if designedly administered.] 

Arsenical Paste. 1. (Authorised hy the Government of 
France^ Melt 2 lbs. of suet in an earthen vessel over a 
slow fire, and add 2 lbs. of wheat flour, 3 oz. of levigated 
white arsenic, 2,\ drs. of lamp black, 15 drops of oil of 
aniseed. It may be used alone, or mixed with bread 
crumbs, &c. \For destroying rats and mice.^ 

2. For barnfloors. Mix a pint of good flour with as 
much yellow arsenic as will lie on a shilling ; put this in a 
small heap on the floor, and over this put another pint of 
good flour unmixed. Draw a track up to the heap with a 
feather dipped in oil of aniseed and oil of caraways, and 
sprinkle this over with a little flour.* 

* The following is an old rat-catcher'a receipt for oils to attract rats :— 



3. Mix a quart of the best oatmeal, 2 oz. of powdered 
loaf sugar, 6 drops each of the oils of rhodium, caraway, 
aud auiseed, aud i gr. Musk. Mix them very perfectly 
without touching the mixture with the hands. Place in a 
retired spot 6 or 8 pieces of clean board, and on each, two 
tablespoonfuls of the powder, for a few successive nights, 
without disturbing the rats. About the sixth uight, if 
they are found to eat freely, mix a teaspoonfid of white 
arsenic with the powder. What remains in the morning 
should be burnt, avoiding the fumes. — The Chemist, 
vol. vi. 

4. White arsenic 2 oz., carbonate of baryta 2 oz., white 
sugar 3f oz., rose pink i oz., oil of aniseed and oil of 
rhodium, of each 5 drops. 

5. Malt flour 1 lb., oil of rhodium 3 drops, sugar 2 oz., 
8 cloves, a tablespoouful of caraway seeds, all beaten in 
a mortar. Lay it in small parcels where they frequent, for 
3 or 4 nights, till they eat freely, then add some arsenic 
dissolved in spirits of salts. — Mayee. 

6. Ointment for Rats in Hicks. Mix together 1 lb. of 
fresh butter, free from salt, 1^ oz. of calomel, 8 oz. of 
crumbs of white bread, 2 oz. of sugar, 5 drops each of 
oils of nutmeg and rhodium, and 2 di'ops of oil of ani- 
seed. To use it, make a hole with the arm under the 
ridge ; into this hole insert a stick, and on the middle of 
it, where it does not touch the rick, put a lump of the 
ointment. For Traps. Put the same with 2 or 3 drops 
of oil of thyme. 

7. Hampshire Millers' Rat Poivder. Mix 1 oz. of nux 
vomica in powder with a pound of fresh oatmeal, aud add 
a few drops of oil of rhodium, or, what answers better, oil 
of aniseed with musk. 

8. Philanthrope Muophohon. A French preparation so 
called, consists of 1 part of emetic tartar to 4 of farinaceous 
and other ingredients. 

9. Put into a flask 2 drs. of phosphorus and 5 or 6 oz. 
of water, put the flask in warm water (about 150° Fah- 
renheit) till the phosphorus is liquefied ; pour the contents 

Two drs. of oil of auiseed, 2 drops of nitrous acid, aud 2 grs. of musk. Oil 
of iliodium is also supposed to be very attractive to these vermin. Assa- 
foetidu with these oils is sometimes used. 


into a mortar, and immediately add 5 or 6 oz. of rye- 
meal ; when cool, add the same quantity of melted fresh 
butter, and 4 oz. of sugar. 

10. Another form of the phosphorus compound is : — 
Melt 1 lb. of lard in a bottle plunged into water, and 
heated to 150° Fahrenheit. Introduce into it i oz. of 
phosphorus and add a pint of proof spirit. Cork the bottle 
securely after its contents have been heated from 140' to 
150°, and taking it out of the water bath, agitate it briskly 
till the phosphorus is uniformly diffused ; repeat the agita- 
tion occasionally as it cools, and, when cold, pour off the 
spirit which has separated (which may be reserved for the 
same purpose), and incorporate with the fatty compound 
wheat flour and sugar. Oil of rhodium or aniseed may be 
added. Place little lumps of this in the rat-holes, and set 
some water near for them to drink. For a third receipt, 
see Phosphorus Paste foe Vee3j:i>'', further back. 

11. Valentia almonds 1 oz., treacle 2 oz., carbonate of 
baryta 1 oz., oil of aniseed 5 drops, flour enough to form a 

12. Powdered sqiull i oz., strong cheese 2 oz. Mix and 
form into balls. For Mice. 

13. Pulp of squills made into a paste with flour and 
dried, has been used as a poison for rats in France. 

Rennet. The stomach of a calf, washed, salted, and dried. 

Rennet Liquid. Essence of Rennet. Fresh rennet 
12 oz., salt 2 oz., proof spirit 2 oz., white wine a quart ; 
digest for 24 hours and strain. A quart of milk requires 
2 or 3 teaspoonfuls. Wislin directs, 10 parts of a calf's 
stomach, salt 3 parts. The membrane of the stomach is to 
be cut with scissors, and kneaded with the salt and with the 
reanet found in the iftiterior of that organ ; the whole left 
in a cool place in an earthen pot till the cheesy odour is 
replaced by the proper odour of rennet, which will be in 1 
or 2 months. Then add 16 parts of water and 1 of spirit. 
Filter and colour with burnt sugar. 

Rust, to Prevent and Remove. Steel goods are rubbed 
over with a mixture of lime and oil, to jireserve them from 
rusting. Mercurial ointment has been recommended for 
the same purpose. M. Payen reconnnends iilungiug the 
articles into a sohition of common soda. Spots of rust arc 


removed by rubbing them with very fine emery and sweet 
oil ; as a cliemical means of rcmo\ing them, the ammoniacal 
chloride of zinc may be found useful. See Zinc. To re- 
move rust-spots from linen, oxalic acid or binoxalate of 
potash is commonly used. Runge recounnends prussiate 
of potash. Dissolve a little in water, and just acidulate 
with sulphuric acid. The stained linen macerated m this 
water turns blue. Its whiteness is now restored by a solu- 
tion of carbonate of potash. 

Saxon Bltje. See Chemic Blue. The solution of indigo 
in sulphuric acid, diluted with twice its weight of water, 
is so termed. 


(pure) 6 oz., camphor 2 oz., rectified essence of lemon 
8 oz. 

2. Camphine 3 oz., essence of lemon 1 oz. ; mix. Some 
direct th(?m to be distilled together. 

3. French. Camphine 8 oz., pure alcohol 1 oz., sulphuric 
ether 1 oz., essence of lemon 1 dr. 

4. Spirit of wine a pint, white soap 3 oz., ox-gall 3 oz., 
essence of lemon i oz. 

Sealing-wax. 1. Blue. Shell-lac 2 parts, dammar resin, 

2 parts, Bergundy pitch 1 part, Venice turpentine 1 part, 
artificial ultramarine 3 parts. 

2. Light Hue. As the last, with 1 part of dry sulphate 
of lead. 

3. DarJc Blue. Venice turpentine 3 oz., finest shell-lac 
7 oz., clear amber or black resin 1 oz., Prussian blue 1 oz., 
carbonate of Magnesia 1^ drs. The last two to be made 
into a stiff paste with oil of turpentine, and added to the 
melted shell-lac and Venice turpentine. 

Black. 1. Venice turpentine 4^ oz., shell-lac 9 oz., 
colophony \ oz., lamp black mixed to a paste with oil of 
turpentine q. s. 

2. Inferior. Venice turpentme 4 oz., shell-lac 8 oz., 

3 oz. of colophony, and sufficient lamp black mixed with 
oil of turpentine to colour it. 

3. Shell-lac 8 oz., Venice turpentine 4 oz., lamp black 

4. Common, for bottles. Resin 6 oz. ; shell-lac 2 oz., 
Venice tarjieutine 2 oz., lamp black q. s. 


Brown. 1. Light Brown. Venice turpentine 4 oz., 
sliell-lac 7h o/., brown earth (English umber ?) ^ oz., cin- 
nabar ^ 07.., prepared chalk ^ o?;., carbonate of magnesia 
moistened with oil of turpentine 1^ drs. 

2. Light Brown — Second quality. Venice turpentine 
4 oz., shell-lac 7 oz., resin 3 oz., English umber 3 oz., 
cinnabar 5 oz., prepared chalk 1 oz., magnesia as the 

3. Dark Brown. Venice turpentine 4 oz., fine shell-lac 
7^ oz., English umber Ij oz., magnesia as before. 

4. Dark Broivn — Second quality. Venice turpentine 
4 oz., shell-lac 7 oz., colophony 3 oz., English umber 1^ oz., 
magnesia as before. 

Green. Venice turpentine 2 oz., shell-lac 4 oz., colo- 
phony, I5 oz.. King's yellow i oz., Prussian blue \ oz., 
magnesia as for bro\^'n. ' 

Gold. 1. Venice turpentine 4 oz., fine shell-lac 8 oz., 
leaf-gold 14 sheets, bronze powder -J- oz., magnesia (made 
into a paste with oil of turpentine) 1^ drs. 

2. Use gold talc instead of gold leaf and bronze. — 

Btarhled. Melt each coloured wax separately, and just 
as they begin to grow solid, mix together. — Geay. 

Bed. 1. Fine Carmine Wax. Venice turpentine 2 oz., 
finest shell-lac 4 oz., colophony 1 oz., Chinese vermilion 
1^ oz., magnesia (moistened with oil of turpentine) 1|^ drs. 

2. Finest Red. Venice turpentine 4 oz., shell-lac 7 oz., 
cinnabar 4 oz., carbonate of magnesia (with oil of turpen- 
tine) IJ drs. 

3. As the last, with only 3^ oz. of cinnabar. 

4. Venice turpentine 4 oz., shell-lac Q\ oz., colophony 
i oz., cinnabar 2^ oz., magnesia (with oil of turpentine) 
1^ drs. 

5. Venice turpentine 4 oz., sbell-lac 6 oz., colophony 
^ oz., cinnabar Ij oz., magnesia as before. 

6. As the last, but use colophony and cinnabar each 
It oz, 

7. Venice turpentine 4 oz., shell-lac 5j oz., colophony 
IJ oz., cinnabar 1^ oz., magnesia as before. 

8. English. Venice turpentine 2 oz., shell-lac 4 oz., 
vermilion 1 oz. 


9. SpanisJi. Venice turpentine 8 oz., shell-lac 2 oz., 
colophony 4 oz., vermilion 1 oz. Remove from the fire, 
and add ^ oz. of rectified spirit. 

Yelloiv. Venice turpentine 2 oz., shell-lac 4 oz., colo- 
phony Ij oz.. King's yellow f oz., magnesia as before. 

Perfumed Wax. Add to any of the above a small 
quantity of fine benzoin. 

Common Bottle Wax. 1. Dark resin 18 oz., shell-lac 
1 oz., bees'-wax 1 oz. Mix together, and colour with red 
lead, Venetian red, or lamp black. 

2. Resin 19 oz., bees'-wax 1 oz. ; colour as before. 
Sea- Water, Aetieicial. See Aquaeium. 
Shell-iac, to Bleach. See Lac, further back. 
Silk Cleaner, Mix well together ^ lb. of soft soap, a tea- 
spoonful of brandy, i pint of methylated spirit and \ pint of 
water. It is to be spread with a sponge on each side of 
the silk without creasing it ; the silk is then rinsed out 
two or three times, and ironed on the wrong side. 
Silver, to Clean. See Plate Powdee. To clean silver 
utensils, blackened by sulphuretted hydrogen, Bottger 
recommends a boiling saturated solution of borax, or a 
solution of caustic potash, with some fragments of metallic 
Silvering Powder, &c.,for silvering copper, covering the 
loom parts of pilated goods, &c. 1. Nitrate of silver 30 
grs., common salt 30 grs., cream of tartar 3J drs. Mix. 
1 Moistened with water and rubbed on dial plates or other 
cojjper articles, it coats them with sih'er. 

2. Sih'er precipitated from its nitric solution by copper 
20 grs., alum 30 grs., cream of tartar 2 drs., salt 2 drs. 

3. Precipitated silver g oz., common salt 2 oz., chloride 
of ammonium 2 oz., corrosive sublimate 1 dr. ; make it into 
a paste with water. Copper utensils are previously boiled 
witli tartar and alum, and rubbed with this paste, then 
made red-hot, and afterwards polished. 

4. Dissolve chloride of silver in a solution of hypo- 
sulphite of soda, and mix this with pi'cpared hartshorn or 
other suitable powder. 

SiLVEEiNG Paste. Nitrate of silver 1 part, cyanide of 
potassiiim (Liebig's) 3 parts, water sufticient to form a 
thick paste. Apply it with a rag. A bath for the same 


purpose is made by dissolving 100 parts of sulphite of 
sodium, and 15 of nitrate of silver, in water, and dipping 
the article to be silvered, into it. 

Electro-silyeeing. Mr. Watt. 1. To the crystallized 
nitrate of silver obtained by dissolving 1 oz. of fine silver 
in nitric acid, add 3 pints of cold distilled water to dis- 
solve it. Precipitate with common salt. Wash well. 
Dissolve the chloride in just enough of the strong solution 
of cyanide of potassium. Filter several times, then add 
distilled water to 1 gallon. This is excellent for a dead 
white, or to plate cleaned figures, or clock-dials, which 
only require to be scratch-brushed iffrst. Or if worked 
weaker, with a feeble battery, and a small surface of anode 
exposed, a thick layer is obtained, which will bear bur- 

2. Dissolve as much nitrate in the same quantity of 
distilled water. Add strong solution of cyanide of potas- 
sium till there is no further precipitate— (not enough to 
re-dissolve this). Wash the precipitated cyanide several 
times with pure water. Add now enough strong solution 
of cyanide of potassium to dissolve it, and make up_ tlie 
solution to 1 gallon. Filter before using. When it is 
desired that the articles should come out with a bright 
appearance, a little bisulphuret of carbon is added to the 

Silver, Oxidized. Ornaments to which this name is 
given have a surface of silver which has been acted on 
by some chemical liquid. A solution of sal ammoniac will 
give a browniish tint ; a still better one is obtained by 
using equal parts of sulphate of copper and sal ammoniac 
dissolved in vinegar. A fine black tint may be produced 
by a slightly warm solution of sulphide of potassium. 
Solutions of the chlorides of platinum and gold are some- 
times adopted in these processes. 

SiLVEEiKG Glass. See Glass. 

Silver, to Pukiey and Reduce. Silver, as used in the 
arts and coinage, is alloyed with a portion of copper. To 
purify it, dissolve the metal in nitric acid slightly diluted, 
and add common salt, ^\'hich throws down the whole of 
the silver in the form of chloride. To reduce it into a 
metallic state several methods are used-. — 1. The chloride 


must be repeatedly washed with distilled water, and placed 
in a zinc cup ; a little diluted sulphuric acid being added, 
the chloride is soon reduced. The silver when thoroughly 
washed is quite pure. In the absence of a zinc cup, a 
porcelain cup containing a zinc plate may be used. The 
process is expedited by warming the cup. 

2. Digest the washed chloride with pure copper and 
ammonia. The quantity of ammonia need not be sufficient 
to dissolve the chloride. Leave the mixture for a day, 
then wash the silver thoroughly. — Hoentjng. 

3. Boil the washed and moist chloride in solution of pure 
potash, adding a little sugar ; when washed it is quite pure. 

SiLYEE, Solvent foe. See further on. 

Size. Oil Size is made by grinding yellow ochre or burnt 
red ochre with boiled linseed oil, and thinning it with oil 
of turpentine. Water Size (for burnished gilding) is 
parchment size ground with yellow ochre. 

Smalts. See Pigments. 

Skeleton Leaves, to make. Steep the leaves, seed-vessels, 
or other parts of the plant to be dissected, in rain water, 
until the whole of the soft matter is decomposed. Some 
require a few weeks, others several months. The rotted 
parts are now to be carefully removed by a fine brush, 
under the surface of water, or in a stream of water. A 
syringe is sometimes required. To bleach the skeletons 
soak them for some hours in a mixture of 1 oz. of strong 
solution of chloride of lime and a quart of distilled water. 
Lastly, wash thoroughly in cold water, and dry by exposure 
to air. 

Smoking Fluid. One drop of creasotc in a pint of water 
imparts a smoky flavour to fish or meat dipped into it for 
a few minutes. 

Soap. Foe Peefumed and Toilet Soaps, see Skin Cos- 
metics, further back. For the manufacture of soaps 
generally, see Dr. Uee's ' Dictionary of the Arts,' Wagner's 
'Chemical Technology,' and other similar works. Hard 
soaps are made by boiling oils or fats with a ley of caustic 
soda. Soft soaps consist of oil and potash ; and as they 
do not separate from the ley like the hard soaps, they 
generally contain an excess of caustic alkali. Silica soap 
lias silicatp of soda incorporated with it;. Soap is ^dul- 


teratcd by earthy matters, as pipe-clay, &c. ; these and 
other impurities remain when soap is dissolved in alcohol. 

Soap, Marine. Patent. This is made by substituting 
cocoa-nut oil for the fats and oils used in the manufacture 
of common soap. It has the advantage of forming a 
lather with salt water. 

Soda. For its medical and pharmaceutical compounds, see 
Pocket Formulary. 

Soda, Hyposulphite of. Dissolve 1 lb. of crystallized 
carbonate of soda in a quart of boiling water. Slake -J- lb. 
of lime in another quart of water. Mix the solutions, let 
them stand in a covered vessel until cold, pour off the 
clear liquid, and boil it with more sulphur than it will 
dissolve. Pour off the clear solution into a deep vessel, 
and pass sulphurous acid gas through it until it becomes 
nearly colourless. "Wliile still a little yellow, filter,and evapo- 
rate it quickly in an earthen vessel to a syrupy consistence. 
Shake this with half its bulk of rectified spirit, and allow 
the lower layer to crystallize imder the alcoholic solution 
which floats on it. It must be kept from the air and light. 

Solvents for India Rubber. Ether for this purpose 
should be agitated with water, and decanted. Benzol 
will dissolve caoutchouc with warmth and long digestion. 
Rectified coal naphtha forms an imperfect solution em- 
ployed in Macintosh's waterproof fabrics. Oil of tur- 
pentine, rendered pyrogenous by absorbing it with bricks 
of porous ware, and distilling it without water, and treat- 
ing the product in the same way, is also used for thi.s 
purpose. It is stated that the solution on evaporation 
does not leave the caoutchouc in a sticky state. Another 
method is to agitate oil of turpentine repeatedly with a 
mixture of equal weights of suli)huric acid and water ; and 
afterwards to expose it to the sun for some time. Bisul- 
phide of carbon is a good solvent, dissolving the gum 
without heat. This constitutes Parees' Patent Solvent. 
Chloroform is an excellent but rather expensive solvent.* 
Caoutchoucin has also been employed as a solvent. It 
is prejiared by distilling India rubber without addition, 
increasing the heat to 600'^ Fahr. The product is rectified 
by distilling it with one third of water. It is then a 

^Jlethylated cUloroforni is much cheaper tlian that made from rectified spirit. 


colourless fluid of 0'680 specific gra^-ity. Its smell is im- 
proved by agitating it •nith 5 oz. of nitro-hydrochloric acid 
to each gallon. India rubber is rendered more readily 
soluble by first digesting it with a solution of carbonate of 
soda, or water of ammonia. 

SOLTEXTS POE GUTTA Peecha. Benzol readily dissolves it. 
So do chloroform and bisulphide of carbon. 

Solvent eoe Old Pctty a>'d PAiyx. Soft soap mixed 
with solution of potash or caustic soda; or pearlash and 
slaked lime mixed with sufficient water to form a paste. 
Either of these laid on with an old brush or rag, and left 
for some hours, will render it easily removable. 

Soluble Glass. See Glass. 


Tor the Decomposing Cell. 1. Saturated solution of 
sulphate of copper 2 parts, sulphuric acid 2 parts, water 
6 or 8 parts. 2. Mr. Walkee directs 2 measures of a 
saturated solution of sulphate of copper, and 1 measure of 
acidulated water (1 part of sulphuric acid to 9 of water), 
3. Eobell's solution consists of 2 parts of a saturated 
solution 01 sulphate of copper, and 1 part of a saturated 
solution of Glauber's salt, to which as much sulphate of 
copper has been added as it will take up. 

2. Gold Solution. Dissolve 2 oz. of cyanide of potassium 
(prepai-ed by Lieeig's method) in a pint of warm distilled 
water, add i oz. of oxide of gold, and agitate together. 

3. Silver Solution. Dissolve 2 oz. of Liebig's cyanide 
of potassium in a pint of distilled water; add ^ oz. of 
moist oxide of silver (precipitated by lime-water from a 
solution of the crystallized nitrate), and agitate together 
till the oxide is dissolved. 

4. Solution in which Steel Articles are dipped le/ore 
Electroplating them. Nitrate of silver 1 part, nitrate of 
mercury 1 part, nitric acid (sp. gi". 1-384) 4 parts, water 
120 parts. 

5. Solution, or Pickle, for Immersing Copper Articles in 
before Electroplating. Sulphuric acid 64 parts, water 64, 
nitric acid 32. hydrochloric acid 1 : mix. The article, free 
from grease, is dipped in the pickle for a second or two. 
See GiLDi>'G, SiLVEEiXG, Electbo-Brassi>'G, &c. 



icith the Zinc: 1 part of sal ammoniac to 5 of water. 
In contact with the Copper : a saturated solution of sul- 
phate of copper. M. BAcnnoFFXEE uses a saturated solu- 
tion of common salt and a satiu'ated solution of sulphate 
of copper. 

SoLTiTiox FOE SoLDEBLyG. Dissolve zinc in hydi'ochloric acid 
to saturation, add pulverized sal ammoniac, and boil for 
a short time. Applied with a sjjonge or feather it facili- 
tates the flow of the solder. 

SoLUTioxs FOE THE Watee-bath. Various salts dissolved 
in water materially raise the boiling-point, and thus afford 
the means of obtaining a steady temperature at different 
degrees above 212^. The following are some of the most 
useful : 

A saturated solution of nitrate of soda boils at 246° Fahr. 
„ „ Eochelle salts at . . 240 „ 

„ „ nitre at 238 „ 

„ „ chloride of sodium at 224 „ 

„ „ sulphate of magnesia at 222 „ 

SoiTEXT FOE_ SiLVEE. Isitro-sulphv.ric Acid. Dissolve 1 
part of u'.tre in 10 parts of oil of ^•itriol. Used for dis- 
solving the sUver from plated goods, &c. It dissolves 
silver at a temperature below 200°, and scarcely acts 
upon copiier, lead, and ii'on, unless diluted. The silver 
is precipitated from the solution, after moderately diluting 
it, by common salt, and the chloride reduced as directed, 
under Sixyee, to pubift axd EEorcE. 

Spirit of Niteic Ethee. See Pocket Formulary. It need 
only be added here, that its acidity is removed and pre- 
vented, by rectifying it from neutral tartrate of potash. 

Spoxge, Bla:?sCHEI>. Soak the sponges for several days in 
cold water, renewing the water and squeezing the sponges 
occasionally. Then wash them in wai-m water, and place 
them in cold water to which a little hydrochloric acid has 
been added. Xext day take them out and wash them 
thoroughly in soft water; then immerse them in aqueous 
sulphurous acid (sp. gr. 1'034) for a week. They are 
aftei-wards washed in plenty of water, squeezed, and 
allowed to dry in the air. For burnt, prepared, and 
waxed sponge, see Spo>'GIA, Pocket Formulary. 


Staixs for Wood, Ivoey, &c. See Ivoey, to Stain; 

Wood, to Stain ; Bookbindees' Stains, &c. 
Stains, to eemove. Stains of iodine are removed by rec- 
tified spirit. Ink stains by oxalic acid or superoxalate of 
potash. Iron moulds by tbe same ; but, if obstinate, it 
lias been recommended to moisten them witli ink, then 
remove them in the usual way. See RrST, to prevent 
and remove, further back. 

Grease Sj^ots. See Sootteing Deops. 

Red Spots on black cloth, from acids, are removed by 
spirits of hartshorn, or other solutions of ammonia. 

Stains of Marking Ink or Nitrate of Silver, to remove. 
1. Wet the stain with fresh solution of chloride of lime, 
and after 10 or 15 minutes, if the marks have become 
white, dip the part iu solution of ammonia, or of hyposulphite 
of soda. In a few hours wash with clean water. 

2. Stretch the strained linen over a basin of hot water, 
wet the mark with tincture of iodine. 

3. They may also be removed by cyanide of potassium ; 
but this should be done by the druggist, and not intrusted 
to any one else. 

Starch. Starch is procured from various roots and seeds. 
Its varieties are numerous ; but a f ei,^' of the most im- 
portant only can be noticed hei'e. 

Arrowroot (West Indian). The fecula of the tubers of 
the Maranta arundinacea. The fresh tubers are washed 
and beaten to a pulp, which is well stirred in a large tub 
of cold clean water, and the fibrous part wrung out by the 
hands, and thrown away. The water in which the fecula 
is suspended is passed through a hair sieve or coarse cloth, 
allowed to settle, and the water poured off. After being 
repeatedly washed, the wet starch is drained, and after- 
wards dried in the sun. [Tlie other varieties of arrow- 
root (see Dietetic Articles) are prepared by analogous 
processes from the roots which yield them.] 

Potato Starch. The tubers are washed and peeled, 
usually by machinery, rasped by a revolving grater, and 
the pulp washed on hair sieves till freed from the starchy 
matter. Successive portions of the pulp are thus treated 
till the vessels over which the sieves are placed is suffi- 
^cjentlv full. The starch held in suspension in water, sub- 


sides to the bottom; the water is then drawn off, and the 
starch stirred up with fresh water, and again allowed to 
subside. This is repeated several times till the starch 
is sufficiently pure. The fibres and the washing waters 
are used as manures. The washed fibres have also been re- 
commended as an ingredient in bread for diabetic patients. 
Wheat Starch. Wheat flour is steeped in water for a 
week or two and allowed to ferment. The acid liquor is 
drawn off, and the residue washed on a sieve : what passes 
through is allowed to settle, the sour liquor drawn off, and 
the starch thoroughly washed from the slimy matter. It 
is then drained in perforated boxes, cut up into square 
lumps, placed on bricks to absorb the moisture, and dried 
in a stove. See Dr. Peeeiea's ' Elements.' 

Various means are adopted to free the starch from gluten 
and other impurities. In the patent rice starch, and pro- 
bably other kinds of starch, alkaline solutions are used. 
Ammonia has been recommended, as it does not, like pot- 
ash and soda, dissolve any portion of pure starch. 

The various kinds of fecula are distinguishable by the 
form of their particles or grains. By a microscopical 
examination of these, the mixture or substitution of potato 
starch with the more expensive kinds is readily detected. 
Figures of the different kinds of starch grains are given 
in the ' Pharmaceutical Journal,' vol. iv, in Dr. Peeeiea's 
' Elements.' In Attfield's 'Chemistry, General, Medical 
and Pharmaceutical,' &c. M. Goblet has proposed to 
distinguish them by the coloration produced when the 
several kinds are exposed to the vapour of iodine ; but the 
effect seems to dejiend greatly on the relative dryness of 
the samples. 

Stearic Acid. Fat is saponified, and the soap decomposed 
by an acid, with a large quantity of water, the mixture 
being kept warm and well stirred. The water being drawii 
off, the fatty matter is well washed, allowed to cool, and 
submitted to strong pressure. 

Stoem Glass. Take 2\ drs. of camphor, 38 grs. of nitre, 
and 38 grs. of sal ammoniac ; dissolve them in 9 di-s. of 
water, and 6 drs. of rectified spirit, with a gentle heat. This 
is placed in a glass tube covered \\'\t\\ a brass cap, with a 
small hole to admit air. Or it may be put in an eau de 


Cologne or other long bottle, tied over witli bladder. Its 
various changes are supposed to indicate changes of 
weather, but the indications are not to be relied on. 
Sttjpfing Birds and Animals, Peeparatioxs foe. 1. 
Camphor 1 oz., corrosive sublimate 1 oz., alum ^ oz., sul- 
phur 1 oz. ; all finely powdered and mixed. 

2. Tanner's bark dried and powdered 2 oz., burnt alum 
1 oz., snuff 1 oz. ; mix, and add arsenic i oz., camphor i 
oz., sulphur 1 dr. 

3. BECCErn's Arsenical Soap. Camphor 5 drs., arsenic 
4 oz., white soap 4 oz., carbonate of potash 12 oz., air- 
slaked lime 4 oz. ; make a stiff paste with a little water. 

Styeol. Mix 20 parts of storax with 7 of carbonate of soda, 
and put them into a retort with water, and apply heat. 
A limpid fluid distils, which becomes when heated to a 
certain point a transparent solid. 

Sugar Resin. Mix 16 parts of strong sulphuric acid with 
8 of the strongest nitric acid ; when cooled to 70° Fahr., 
stir in 1 part of finely powdered sugar. In a few seconds, 
when the sugar has become pasty, take it out of the acid 
and phmge it into cold water. Add more sugar to the 
acid, and proceed as before. Wash the resinous matter 
carefully, and dissolve it in alcohol or ether. Evaporate 
the solution with a gentle heat. It is very combustible. 
Its solution may be used to render gunpowder, lucifer 
matches, &c., waterproof. 

Sulphide. A sulpliide was formerly termed a sulphuret, 
which latter name has been almost invariably retained in 
the present edition. 

Sulphite of Coppee. To a concentrated solution of bisul- 
phite of potash add a cold solution of sulphate of copper, 
filter, aud heat gently. 

SULPHOCTANIDE OF AMMONIUM. Saturate 2 parts of com- 
mon water of ammonia (sp. gr. 0'950) with sulphuretted 
hydrogen ; and add 6 parts of the same ammonia. To 
this mixture add 2 parts of sulphur, aud the product of 
the distillation of 6 parts of prussiute of potash, 3 of sul- 
phuric acid, and 18 of water. Digest till the sulphur is 
no longer acted on^ aud the liquiil becomes yellow. Boil 
the liquid till it becomes colourless, filter, evaporate, aud 


SuLPHUEET OF Caebon. See BisrLPHUEET OF Caeeon. 

Syetjp of Milk. Evaporate, with constant stirring, 6 lbs. 
of skimmed milk to 3 lbs. ; add 4i lbs. of siigar ; dissolve 
with a gentle heat, and strain . It may be flavoured with the 
addition of 1 oz. of cherry-laurel water. [For other Syrups 
see Pocket Formulary.] Milk may be preserved by first heat- 
ing it, and when cold, charging it with carbonic acid gas. 

Tannik. See Acid, Tannic, further back. 

Teepine. Leave oil of turpentme for a long time in con- 
tact with a mixture of nitric acid and alcohol. Crystals 
of terpine form. By boiling an aqueous solution of ter- 
pine with a small quantity of sulphuric or other add, 
terpinol is formed, and may be separated by distillation. 
It has the odour of hyacinths. 

Test Liqtjoes, Test Papebs, &c. Distilled water only 
should be used in these preparations. In preparing the 
papers, the liquid should be placed iii an earthenware plate 
or dish, and the paper carefully immersed in it so as to be 
uniformly wetted, then dried out of the reach of acid, 
ammoniacal, or other vapours likely to affect it; and 
afterwards kept in bottles, jars, or cases. Dr. Faeaday 
recommends unsized paper, but Mr. Paenell and other 
good authorities direct good letter paper to be used.* 

Brazil Paper. Dip paper in a strong decoction of 
Brazil wood, and dry it. [It is rendered purple or violet 
by alkalies ; generally yellow by acids.] 

Cabbage Paper. Make a strong infusion of red cabbage 
leaves, strain it, and evaporate it by a gentle heat till 
considerably reduced. Then dip the paper in it and dry 
it in the air. [This paper is of a greyish colour ; alkalies 
change it to green, acids to red. It is a very delicate test ; 
if rendered slightly green by an alkali, carbonic acid will 
restore the colour.] 

Dahlia Paper. From the petals of violet dahlias, as 
cabbage paper. 

Elder-berry Paper. This is merely paper stained with 
the juice of the berries. Its blue colour is changed to red 
by acids, and to green by alkalies. 

Indigo Paper. Immerse paper in sulphate of indigo, 

* Dr. Fresenius recomnieuds unsized paper. 


wash it with water rendered slightly alkaline, then witH 
pure water, and dry it in the air. 

Iodide of Potassium and Starch Paper. Mix starch 
paste with solution of iodide of potassium, and moisten 
bibulous paper with it. [It becomes blue when exposed to 
ozone. Chlorine has the same effect.] 

Lead Paper, Paper dipped in a solution of acetate of 
lead. [When moistened it detects sulphuretted hydrogen, 
which renders it black.] 

Plue Litmus Paper. Bruise 1 oz. of litmus in a mortar, 
and add boiling water ; triturate together, put tliem in a 
flask and add boiling water to make up to half a pint ; 
when cool, strain it, and dip paper in it. More colour 
may be extracted from the litmus by hot water, but the 
liquid will require to be concentrated by evaporation. 
[Acids change the colour to red, but it does not become 
green with alkalies.] 

Sed Litmus Paper. As the last, adding to the strained 
infusion a few drops of nitric acid, or of pure acetic acid. 
Dr. Paeaday recommends holding blue litmus paper over 
a large jar, into which a few drops of hydrochloric acid 
have been introduced, till sufficiently reddened. 

Eose Paper. Make a strong infusion of the petals of 
the red rose, and dip unsized paper in it. Dipped in an 
alkaline solution, so weak as not to affect turmeric paper, 
it assumes a bright green colour. 

Manganese Paper. Dip paper in a solution of sulphate of 
of manganese. [It becomes black in an ozonized atmosphere.] 

Ehubarb Paper. Dip paper in a strong infusion of 
rhubarb, and dry it. [Alkalies render it brown. It is 
not, like turmeric paper, affected by boraeic acid.] 

Starch Paper. This is merely paper imbued with starch 
paste. Cotton cord is sometimes used instead of paper. 
[As a test for iodine, which it turns blue.] 

Turmeric Paper. Boil 1 oz of coarsely powdered turmeric 
root in half a pint of water for half an hour, and strain : 
dip paper in the liquid, and dry it. [It is rendered brown 
by alkalies, and also by boraeic acid and borates.] 
Test Solutions, &c. [The vegetable preparations are here 
placed first.] 

Tincture and Infusion of R'ed Callage. Digest red 


cabbage with rectified spirit in a warm place for a few 
clays ; strain, distil off most of tlic spirit, and evaporate 
what remains to the consistence of syrup. It will keep 
for years. When required for use, dilute it with a little 
water ; or the concentrated infusion directed above for the 
paper may have a little spirit added to it. [If the cabbage 
leaves be well dried, they may be kept in a close vessel for 
use, and a strong infusion made when wanted.] 

Acid Infusion of Red Cabbage. Fabadat directs one 
or more red cabbages to be cut up in strips, and boil- 
ing water poured on them, and a little dilute sulphuric 
acid (ecpial to ^ oz. of oil of vitriol to a large cabbage) to 
be added, and the whole kept hot for an hour or two in a 
copper or earthen vessel. It is then strained, the cabbage 
infused in a little more water and acid, and the mixed 
infusion evaporated to one third its first bulk, allowed to 
settle, and put into bottles. When required for use, the 
acid is neutralized by caustic potash or soda. Another 
plan is to dry the leaves at 120° ; and wdien required for 
use to make a strong infusion, adding a drop of sulphuric 
acid, to neutralize the strained infusion with marble, filter, 
and add a little spirit, if required to be kept. 

Infusion or Tincture of Litmus. This is made as di- 
rected above for litmus paper. Or an ounce of powdered 
litmus may be triturated with 6 oz. of boiling water, di- 
gested near the fire for an hour, and mixed, when cool, 
with 2 oz. of spirit. Or digest 1 oz. of powdered litmus 
in a pint of proof spirit for 7 days. If required red, a few 
drops of acetic acid are added to either of these. The next 
day decant the clear liquor. Dr. Pebeiea directs 1 part 
of litmus to 25 of water. Wlien made very strong, it 
must be diluted when used. 

Tincture of Galls, Infusion of Oalls, cf"c. Fresh pow- 
dered blue galls 1 oz., proof spirit 8 oz. ; digest in a close 
vessel for a week, and filter. A watery infusion of galls 
may be made in the same proportion with boiling water 
for immediate itsc. Pettenkofer directs 1 oz. of pow- 
dered galls to be infused in 3 or 4 oz. of l)oiling water for 
several hom's, and 2 oz. of salt added. After filtration, it 
retains its transparency and power of precipitating gela- 
tin for years. [This is used to detect iron, with the per- 



salts of wliicli it produces a bluish-black precipitate ; for 
gelatin, wliich it precipitates in browaiish-wliite flocks ; 
and several of the organic alkaloids.] 

Marsh's Dahlia Test. Make a strong infusion of the 
petals of dark dahlias ; strain, and add to every pint \ oz. 
of strong sulphuric acid ; stir with a glass rod, and when 
cold, add to each pint 2 grs. of corrosive sublimate. Fil- 
ter through coarse cloth, and bottle. When required for 
use, neutralize it carefully with ammonia, and use the 
liquid by dipping paper in it. 

Syrup of Violets. On 4 oz. of fresh petals of violets 
pour half a pint of water at 104° Fs^hrenheit, stir them 
together, and in a minute or two strain off the water with 
gentle pressure, and pour 8 oz. of boiling distilled water 
on the flowers. In 12 hours, strain through luien, let the 
infusion settle, and decant, then dissolve in it twice its 
weight of refined sugar, by a gentle heat. [A delicate test 
for acids and alkalies.] 

Dr. Claek's Test for Sardness of Water. Dissolve 
1 oz. of Hawes's best white soap in a gallon of proof spirit. 
If not of such strength that it requires 32 measures to be 
added to 100 measures of solution of chloride of calcium 
of 16 degrees of hardness (see below) before it lathers, it 
must be adjusted to that strength. [The chloride of cal- 
cium solution is thus made. — Dissolve 16 grs. of pure car- 
bonate of lime (Iceland spa) in a small quantity of pure 
hydrocliloric acid, avoiding loss from effervescence; eva- 
porate the solution to dryness, and dissolve the residue in 
water, and again evaporate till a neutral solution is ob- 
tained ; then dissolve in a gallon of water. This forms 
the standard solution of 16 degrees of hardness. One 
measure of this solution with 15 of distilled water consti- 
tutes a solution of one degree of hardness ; and so on up to 
16 degrees. The degree of hardness expresses the number 
of grains of cai'bonate of lime per gallon contained in the 
water. For the mode of using this test, see Dr. Clark's 

Solution of Carhonate of Ammonia. Mr. Paenell 
directs this test to be prepared by dissolving 1 part of 
sublimed carbonate of ammonia in 3 of water, and adding 
1 part of water of ammonia. 


Solution of Oxalate of Ammonia. Dissolve 1 oz. of 
crystaUizcd oxalate of ammonia in a pint of -water. 

Solution oj" Sulpl/u retted Si/droffen. Pass sulphuretted 
liydrogen gas (see Gases, further liack) through cold 
distilled water, which has been recently boiled, till it will 
absorb no more. Keep it in small bottles secn.rely closed. 

Solution of Hydrosulpliuret of Ammonia. Hijdrosul- 
phide, Sydrosulphate of Ammonia. Pass sulphuretted 
hydrogen gas (see further back) through water of ammonia 
till the liquid occasions no precipitate in a solution of 
sulphate of magnesia. 

Solution of Ammonio-nitrate of Silver. It gives a pale 
yellow precipitate with arsenious acid, and a chocolate red 
vnt\i arsenic acid ; the same with their salts. See Pocket 

Solution of Nitrate of Silver. The Edinburgh Phar- 
macopoeia directed this test to be prepared by dissolving 40 
grains of the nitrate in a fluid ounce of distilled water. 
The London Pharmacopoeia directed 60 grs. to a fluid ounce. 
Mr. Paeneli recommends 1 part to 15 or 20 of water. 
[It is used chiefly for the detection of chlorine or hydro- 
chloric acid. The precipitated chloride of silver is insoluble 
in nitric acid. Also for hydrocyanic acid, with which it 
gives a white precipitate, which is decomposed by heat, 
the silver being reduced. 

Solution of Ammonio-sulphate of Copper. Chiefly 
used as a test for arsenical compounds, with which it gives 
a green precipitate. See Pocket Formulary. 

Solution of Chloride of Barium. See Pocket Formulary. 

Solution of Indigo. See Pocket Formulary. 

For the Test Solutions of the B. P., see Pocket Formulary. 

Hahij'EMANn's Wine Test, for detecting lead in wine. 
Sulphuret of lime 3 oz., tartaric acid 3 oz., water 2 lbs., 
mix, decant, and add 1 oz. of tartaric acid. Or, simple 
sulphuretted hydrogen water 4 oz., tartaric acid 1 dr. For 
the detection of other adulterants in wine, see Coolet, 
article " Wine." , 

Trommer's Test for sugar in urine. Put some of the 
suspected urine into a large test-tube, and add a few drops 
of solution of sulphate of copper, then sufficient solution of 
potash to rcudoi- it strongly alkaline. If sugar be present 


the precipitated oxide redissolves into a blue liquid, and ou 
boiling, red oxide of copper is precipitated. 

" Fehling found that one equivalent of grape-sugar, or 
l80 parts, decomposed exactly ten equivalents, or 1246"8 
parts, of sulphate of copper. Accordingly he prepared a 
solution of copper of standard strength, and applied it to 
fluids containing grape-sugar ; and the quantity of these 
reqim'ed to decompose a fixed volume of the standard solu- 
tion furnished an exact measure of the sugar they 

'■ Fehling's standard solution is prepared according to 
the following j^rescription : — Sulpliate of copper 90^ grs., 
neutral tartrate of potash 364 grs., solution of caustic soda 
(sp. gr. 1'12) 4 fl. oz., add water to make up 6 fl. oz. 200 
grs. of this solution are exactly decomposed by 1 gr. of 
sugar." — Dr. Robeets.* 

Dr. Robeets gives the following directions for the 
quantitative examination of urine for sugar : — " Pour some 
of the prepai'ed test-liquor (" Fehling's," as above) into a 
narrow test-tube to the depth of f of an inch ; heat until 
it begins to boil, then add 2 or 3 drops of the suspected 
urine. If the sugar be abundant a thick yellowish opacity 
and deposit of yellow suboxide are produced (and tliis 
changes to a brick-red at once if the blue colour of the 
test remain dominant). If no such reaction ensue, go on 
adding the urine mitil a bulk nearly equal to the test 
employed has been poured in ; heat agaua to ebullition, and, 
no change occm-ring, set aside without further boiling. If 
no milkiness is produced as the mixture cools, the urine 
may confidently be pronomiced free from sugar." 

^iTEic Acid Test for albumen in urine. Fill a test-tube 
to the depth of about an inch with the ui'ine, then incline 
the tube and pour in strong nitric acid, so that it may 
trickle down along the side of the tube to the bottom and 
form a stratum some quarter of an inch thick below the 
urine. If the urine contain albumen three layers will be 
perceptible — one, perfectly colourless, of nitric acid at the 
bottom ; immediately above this an opalescent zone of the 
coagulated albumen, and on the top the unaltered urine. 

* Yor methods of perfonning the analysis, &e., consult Dr. Roberts' 
wovk, ' Uriniry aiul Renal Diseases. ' 


Heat Test, for albumen in urine. — " If the urine have its 
us\ial acid reaction it heeomes turbid on boiling; when it 
contains albumen, and this turbidity persists after the 
addition of an acid. There are two points to bo renieniberod 
on usiii<>- heat alone as a test for albumen : — First, that albu- 
men is not coagulated by heat when the urine is alkaline ; 
in such cases, therefore, it is necessary before boiling to 
restore the acidity by a few drops of acetic acid. Secondly, 
when the urine is neutral, or very feebly acid, it may 
become tui'bid on heating, from precipitation of the earthy 
phosjihates ; but turbidity from this cause is easily dis- 
tinguished from albumen by a drop of acetic or nitric acid, 
which instantly causes the phosphates to disappear." — Dr. 

Pettenkofer's Test for hile in urine, &c. Put a small 
quantity of the suspected liquid into a test-tube, and add 
to it, drop by droji, strong sulphuric acid till it becomes 
warm, taking care not to raise the temperature above 122° 
Fahr. Then add from 2 to 5 drops of syrup, made Avith 
5 parts of sugar to 4 of water, and shake the mi.xture. If 
the liquid contain bile, a violet coloration is observed. 
Acetic acid, and those substances which are converted into 
sugar by sulphuric acid, may be substituted for sugar. 
[Another test consists in placing a little of the suspected 
urine in a test-tube, and adding to it a few drops of 
tincture of iodine, when, if bile be present, the fluid 
becomes distinctly green]. 

Tobacco Water. See Washes for vermin on plants. 

Touch Paper. Dip a piece of wliite blotting-paper, or 
printuig-paper, in a solution of 1 oz. of nitre in 8 oz. of 
water. Dry it perfectly. 

Trees, Metallic. Lead Tree. Dissolve 1 oz. of sugar of 
lead in a quart of distilled or filtered rain-water, adding 
a few drops of acetic acid. Filter, and put the clear 
sohition into a decanter or bottle. Suspend in it a piece of 
zinc, and set it aside. 

Silver Tree. Dissolve 20 grs. of crystallized nitrate of 
silver in an ounce of distilled water ; put it into a phial, 
and add about ^ a drachm of jiure ([uicksilvor. 

Tin Tree, Dissolve 3 drs, of chloride of tin xa, a pint 


and a half of water, \\-itli 10 or 15 drops of nitric acid ; 
and suspend in it a rod of zinc. 
Turpentine, Venice (factitioxcs). It is usually made by 
dissolving black resin in oil of tui'pentine. Dr. Peeeiha 
states the proportion to be 5 fluid oz. of tlie oil to 16 oz. 
of resin; but some makers put as much as 8, 10, or even 
12 oz. of oil of turpentine to each pound of resin. [We 
have introduced this factitious preparation, because no 
genuine Venice (or larch) turpentine is rarely, if ever, to be 
Turpentine, Oil oe. Common turpentine, chiefly Ame- 
rican, is distilled with water ; the oil comes over with the 
water and is found floating on it. It is rectified by dis- 
tilling it again with water. See Camphine and Solvents 
for India Rubber, for further modifications of this oil. 
Urn Powder. 0.\ide of iron, crocus, or jeweller's rouge. 
Vanillin. A crystalline substance obtained from pine ji^ice 
by Messrs. Tiemann and Harmann. It has been shown to 
be identical with the aromatic principle of vanilla. 
Varnishes. These constitute a distinct branch of manu- 
facture, and many of them can be advantageously or 
safely made only on the large scale on premises adapted 
for the purpose. A few of the most easily prepared and 
useful varnishes have been selected for iiisertiou. For 
fuller information, sec Dr. Ure's ' Dictionary of Arts, 
Dumas' ' Chimie appliquee aux Arts, &c.' Some practical 
information on this subject will be foxmd in Mr. IIed- 
wood's edition of Gra's's ' Supplement,' and in the 49th 
vol. of the ' Transactions of the Society of Arts.' 

Spirit T'arnis/ies. The spirit* employed should not be 
less than 60° overproof. In preparing and using them, 
they should be kept at a distance from a candle or other 
flame, llespecting the gums (resins) employed, it may 
be useful to mention that sheU-lac is rendered more soluble 
by being powdered and exposed for a long time to the 
air; sandarach gives hardness to varnishes; mastic gives 
a gloss to solutions of other gums ; benzoin still more, 
but its colour is objectionable ; anime readily dissolves, 
but renders the varnish long in drying ; copal and amber 
•■ Methylated spirit is now universally employed in mnliinfr spirit var- 
nishes, being equal to, as well as very much cheaper than, duty-paid spirit. 


arc scarcely soluble in spirit, but are rendered partially 
so by otber gums, and also by being previously fused by 
heat. Shell-lac gives a durable varnish, objectionable 
only on account of its colour, «hich may be rendered paler 
by charcoal. See Lac. 

1. White Sjnrit Varnish. Methylated spirit 2 gallons, 
gum sandarach 5 lbs. Put them into a tin bottle, cork se- 
curely, and agitate frequently, placing the tin occasionally 
in hot water till the gum is dissolved, then add a quart of 
pale turpentine varnish. 

2. Brown. Methylated spirit 2 gallons, sandarach 3 lbs. 
shell-lac 2 lbs., pale turpentine varnish a quart. Proceed 
as the last. 

3. Sandarach 2 oz., shell-lac J oz., methylated spirit 16 
fluid oz. 

4. White. Gum sandarach 1| oz., mastic i oz., elemi 
i oz., foreign oil of lavender i oz., methylated spirit 8 oz. 

Copal Sjiirit, or Drying Varnish. Copal, fused and 
pulverized, 3 oz., sandarach 6 oz., mastic 8 oz., "Venice 
tui-pentine, 24 oz., methylated spirit a quart, powdered glass 
3 oz. Mix the powdered glass and resins, and sift them ; 
introduce them into a matrass with the spirit, and heat to 
boiling, constantly agitating till the gums are dissolved; 
then add the turpentine. Heat the varnish for half an 
hour, and when removed from the fire, agitate till cold. 

Brilliant Amber Spirit Varnish. Fused amber 4 oz., 
sandarach 4 oz., mastic 4 oz., methylated spirit a quart. 
Expose to the heat of a sand-bath, with occasional agitation, 
till dissolved. [The amber is fused in a close copper vessel, 
having a funnel-shaped projection, which passes through 
the bottom of the furnace by which the vessel is heated.] 

Amber Varnish for Photographs. Dissolve 3 to 4 grs. 
of amber in 1 oz. of chloroform. 

1. Colovrless Varnish for Photographs. Dissolve shell- 
lac by heat in 8 parts of water and one part of pearlash. 
Precipitate by chlorme,and dissolve in rectified spirit.— Dr. 

2. 1 oz. white lac, dissolved in 10 oz. of warm methylated 
spirits of wine. Let it settle for several weeks, then 
carefully decant for use. 

Chinese Varnish. Mastic 2 oz., sandarach 2 oz., rec- 


titled spirit a pint. Close the matrass with bladder, with 
a pin-hole for the escape of vapour; heat to boiling in a 
sand or water-bath, and when dissolved, strain through linen. 

Crystal Varnish. Picked mastic 4 oz., methylated spirit 
a pint, animal charcoal 1 oz. Digest and filter. 

French Polish and Laaqxiers are varieties of spirit var- 
nishes. The former has already been noticed. A few 
formula? for the latter are here added. 

Fale or Gold Lacquers. To a pint of methylated spirit 
add as much gamboge as ^vill give it a bright yellow 
colour, then add 12 oz. of seed-lac in fine powder, and set 
it in a sand-bath till dissolved. Or :i tincture of annotto 
(1 part to 8 of spirit) may be added to give the desired 

Dark Lacquer. Clear seed-lac 1 lb., dragon's blood 1 oz. ; 
pulverize together, and add them to a pint and a half of 
methylated spirit. Set in a warm place till dissolved. 

Lacquer for Brass Work. Turmeric 1 oz., saffron \ oz., 
Spanish annotto \ oz., methylated s])irit a pint. Digest at a 
gentle heat for several days ; strain through coarse linen, 
put the tincture into a bottle, and add 3oz. of good seed-lac 
coarsely powdered. Place in a moderate heat, and shake 
frequently till dissolved; if wanted of a redder shade, 
increase the quantity of annotto, or add a little di'agon's 
blood. [Some makers prepare a strong tincture of the 
various colouring ingredients, and add them to the lacquer 
to produce the required shade.] 

Oil of turpentine, and other essential oils, are used as 
solvents, forming essence varnishes, as the following : 

Mastic Varnish. Clean mastic 5 oz., rectified oil of 
turpentine (camphine) a quart. Digest in a M'arm place, 
shaking frequently till the solution is complete, then 

Ficttire Varnish. Chio turpentine 2^ oz., mastic 12 oz., 
camphor \ dr., pounded glass 4 oz., rectified oil of turpen- 
tine 3 pints. For oil paintings. 

Canada Varnish. Clear balsam of Canada 4 oz., cam- 
phine 8 oz. ; warm gently, and shake together till dissolved. 
For maps, drawings, &c. ; they are first sized over with 
a solution of isinglass, taking care that every part is 
covered ; when dry, the varnish is brushed over it. 


Tinqry's Essence Varnish. Mastic in powder 12 oz., 
pure turpc'iitino l-J- oz., camphor J oz., powdered glass 5 oz., 
rectified oil of tiirpciitiiie a qxiart. 

Common Turpentine Varnish. Tliis is merely clear 
pale resin dissolved in oil of turpentine j usually 5 lbs. of 
resin to 7 lbs. of turpentine. 

Oil Varnishes. These consist of copal and other gums 
dissolved by heat in boiled linseed oil ; generally witli the 
addition of oil of turpentine. 

Cabinet Varnish. Fuse 7 lbs. of African copal, and pour 
on it 4 pints of hot clarified linseed oil (see Oils) ; in 3 or 
4 minutes, if it feels stringy, take it out of the building, 
where there is no fii-e near, and when it has cooled to 150° 
mix in 3 gallons of oil of turpentine of the same tempcra- 
tm"e, or sufficient to bring it to a duo consistence. 
[Various qualities of copal vaniish are made for different 
purposes ; inferior gums are often substituted for, or mixed 
with coital.] 

Amber Varnish. Amber 16 oz. ; melt in an iron pot, 
and add \ pint di'ying linseed oil, boiling hot, and then 
3 oz. of resin and 3 oz. of asphalt, each in fine powder. 
Stir till they are thoroughly incorporated; remove from 
the fire, and add a pint of ^varm oil of turpentine. 

Common Oil Varnish. Resin 3 lbs., drying oil h, a gal- 
lon; melt together, and add, when removed from the fire, 
2 quarts of warm oil of turpentine. 

Varnish for Printers' Ink. To every 10 lbs. of clarified 
linseed oil (see further back) add 5 lbs. of clear black resin, 
and \ lb. oil of turpentine. It is then ready for mixing 
with lamp black or other colouring matter. A twelfth 
part of Canada balsam is sometimes added for the finer 

A few miscellaneous varnishes are added. 

Varnish for Engraving on Copper. Yellow wax 1 oz., 
mastic 1 oz., asphaltum ^ oz.; melt, pour into water, and 
form into balls for use. A softer varnish for engravers is 
made with 1 part of tallow and 2 of yellow wax ; or \\ith 
2 oz. of wax, 1 dr. of common turpentine, and 1 dr. olive 
oil. Sec Etching Vaenishes, further buck. 

Varnish for Engraving on Olass. 1. Wax 1 oz., mastic 
•J oz., asphaltum \ oz., turpentine i- dr. 


2. Mastic 15 parts, turpentine 7, oil of spike 4 parts. 

Le Blond's Varnish. Keep 4 IIjs. of balsam of copaivi 
warm in a sand or water-batli, and add 16 oz. of copal, 
previously fused and coarsely powdered, by single ounces 
daily, and stir it frequently ; ^vlien dissolved add a little 
Cbio turpentine. 

Bessemeb's Varnish, for metallic paint. This is made 
^^•itb 8 lbs. of copal, 2^ gallons of drying oil, and 25 gallons 
of oil of turpentine. These are made into a varnish nearly 
as directed for Cabinet Varnish ; and afterwards mixed 
A^ith a gallon of slaked lime, and left for 3 days to settle. 
The clear portion is then drawn off, and 5 parts of varnish 
mixed with 4 jiarts of bronze powder. 

Macintosh's Caoutchouc Varnish. Dissolve 1 lb. of 
India rubber cut in shreds in a quai-ter of a pint of recti- 
fied coal naphtha. [Caoutchovic varnishes may be made 
■u-ith any one of the solvents for it, noticed before. The 
following are also used :] 

India Riihher Varnish, for boots. Dissolve i oz. of 
caoutchouc in 2 oz. of mineral naphtha. Dissolve also 
J oz. of asphaltum in 1 oz. of oil of turpentine. ]\Iix the 

Balloon Varnish, Melt Lidia rubber in small pieces 
with its weight of boiled linseed oil, and thin it with oil 
of turpentine. 

Varnish for Frames for Sot Beds. Mix 4 oz. of pul- 
verized white cheese, 2 oz. of slaked lime, and 4 oz. of 
boiled linseed oil. Mix, and add 4 oz. each of whites and 
yoUvs of egg, and liquefy the mixture by heat. This 
curious mixture is said to produce a pliable and transpa- 
rent varnish. 

Coloured Varnishes. Oil varnishes are coloured by 
grinding with them the most transparent colom's, as dis- 
tilled verdigris for green, &c. Spirit varnishes are also 
coloured with dragon's blood, gamboge, &c. 

Sealing-Wax Varnish. Black or coloured sealing-wax 
broken small, and sufficient rectified spirit to cover it, 
digested till dissolved. An article called black lac is sold 
as an economical substitute for black sealing-wax. 

Black Japan for Leather, S^c. Boil together a galk n 
of boiled linseed oil, 8 oz. of umber, and 3 oz, of asphal- 


turn. When sufficiently cool, thin in with oil of tur- 

Ja^anfor Tin-ioare. 1. Common copal varnish. 2. Dis- 
solve copal 2 oz., and camphor 1 dr., in oil of turpentine 

Brunswiclc Black. Melt 4 Ihs. of asphaltum, and 2 Ihs. 
of hot boiled linseed oil, and when sufficiently cool add a 
gallon of oil of turpentine. 

Varnish for Oun Barrels, aitev browaiing them. Shell- 
lac 1 oz., dragon's blood 5 oz., methylated spirit a quart. 
Dissolve and filter. 

Transfer Varnish. Alcohol 5 oz., pure Venice turpen- 
tine 4 OB., mastic 1 oz. 

Sair Varnish. Dissolve 1 part of clippings of pigs' 
bristles, or of horsehair, in 10 parts of drying linseed oil 
by heat. Fibrous materials (cotton, flax, silt, &c.), imbued 
with the varnish and dried, are used as a substitute for 

Glass Varnish. This is a solution of soluble glass, 
and should be thus made : — Fuse together 15 parts of 
powdered quartz (or of fine sand), 10 parts of potash, and 
1 of charcoal. Pulverize the mass, and expose it for some 
days to the air ; treat the whole with cold water, which 
removes the foreign salts, &c. Boil the residue in 5 parts 
of water until it dissolves. It is permanent in the air, 
and not dissolved by cold water. Used to protect wood, 
S(c., from fire. 

Vaselin. a proposed substitute for lard in the preparation 
of ointments, &c. See Pocket Formulary. 

Vegetable Parchment. De la Rue's Patent. Strong 
unsized paper is immersed for a few seconds in oil of 
vitriol, diluted with half its volume of water. It is then 
washed in pure water. It strongly resembles animal 
parchment, and is used for the same purposes. [The acid 
solution must be exactly of the strength indicated, and 
not warmer than the air around.] 

ViNEGAE. Vinegar may be made from wine or ale, by keep- 
ing it for some weeks or months in a warm place, with 
access of air. In this country it is usually made from 
malt, or a mixture of malted and unmalted bai'ley, which 
is mashed as for beer, and fermented with yeast. The 


fermented liquor is then placed in a warm room for many- 
weeks ill unclosed casks, and finished by transferring it 
into large vessels with false bottoms, on which are placed 
the refuse raisins, &c., from which wine has been prepared. 
A much quicker method of acetification is sometimes em- 
ployed : the fermented liquor is made to pass in drops into 
tubs filled with beech chips, so as to expose an extended 
sui'face to the action of the air. In Germany it is also 
made by the direct acetification of spirit by means of 
platinum black. The method of preparing wood-vinegar 
has already been noticed. (See Pyeolioxeoi'S Acid.) 
The following is one of the processes followed in making 
vinegar from sugar : — Boil 10 gallons of water for 10 
minutes with a quart of bran ; run it into a tub through 
flannel, and put into it 12 lbs. of coarse brown sugar, and 
when cooled to 70° add a quart of yeast at three different 
times. Let it work for four days, then take off the yeast, 
and run the liquor into a clean tub. Fill the tub nearly 
with the liquor, leaving room for 2 lbs. of bruised crab 
apples and 1 lb. of raisins. If it ferments, add a little 
reserved liquor, or water boiled with sugar, till the fer- 
mentation ceases. Then place the cask upon a plank 
fronting the sun in summer, and near the fire in winter. 
Put into it 1 oz. of isinglass well beaten up with a quart 
of old vinegar, cover the bunghole with a piece of hop-bag 
(fastened to the edge of the hole by pitch), and lay a tile 
over it. Leave it in this state till it becomes fit for use. 
On a small scale. Dr. Tueneb states that vinegar may be 
made from 120 jjarts of water, 12 of brandy, 3 of brown 
sugar, 1 of tartar, and i of sour dough, left some weeks in 
a warm place. For Perfumed Vinegar, see Peeefmeey. 

Caebolic Vineoae. Crystallised car-bolic acid 100 parts, 
acetic acid "900, powdered camphor 5 pai'ts. Sjiriiikled in 
infected cabins on board ship. — Quesneville. 

Wafees, Gelatin. Dissolve fine glue or isinglass in such 
a quantity of water as that the solution, when cold, may 
be consistent. Pour it hot on. a plate of mirror glass 
(previously warmed with steam and slightly greased), 
which is fitted in a metallic frame, having edges just as^ 
high as the wafers should be thick. Lay on the surface 
a second glass platCj also hot and greased, so as to touch 


every point of the gelatin while resting on the edges of 
the frame. By its pressure the thin cake is rendered 
uniform. When the glass plates have cooled, the gelatin 
M-Hl he solid, and may be removed. It is cut into discs of 
different sizes by means of proper puuclies. 
Washes for Vermin in Plants. 1. Tobacco boater. 
Infuse 1 lb. of tobacco in a gallon of boiling water, in a 
covered vessel, till cold. 

2. For Lice in Vines. Boil ^ lb. of tobacco in 2 quarts 
of water; strain, and add I lb. of soft soap and i lb. of 
sulphur. Mix. 

3. For Aphides. Boil 2 oz. of lime and 1 oz. of sulphur 
in water, and strain. 

4. Poison for Plant Lice, and other insects. Boil 3| 
oz. of quassia chips, and 5 drs. of powdered stavesacre 
seed, in 7 pints of water, to 5 pints. Strain when cold, 
and use with a watering pot or syringe, 

5. For Red Spiders. A teaspoonful of salt in a gallon 
of water. In a few days wash the plant with pure water. 
See Blights, remedies for. 

Washing Powders. These consist of soda-ash combined 
with gelatinous substances, as a solution of glue, linseed 
jelly, &c., dried and powdered. 

Washing Liquids are chiefly solutions of caustic soda. 

Water for Marine Aquarium. See Aquarium, Marine, 
Water for. 

Water, Hard (Dr. Czauk's patent for softening). This 
consists simply in adding milk of lime to the water in the 
reservoir. It combines with free carbonic acid, which it 
precipitates as carbonate of limo, and at the same time 
causes the deposition of the carbonate of lime previously 
held in solution by that gas. 

Waterproofing Compounds. For Boots, Sfc. (Roome's 
patent.) Suet 8 oz., linseed oil 8 oz., yellow bees'-wax 
6 oz., neatsfoot oil 1-^ oz., lamp black 1 oz., litharge i oz. 
Melt together, and stir till cold. 

2. Linseed oil 8 oz., boiled ditto 10 oz., suet 8 oz., 
yellow wax 8 oz. Melt. 

3. Dr. Harvard's. Wax 8 oz., resin 4 oz., mutton 
suet 4 oz. ; boil together, and apply warm to new boots. 

4. Col. Hawker's. Drying oil 1 pint, wax 2 oz., 


Burgundy pitch 1 oz., oil o£ turpentine 2 oz. Melfc over 
a slow fire, and add a few drops of oil of lavender or thyme 
Brush the boots repeatedly with the composition before 
the fire, till they appear fully saturated. 

5. For Leather, Sfc. Cut 3 drachms of India rubber 
into small pieces, soak them for 24 hours in a solution of 
common soda; dissolve this and 3 oz. of asphaltum in 12 
oz. of camphine, then add ^ oz. of boiled linseed oil. 

For Cloth. It is alternately dipped in a solution of 
acetate of lead ^vitli a little gum, and solution of alum. 

For Hats. Boil 8 lbs. shell-lac, 3 lbs. frankincense, and 
1 lb. borax in sufiicient water. 

For Canvas, S(c. Gutta percha 3 parts is dissolved in 
resin spirit 9 parts, at a heat of 120° to 140° Fahr., stir- 
ring occasionally. — Mr. Castley. 
"Wax. Yellow bees'-wax is bleached by pouring the melted 
wax in a divided state on a revolving cylinder partly im- 
mersed in water, so as to form it into fine ribbons, which 
are exposed to air and moisture till bleached, and subse- 
quently refined by melting wath water containing sul- 
phuric acid. — Dr. Peeeira. It has been proposed to 
bleach wax by adding to each pound of melted wax 2 oz. 
of powdered nitrate of soda, and afterwards stirring in, 
by little at a time, 1 oz. of sulphuric acid diluted with 10 
parts of water, keeping the mixture warm, and constantly 
stirred wath a glass rod in a capacious eai'then vessel, till 
all the acid is added. It is then allowed to become some- 
what cool, and the vessel filled with boiling water, well agi- 
tated, and set aside. The cake of wax is removed into 
boiling water, till this no longer produces a precipitate with 
chloride of barium. — M. Ingenhol. [We have not found 
this render wax perfectly white.] 

Wax foe Modelling. Lead plaster 8 oz., bees'-wax 8 oz., 
Burgvmdy pitch 8 oz. ; melt together, stir in sufiicient 
chalk to form a paste, and form it into small sticks for 
use. [For Sealing Wax, see further back.] 

Welding Composition. Mix borax with -jL of sal ammo- 
niac, fuse the mixture, and pour it on an iron plate. 
Wlien cold, pulverize it, and mix it with an equal weight 
of quicklime, sprinkle it on iron heated to redness, and re- 


place it in the fire. It may be welded below the usual 

Wheat, Steep for. A pound of genuine sulphate of copper 
iu sufficient water, for each sack of seed. Ai-senic is also 
used ; sulphate of zinc has been recommended ; so has 
quicklime, which is thus used : — Soak the seed in a warm 
mixture of 36 to 48 oz. of quicklime to 6 or 7 gallons of 
water. This is for 4^ bushels of wheat: the solution 
should be sufficient to cover the seed 3 or 4 finger-breadths 
deep, and it should lie iu it 24 hours. M. BorssiNGAULT 
has proposed to sprinkle the grain, first T(-ith water, then 
with a mixture of 10 parts of lime mth 1 of white arsenic. 
(This was with the double object of preserving the grain, 
and destroying a plague of field mice.) Sulphate of copper 
has seemed to give satisfactory results. It would be desir- 
able, however, to find an innocuous substitute, as traces of 
copper have been found in wheat grown from the steeped 
seed. This appears to have been discovered in the use of 
a solution of sulphate of soda ■\\-ith lime, which has proved 
more successful in France than either arsenic or sulphate of 
copper. [DoTEEE recommends for grain infested M'ith 
weevils, a small quantity of disulphide of carbon to be en- 
closed in a tight chamber with the grain ; in a few hours 
both the larvae and the eggs are killed, and the grain is not 
injured, as on exposure to air the disulphide qutckly evapo- 
rates.] See Slights, Remedies for. 

Wood, to Stain. 1. Malwgany colour {darh). Boil i 11). 
of madder and 2 oz. of logwood in a gallon of water ; and 
brush the wood well over with the hot liquid. Wlien dry, 
go over the whole with a solution of 2 drs. of pearlash in'a 
quart of water, 

2. {Light.) Brush over the surface with diluted nitrous 
acid, and when dry apply the following with a soft brush : 
—Dragon's blood 4 oz., common soda 1 oz., methylated 
spirit 3 pints ; let them stand in a warm place, shaking 
frequently, then strain. Repeat the application until the 
proper colour is obtained. 

3. {To Staid Maple a Mahogany colour.) Dragon's 
blood i oz., alkanet i oz., aloes 1 dr., spirit of wine 16 oz. 
Apply it with a. sponge or brush. 

4. Rosewood. Boil 8 oz. of logwood in 3 pints of water 

4G4 thade chemicals 

until reduced to lialf ; apply it boiliug hot two oi" three 
times, letting it dry between each. Afterwards put in the 
streaks with a camel-hair pencil dij^ped in a solution of 
copperas and verdigris in decoction of logwood. 

5. Ebonij. Wash the wood repeatedly with a solution 
of sulphate of iron ; lot jt dry, then apply a hot decoction 
of logwood and nutgalls'.fov two or three times. When 
dry, wipe it with a wet sponge ; and when again di'y, polish 
with linseed oil. 

6. Oak. Vandyke brown 2| oz., carbonate of ammonia 
1 oz., bichromate of potash ^ oz., common soda \ oz., water 
1 quart. Boil together for 6 or 8 minutes. — Phaem. 


7. To Stain Wood Red. Use a strong decoction of 
Brazil \vood and alum. [Woods may be stained with the 
various dyes before described. See Dyes.] 

A fine stain can be imparted to furniture made of beech 
or pine in a very simple manner. Dissolve 3 oz. of per- 
manganate of potash and 3 oz. of sulphate of magnesia in 2 
quarts of hot water. Apply this to the surface of the wood 
with a brush, and repeat if necessary. The manganese 
salt is decomposed in contact with the fibre of the wood, 
and a fine permanent stain is produced. If the objects are 
small a more dilute bath can be prepared, and the wood 
immersed in it for one or five minutes, until it is thoroughly 
stained . — L aboeatoey. 

Yeast, Aetificiai. Honey 5 oz., cream of tartar 1 oz., 
malt 16 oz., water at 122° Y. 3 pints ; stir together, and 
when the temperature falls to 65° cover it up, and keep 
it at that temperature till yeast is formed. 

Yeast, Geejian. Ordinary beer yeast from which the 
moisture has been squeezed out by strong pressure. It is 
preserved in close vessels. 

Zixc, Ammonio-chloeide of. By dissolving equivalents of 
chloride of zinc and sal ammoniac, a crystallizable salt is 
formed, which dissolves oxides of copper and of iron, and 
is used in tinning or zincing those metals. 

Zinc, Amaigamated {for voltaic plates). Put a little 
mercury on the zinc jilate, and pour on it dilute sulphuric 
acid ; then rub the mercury over the surface by means of 
a piece of linen. Another method, which is said to give a 


more permanent coating, is that of Mr. Waienn. Having 
cleaned the plates by emery, and by immersion in diluted 
sulphuric acid, and then in clean water, dip them into a 
mixtm-e of equal parts of a saturated solution of corrosive 
sublimate and a similar solution of acetate of lead ; then 
rub them with a sloth. 

Zinc, Platinized, for Dr. WrtgliVs Battery. Saturated 
solution of chloride of platinum \ dr., sulphuric acid 
1^ drs., water 2 drs. Mix; di^J the zinc plates into the 
solution for a few seconds, and wasli them quickly. 

Zinc, Oxide of. It may be prepared from the purified 
sulphate, by precipitating it from a hot solution, by car- 
bonated or bicarbonated alkalies. It cannot be obtained 
pure by caustic ammonia. — M. J. Lefoet. Mr. Midgley 
prepares it on a large scale by the combustion of zinc in 
a muffle, heated by a furnace of peculiar construction j 
the zinc is introduced into the muffle from time to time, 
as the combustion proceeds; he is thus able to prepare 
one [or two hundi-edweights at a time, by a continuous 

Zinc, Ptxrification of. Granulate zinc by melting it, and 
pouring it while very hot into a deep vessel filled with 
water. Place the granulated vessel in a hessian crucible, 
in alternate layers, with one fourth its weight of nitre, 
with an excess of nitre at the top. Cover the crucible, 
and secure the lid; then apply heat. When deflagration 
takes place, i-emove fi'om the fire, separate the di'oss, and 
run the zinc into an ingot mould. It is quite free from 




AroiEDtrpois Weight. (B. P.)* 














437-50 = 


Other weights used are the ton, 20 hundredweight ; the 
hundredweight, 112 lbs. ; and the quarter, 28 lbs. 

Avoirdupois weights can be made available as substitutes 
for Ti-oy weights by bearing in mind that 42-5 grains added 
to the avoirdupois oiuice will make it equal to the Troy ounce, 
and that 1240 grains deducted from the avoirdupois pound 
will reduce it to the Troy pomid. 


OF Capacity. 

(B. P.) 

1 Minim 


1 Fluid Drachm 

fl. dr. = 

60 minims. 

1 Fluid Ounce 

fl. oz. = 

8 fluid drachms, 

1 Pint 


20 fluid ounces. 

1 Gallon 


8 pints. 

The old wine gallon was adojrted in the London Pharma- 
copoeia before 1836, and the DubUn Pharmacopoeia before 
1850. Its use in this kingdom is no longer legal. 

Measubes of Length. (B. P.) 
1 line = -^ inch. 
1 inch = s^.-Ts^s seconds pendulum. 
12 „ =1 foot. 
36 „ =3 feet = 1 yard. 
Length of pendulum vibrating seconds of ") 

mean time in the latitude of London, m C 39-1393 inches, 
a vacuum at the level of the sea . . ) 

* The Duliliu College of Physicians ailoptcd the avoirdupois weight in 
then- last Pharmacopoeia (1850), but they divided the o?;. into 8 diacliins 
and the drachm into 3 scruples, as in Troy weight. 


Eelation of Measxjees to WEiGnis. (B. P.) 

1 Minim is the measure of O'Ol grains o£ water, 

1 Fluid Draclim „ 54-68 „ 

1 Fluid Ounce „ 1 ounce or 437"5 „ 

1 Pint „ 1-25 pounds or 8750-0 „ 

1 Gallon „ 10 pounds or 70,000-0 

To find the weight of any given measure of a liquid, mul- 
tiply the weight of the water it will contain by the specific 
gra\dty, water being 1-000. The weight of a gallon of any 
liquid, in avoird. lbs. and decimal parts, is at once seen from 
its density, merely removing the decimal point one place to 

the right. Thus, a gallon of etlier a1 

; -750 weighs 7-50 

(7i) lb. A gallon of nitric acid at 1-500 

weighs 15 lbs. 

Apothecaeies' Weight. (L. P.) 

ft 3 3 9 

Gr. Minims 

Pound. Ounces. Drachms. Scruples. 

Grains. of water. 

1 = 12 = 96 = 288 = 

5760 = 6319-54 

1 = 8 = 24 = 

480 = 526-62 

1 = 3 = 

60 = 65-82 

1 = 

20 = 21-94 

1 = 1-09 

The Troy pennyweight, 24 grains, is 

not used in com- 

pounding medicines. 

Apothecaeies' MEAsrBE. 

C. 0. f§ f5 

Congius. Octarii. Fluid Fluid 

in. Gi-ains of 

Gallon. Pints. Omices. Drachms. 

Minims, water. 

1 = 8 = 160 = 1280 = 

76800 = 70000 

1 = 20 = 160 = 

9600 = 8750 

1 = 8 = 

480 = 437-5 

1 = 

60 = 54-7 

1 = 0-9 

Imperial Measuee. — {Common 


Quarter. Bushels. Pecks. Gallons. Quarts 

!. Pints. Gills. 

1 = 8 = 32 = 64 = 256 

= 512 = 2018 

1 = -i. = 8 = 32 

= 64 = 256 

1=2= 8 

16 = 64 

1 = 4 

8 = 32 


2 = 8 

1 = 4 



Weights and Measures of othee Countbies. 

The weii^lits and measures of the United States' Pharma- 
copoeia are derived from the Troy lb. and the old wine gallon, 
and are exhibited in the followins: table : 

The pound, lb.," 
The ounce, 
The drachm. 
The scruple, 


'twelve ounces, 5. 

, . eiffht drachms, X. 

contains < ,," i ■^ 

three scruples, S. 

.twenty grams, gr. 


These are derived from the zoine gallon, and ai'e given in 
the following table with their signs annexed : 

The gallon, C, " 
The pint. 
The fluid ounce. 
The fluid drachm,. 

> contains * 

"eight pints, 0. 
.sixteen fluid omices, f 5. 
eight fluid drachms, f 5. 
sixty minims, in. 

At the temperature of 60^ F. a pint of distilled water 
weighs 7291"2 grains; a fluid ounce 455"7 grains. 

*^* The fluid ounce, O. M. = one fluid ounce imperial 
measure and 20 nx. 

The unit of the British India pouderary system is the tola, 
equal to 180 Troy grains. 32 tolas are equal ibj Troy. 
The maund is equal to 100 Troy ounces. 

In France the metrical or decimal system is now the only 
legal one. The following table shows the correspondence of 
the French metrical weights with English grains. 

Troy grains. 
Decagramme = 154'34 

Hectogramme = 1543"40 
Kilogramme = 15434'00 
Myi-iagramme = 154340-00 

The measures of capacity in Franco are multiples and 
di\'isions of the litre, which is the measure occupied by a 
kilogramme (15434 Troy grains) of distilled water at its 
greatest density. It exceeds the old Paris pinte by x'lth, 
and is equal to 35 fluid ounces and 103 minims, or 1'7608 
imperial pints, or Gl"028 English cubic inches. 4J litres 
make an imperial gallon, withm about f3xij. 

Troy grams. 






^ 1-5434 


= 15-4340 


The following table will sliow the relatioiiis between the 
litre and the imperial gallon of 277"2738 c. inches : 

Litres. Cubic Inches. Gall. Pts. Fl. 5 Fl. 5 Miu. 

j^inj = ^I™litre -061028 16-9 

Tio== Centilitre -61028 2 49 

-I- = Decilitre 6-1028 3 4 10-36 

1 = Litre 61-028 1 15 1 43-69 

10 = DecaUtre 610-28 2 1 12 1 16-9 

100 = Hectolitre 6102-8 22 1 4 49 

1000 = Kilolitre 61028- 220 16 6 40 

10000 = Myrialitre 610280- 2201 (or 175| bushels). 

Frencli Measures of Length. 

The standard unit is the metre, equal to 39*871 English 
inches, or 1 yard, 3 inches, and ^^''^ths. The kilometre 
(1000 metres) is 4 fm-longs, 213 yards, 1 foot, 11 inches. 

The following are some of the weights and measures 
formerly used in France. 

The old French pound, tivre poids de marc, was equal to 
489-5 gi-ammes, or 7561 Troy grains ; but the metrical 
pound, litre metrique, siibstituted for it in 1812, contained 
exactly 5000 grammes, or 7717 English grains. Both are 

now abolished. 

The following are their divisions : 

Livre. Once. Gros. 


Grs. Folds 

de Marc. Melrique. 

1 16 128 


9261 = grammes 489-5 500 

1 8 


576 = 

30-6 31-25 



72 = 

3-824 3-90 


24 = 

1-274 1-30 

1 = 

-053 -054 

In the Paris Codex and medical works the grain is repre- 
sented by 0-05 gramme (5 centigrammes), 2 grains by O'l 
(1 decigramme) ; the half drachm by 2 grammes ; the drachm 
by 4 grammes ; and the ounce by 32 grammes. 

The old French measures used in pharmacy were — 

Other Commercial Measures. 



La Pinte 



8 Pintes (un velte) = 


I^a Chopine 



13-97 (ancien boisseau) = 


La demi-Setier 



298 = 1 muid = 


Le Poissnn 



570=1 tonueau d'Orleans, 

Le demi-Puisson 



ou 2 niuids = 


(,L'io:ii Guibourt's ' Pharmacop(!c llaisoucc.) 


Tlio litre, with its divisions and midtiplos, is the measure 
now used. It contains 1000 grammes of water; the number 
of grammes of other liquids corresponds with their specific 
gravity ; water being 1000. 

The former measures of length in France were the 

Toise = 1-9-19 metres, or 6-3945 English feet. 

Foot (pied) = 0-32484 metres = 12^785 Eng. inches. 

Inch (pouce) = 0-02707 metres, or 1-0654 Eng. inches. 

Line (ligne) or y\th of an inch = -002256 metres. 

The metre is equal to 3 ft. 11 lines old French measure, or 

3 ft. 3-7 in. English. 

Other Foeeign Weights and Measures. 

1. — Medicinal pounds of 12 ounces, in Mifflisli grains. 
■ (From Jom'dan's ' Pharmacopee Universelle.') 
The following are divided as our Apothecaries' weight. * 

The pound of Austria weighs 6482-42 grains; Bavaria, 
5556-24; Holland, 5787-75; Lubec, 5697-09; Nuremberg 
(German pound), 5522-96 ; Poland, 5533-25 ; Prussia, 
5113-99; Sweden, 5498-01 ; Venice (Sottile), 4649-17. 

The di%'ision of the following differs in the scruple being 
divided into 24 grains. 

Bologna, 5026-32 ; Lucca, 5162-67 ; Modena, 5254-61 ; 
Parma, 5062-35 ; Portugal, 5312-23 ; Rome, 5233-25 ; Spain, 
5325-84 ; Tuscany, 5240-49 ; Piedmont [Turin], 5123-49. 

The Naples pound contains 5490-63 Troy grains ; the 
ounce is divided into 10 drachms ; the scruple into 20 grains. 

2. — Various Foreign Weights. 

The old Paris pound was di\aded into 16 ounces; the 
scruple into 24 grains. Its weight has been given above. 
The pound by which drugs are weighed in Turkey is the 
Tchegy, equal to 4957 English grains, and is divided into 
100 drachms, each drachm into 16 killos, and each killo into 

4 grains. 

The ohoJo is half a Spanish scruple; 3 silicua make 1 
obolo, and 4 grains a silicua. 

A loth, iu Germany, Poland, &c., is half an ounce. 


The commercial pound in several countries differs from 
the pharmaceutical. Tlie civil pound of Bavaria and mark 
of Vienna are each about 19| avoirdupois ounces. That of 
Holland is the French kilogramme, or 12 grains more than 
2 lbs., 3^ oz. avoirdupois. The mark is half a kilogramme. 
The Coburg commercial pound is nearly 18 oz. avoirdupois. 

3. — Foreign Measures. 

The Austrian mass or Jeanne is equal to 1'415015 litres, or 
2\ imperial pints, within 40 minims. 

The Jcanna of Sweden = nearly 2"62 litres, or about 4 
pints 12 ounces imperial. 

Eussian ponnd of water = 25'019 English cubic inches. 

The pott (half kanne) of Denmark = 0-9653 litre. 

The arroha of Spain = 16-073 litres. 

The almude of Portugal = 16-451 litres. 

The Prussian quart = 1-145 litre, or 1 qt. fl. dr. imp. 

The barile of Naples = 43-6216 litres ; of Rome, 58-5416 
litres ; of Tuscany, 45-584 litres. 

Tlie wedro of Russia (10 stof or 30 Eussian pounds) = 
12-29 litres, or 21 pints 12 oz. 12| drs, imperial. 

The mass of Wurtemburg = 1-537 litre, or about 3 pints 
14J oz. imperial. 

Comparison of Therino metric Scales. 

To convert the degrees of Centigrade into those of Fahren- 
heit, multiply by 9, divide by 5, and add 32. 

To convert degrees of Centigrade into those of Reaumur, 
multiply by 4 and divide by 5. 

To convert degrees of Fahrenheit into those of Centrigrade 
deduct 32, multiply by 5, and divide by 9. 

To convert degrees of Fahrenheit into those of Reaumur, 
deduct 32, divide by 9, and multiply by 4. 

To convert degrees of Reaumur into those of Centigrade, 
multiply by 5 and di%'ide by 4. 

To convert degrees of Reaumur into those of Fahrenheit, 
multiply by 9, divide by 4, and add 32. 
In De Lisle's thermometer, used in Russia, the graduation 

begins at boiling-])oint, which is marked Zero, and the 

freezing-point is 150. 




of i'alir. 

2786 Cast iron molts (Dauiell). 

2016 Gold melts (Daniell). 

1996 Copper melts (Daniell). 

1873 Silver melts (Daniell). 

1750 Brass (containing 2oS of zinc) melts (Daniell). 

1000 Iron bright cherry red (Poillet). 

980 Red heat, visible in daylight (Daniell). 

941 Zinc begins to burn (Daniell). 

773 Zinc melts (Daniell). 

644 Mercury boils (Daniell), 662 (Graham). 

640 Sulphuric acid boils (Magrignac), 620 (Graham). 

630 AAliale oil boils (Gi'aham). 

617 Pui'e lead melts (Rudberg). 

600 Linseed oil boils. 

518 Bismuth melts (Gmelin). 

442 Tin melts (Crichton). 

380 Ai-senious acid volatilizes. 

356 Metallic arsenic sublimes. 

315 Oil of turpentine boils (Kane). 

302 J3theritication ends. 

256 Sat. sol. of acetate of soda boils. 

257 „ sal ammoniac boils (Taylor). 

248 „ nitric acid 1'42 boils, and sol. soda 1*44. 

239 Sulphur melts (Miller), 226 (Fownes). 

238 Sat. sol. of nitre boils. 

221 „ salt boils (Paris Codex). 

220 „ alum, carb. soda, and sulph. zinc boll. 

218 „ chlorate and prussiate of potash boil. 

216 „ sulph. of iron, sulph. of copper, nitrate of 

lead boil. 
214 „ acetate of lead, sulph. and bitartrate of 

potash, boil. 
213 Water begins to boil in glass (or 213'5). 
212 Water boils in metal, barometer at 30°. 
211 Alloy of 5 bismuth, 3 tin, 2 lead, melts. 
201 „ 8 bismuth, 5 lead, 3 tin, melts (Kane). 
207 Sodium melts (Regnault). 
145 White of egg begins to coagulate. 


185 Nitric acid 1'52 begins to boil. 

180 (about). Starch forms a gelatinous compound with water. 
176 Ilectified spirit boils, benzol distils. 
173 Alcohol (sp. gr. -796 to -800) boils. 
151 Bees'- wax melts (Kane), 142 (Lepage). 
150 Pyroxylic spirit boils (Scanlan). 
141-8 Chloroform, and ammonia of '945, boil. 
44-5 Potassium melts (Bnnsen). 
132 Acetone (pyroacetic spirit) boils (Kane). 
122 Mutton suet and styracin melt. 
116 Bisulphuret of carbon boils (Graham). 
115 Pure tallow melts (Lepage), 92 (Thomson). 
112 Spermaceti and stearin of lard melt. 
Ill Phosphorus melts (Miller). 

98 Temperature of the blood. 

95 Ether (-720) boils. 

95 Carbolic acid crystals become an oily liquid. 

88 Acetous fermentation ceases, water boils in vacuo. 

77 Vinous ferm. ends, acetous ferm. begins. 
64-4 Oil of anise liqviefies. 

59 Gay Lussac's Alcoometre graduated at. 

55 Syrups to be kept at (P. L.). 

30 (about). Olive oil becomes partially solid. 

32 Water freezes. 
5 Cold produced by snow 2 parts and salt 1 part. 
— 37'9 Mercury freezes. 
*^* Specific Gravities taken at 60° (B. P.). 


1. Solids. Water=VOOO. 

Platinum, 21-58; Gold, 19-34; Mercury, 13-590; Thalliinn 
11-9; Lead, 11-350; Silver 10-500 ; Bismuth, 9-822 ; Cop 
per, 8-95 ; Cadmium, 8-604 ; Nickel, 8-82 ; Cobalt, 8-538 
Iron, 7-844 ; Tin, 7-291 ; Zinc, 7-146 ; Antimony, 6-720 
Aluminium, 2-56 ; Glass, 2-540 to 2-953 ; Sulphur, 1-990 
Magnesium, 1-75 ;, Calcium, 1-58; Ilubidium, 1-52; Gum 


arable, 1-355; Scammony, 1-210; Amber, 1-078; Resin, 
1-072 ; Camphor (laurel), -996 ; Sodimii, -972 ; Bees'-wax, 
962 ; Si^ermaceti, •9-i3 ; Caoutchouc, -933 ; Potassium, -865. 

2. Liquids. Water = 1-000. 

Mercury, 13-590 ; Sulphuric acid, 1-854 ; Nitric acid (mono- 
hydrated), 1-517 ; Nitric acid, B., L., 1-420 ; Commercial 
nitric acid, 1-380 to 1-390; Double aqua fortis, 1-360; 
Single aqua fortis, 1-220; Hydi-ochloric acid (strongest), 
1-210; Hydi-ochloric acid, B., L., 1-160; Solution of caus- 
tic potash, B., 1-058; Solution of ammonia, B., '959; 
Stronger solution of ammonia, B., -891 ; Saturated solution 
of alum, 1-033 ; Saturated solution of common salt, 1-200 ; 
Satm-ated solution of sulphate of copper, 1-150; Satiu-ated 
solution of sulphate of magnesia, 1-218 ; Sea- water 1-027 ; 
Milk, 1-032; Alcohol, B., -795; Rectified spirit, B., -838; 
Proof spirit, B., -920 ; Chloroform, B., 1-49 (not less than 
1-480, Lond. ph.); Bisulphide of carbon, 1-272; Syrup, 
B. 1-330 ; Spirit of nitric acid, B., -845 ; Ether (pure), 
•720; Acetic ether, B., -910 ; Caoutchoucine, -680 ; Oil of 
turpentine, -876 to -869 ; Olive oil, -9175 ; Spermaceti oil, 
8-75; Southern whale oil, -920; Almond oil, -917; Creasote, 
1-046; Oil of ^\-ine, 1-05; Essential oil of anise, '985; of 
caraway -964; of cinnamon, 1-008; of cloves, 1-055; of 
cajeput, -925 ; of lemon, distilled, -847 ; of rosemary, -897 ; 
Tincture of sesquichloride of iron, '992. 

3. Gases and Vapours. Atmospheric Air = 1-000. 

•981 ; Chlorine, 2-470 (2-421 Graham) ; Vapour of ether, 
2-582; V. of water, -622; v. of sulphur at 900^ 6-617 
(Graham) ; v. of i)hosphorus, 4-284 ; v. of iodine, 8-716. 



LENT NUMBERS. (From the B. P. 1867.) 





Antimony (Stibium) . . . 

Old System. 
Al = 13-75 
Sb = 122 
As = 75 
Ba = 68-5 
Bi = 210 
B = 11 
Br = 80 
Cd = 56 
Ca = 20 
C = 6 
Ce = 46 
CI = 35-5 
Cr = 26-25 
Cu = 31-75 
Au = 1965 
H = 1 
I = 127 
Fe = 28 
Pb = 103-5 
L = 7 
Mg = 12 
Mn = 27-5 
Hg = 100 
N = 14 
P = 31 
Pt = 98-5 
K = 39 
Ag = 108 
Na = 23 
S = 16 
Sn = 59 
Zn = 32-5 

New Svstem. 
Al = 27-5 
Sb = 122 
As = 75 
Ba = 137 
Bi = 210 
B = 11 
Br = 80 
Cd = 112 
Ca = 40 
C = 12 
Ce = 92 
CI = 35-5 
Cr = 52-5 
Cu = 63-5 
An = 196-5 
H = 1 
I = 127 
Fe = 56 
Pb = 207 
L = 7 
Mg = 24 
Mn = 55 
Hg = 200 
N = 14 
= 16 
P = 31 
Pt = 197 
K = 39 
Ag = 108 
Na = 23 
S = 32 
Sn = 118 
Zn = 65 ! 










Copper (Cuprum) 

Gold (Aiu-um) 



Iron ( Ferruni) 

Lead (Plumbum) 




Mercury (Hydrai-gyrum) 




Potassium (Kalium) ... 

Silver ( Argentum) 

Sodium (Natrium) 






Composition, Equivalent Numbers, and Formulce of some of 
the more important Compounds employed in Pharmaci/ 
and the Arts. 

[Fractions are omitted.] 

Old System. 

New System. 


Acid, Acetic (anhy- 

— Arsenious 

— Arsenic 

— Benzoic 

■ — Boracic (auliy- 



— Carbolic 

— Carbonic 

— Chromic 

— Citric (dry) 


— Hydrochloric 

— Hydrocyanic 

— Hydrosulphuric... 

— Iodic 

— Nitric 

sp. gr. 1-5 

— Oxalic (anhydrous) 

— Phosplioric 

— Sulphuric 

— — bydrated 

— Tartaric, Crys 


— Amylic 




.... 29 

C4H3O3 (or A) 51 

AsO, 99 

AsO. 115 

C,,lL 0,110 132 




CjoHsOi, ... 

C, 5II0 

XT pi 

CoN H'(o'r"HCy)'!! 




NO5, HO^ 


C2O3, 3H0 



Cs H, 0,„ 2H0 




— Hydroclilorate * 

— Sulphate, crys. ... 

— Carbonate 

Amy], Nitrite 

AI2, O3, 3 (SO3) ; KO, 

SO3 + 24HO 




NH3, HCl 

NH3, SO3, HO 

2NH4 0,'3C02 


















.... 58 

C,H,0^ 102 

As^ 0, 198 

B^O^ 70 

HB 02,11,0 63 

EC^H^O~ 94 

C On 44 

<7i,tf,oO„ , 330 

H^CsH^ 0.j,R. 0... 210 

HCl .": 37 

HCl/ 27 

H.,S 34 

/a O3 334 

" ' 108 



C2O3 73 

H^C^O^^^H^O 126 

~ " 143 



H^C^H^Oe 150 

C^H^O 46 


K, Jl (504)2 12 HO2 474 

NH^ 18 

NE2 16 

NH:, 17 

NH^Cl 54 

(NH^)2S0^ 1.32 

^4. ^16 C3 Os 336 

Cj/r,, AO2 117 

* Ammonium Chloride. 



Antimony, Teroxide . 

— Tersiilph 

— Potassio-tartrate . 



— Carbonate 

— Siilpliate 

Barium, Cliloride ... 
Bismutli, Oxide 

— Subnitrate 


Cadmium, Iodide ... 
Calcium, Chloride ... 

— Oxide (Lime) 

Cerium, Oxalate 

CUoral, Hydrate 



Copper, Oxide 

— Dinoxide 

— Sulphate (auhyd.) 

— Witrate 

— Acetate, crys 

Cyanogen " 


— Acetic 




Iron, Protoxide 

— Black Oxide 

— Peroxide 

— Chloride 

— Perchloride 

— Iodide 

— Sulphate (anhyd.) 


Lead, Acetate, crys. 

— Protoxide 

— Carbonate 

— Iodide 

— Chloride 

— Sulphate 

— IS'itrate, crys 

Lime, Carbonate 

— Hydrate 

— Hypophosphite ... 

Old Sistem. 

PormulsB. Equiv. 

SbO, 146 

Sb S3 .^. 170 

KO, Sb O3, T, 3 HO 343 

C34H23NO6 289 

BaO 77 

BaO, CO, 99 

BaO, SO, 117 

BaCl 104 

BiOj 234 

BiOs.NOs.SHO 306 

Na 6, 2 bOs, 10 HO 191 

Cdl 183 

CaCl 58 

CaCl, 6H0 110 

CaO 28 

CeO, C. 0. + 6H0... 234 
C, HCI3O2, 3H0... 166 

C2HCI3 120 

CsnIIisNO 154 

CuO 40 

CU2O 72 

CuO, SO3 80 

CuO, SO3, 5 HO 125 

CuO, K_Oi 94 

CuO, A, HO 100 

CaNCorCy) 36 

C.H^O 37 

C^H, O, C^HjOs... 88 

C,H, 29 

C.HgOe 93 

CuHuOi, 171 

FeO 36 

Fc■JO^ 116 

FeaOj 80 

FeCl'. 64 

Fe2Cl3 163 

Fel 155 

FeO, SO, 76 

Fe 0,803,7 HO 139 

PbO, A, 3H0 190 

PbO 112 

PbO, CO, 134 

Pbl 231 

PbCl 140 

PbO, SO, 152 

PbO, NO5 166 

CaO, CO2 50 

CaO, HO 37 

CaO, PO, 2 HO 85 

New Sistem. 

Pormulse. Equiv. 

Sb^Oi 292 

Sb^Ss 340 

K,SbO,C.E^O^,E^O 843 

C\jH,,NO, 289 

BaO'. 153 

BaCO^ 197 

BaSO^ 233 

Ba C/^ .; 208 

Bi.2 O3 468 

Bi 0,N03,H2 306 

iV^fla 0,2 7^2(33,10/^2 383 

Cdii 366 

Ca CU Ill 

CaClleiloO 219 

CaO " 56 

^^2 04,37^2 234 

a, H CL 0,11,0 166 

CnCh 120 

C^^H^^N^O 308 

CuO 79 

Cti^O 143 

CuSO^ 159 

CziSO^, hH^O 349 

Cu (^03)2 188 

Cii,2CiE30.i,H^O... 200 

CN{orCy) 26 

C,H,^0 74 

C^H,C,H.O, 88 

C.H^ 29 

Cs-ffsOa 92 

C1.2H.22Ou 343 

FeO 73 

Fe^Ot 233 

i^.?2 03 160 

FeCl2 127 

Fe^Cle 325 

Fel.2 310 

FeSO^ 153 

FeS0^,7Hf,0 278 

Pb.ic^H^o^h.^'ii^o ?,n 

PbO 233 

FbCO^ 267 

Pbl-i 461 

P4«2 278 

PbSO^ 303 

Pb {NO^li 331 

Ca CO3 100 

CaH^Oo 74 

CaZPU^Oi 170 



Lime, Sulphate 

— Phosphate (bone- 


Lithia, Carbonate ... 

— Carbonate 

— Sulphate (anhyd.) 


Manganese, Binoxide 

— Chloride 

— Sulphate 


*Mercur}', Chloride 

(Subchluride, B.) 

— IJichloride (Per- 
cliloride, B.) 

— Protoxide 

— Binoxide* 

— Iodide 

— Biniodide 

— Ammonio- chloride 

— iS'itrate (Proto-)... 

— Sulphate 

— Bisulpliurett 


— Acetate, crys 

— Hydrochlorate, ( 

crys \ 

Platinum, chloride ... 

— Animonio-chloride 
Potash (auhyd.) 

— Hydrate 

— Acetate 

— Carbonate 

— Bicarbonate, crys. 

— Chlorate 

— Chromate 

— Bichromate 

— Nitrate 

— Sulphate 


Old System, 

Formulee. Equiv. 

CaO, SOg 68 

3CaO, PO5 155 

LO, CO, 32 

MgO...' 20 

(i\rg 0,003)3; MgO; 

5 HO 191 

MgO, SO, 60 

Mg 0, SO3, 7 HO ... 123 

MuO, 44 

MnCl 63 

MnO, SO3 76 

CsH^Oe 91 

HgCl 236 

HgCl, 371 

HgO." 208 

HgOa 216 

Hgl 327 

Hgia 454 

Hg, CI, NH3 252 

HgO, NO5 263 

Hg03,3S03 296 

IlgS, 232 

C34H"j3K06,2_HO... 303 

C31 H,9 NOg, A, HO 345 
C34 "19 NOe, H CI, 

BlIO 376 

PtClo 170 

PtClj, JIHs, HCl... 223 

KO 47 

KO,HO 56 

KO, A 98 

KO, CO2 69 

KO, 3 CO.,, HO 100 

KO, ClOs": 123 

KO, Cr O3 98 

KO, 3Cr03 148 

KO, NO5 101 

KO, SO3 87 

KO, HO, 3 SO3 136 

New System. 

Formulse. Equiv. 
CaSO^ 136 

Cffs (POi)^ 310 

iaCOj 74 

311/0 40 

(3fffCOs)s,MaO,hHkO 382 

3I(/S0. 120 

3J(/SO^,7HoO 246 

3In O2 ~. 87 

3InCl2 126 

3fa SO. 151 

CetluOs 182 

Hf/Cl 236 

Hr/Cl.2 271 

Bff,0 416 

ifqO 216 

%/ 327 

Hff I., 454 

NH{,U(i,Cl 252 

Hrj (N6^\ 262 

Ef/SOi 296 

n'fi S 232 

(■;.,ifi9iV03, FjO... 303 
Ci- ff,9 NO^, Ca H^ 0, 345 
(?„ Z/jo W03, n CI, 

■6H.,0 376 

PtCI. 339 

(H^NCl)i,PlCh ... 446 

K..0 94 

KUO 56 

KCiH^O, 98 

7^2 CO3 ..." 138 

KHUOn, 100 

KCIO.^. 123 

K, CrO^ 195 

KoO{CrO^\ 295 

KNO^ 101 

K^SO^ 174 

KESOi 136 

* Mr. Brande adopted 100 as the equivalent of mercury, with Dr. Kane 
and others, and the B. P.; but we have here retained the old equivalents 
of Phillips. 

f Mercuric oxide. 

% Mercuric sulphide. 



Potasli, Tartrate 

— Bitartrate 

— Permaugauate ... 
Potassium, bromide . 

— Cliloride 

— Iodide 


— Disulphate, crys. . 

— N antral sulpliate . 


Silver, O.nde 

— Cliloride 

— Iodide 

— Cyanide 

— Nitrate 


— Carbonate (exsic- 



— Bicarbonate 

— Sulphate (anhyd.) 


— ■ Phosphate 

— Potassio-tartrate, 


S dium, cliloride ... 



Sugar, Cane 

Sugar of Milk 


— Oxygenated 

Zinc, o.xide 

— Carbonate 

— Sulphate 

— Chloride 

Old SisTEM. 
Formulae. Equiv. 

3K0^ 226 

KG, T, HO 188 

KG, MnoG, 158 

KBr 119 

KCl 75 

KI 166 

CaoHiaKOaSHO... 189 
3(C2oHioN02), SOj, 

8 HO 436 

Cso Hi2 NO2, SO3. 

8 HO 274 

CaoHjgOe 246 

AgO 116 

AgCl 144 

Agl 235 

AgCy 134 

AgO, NO5 170 

iNaO 31 

^80,002 53 

NaG, CO2, lOHO ... 143 

Na0,2C02, 110 84 

NaO, SO3 71 

NaO,SG.„10HO ... 161 
2 NaO, i'G5,25HO . 358 

NaO,KO, f, 8 HO 282 

NaCI 59 

Ci2H,oOio 162 

C^2ll22 0^N2 334 

Cx2H„0ii 171 

0^112,024 360 

HO 9 

HOa 17 

ZnO 41 

ZnO, COo 63 

ZnO, S03,7HO 144 

ZnCl 68 

New System. 

Formulae. Eqiiiv. 

S^C^H^O^ 226 

KEC^H^O^ 188 

KMhO^ 158 

KBr 119 

KCl 75 

KI 166 

C20 ^24 -^^2 O2, 3 ffjO 378 
(^'20 ^2* -^2 Oi\, U^ 

S0^,^ H^O 873 

C20 U^ N2 O2, H^ 

S0^,1 H^O 548 

CisS^Os 246 

Jg^O 232 

Af/ CI 144 

Jff I 235 

Jff Cy 134 

^<7iVC»3 170 

I^a^O 63 

iVa, CO3 

^a^ CO^, 10 U^ 


Ka^SO^ 142 

A'flj 5O4, 10 /^a ... 323 

KaKCiiriOs,'iH2 282 

KaCl 59 

Ceir,„0, 163 

C21 B22N2 O2 334 

C12 ■022 0,1 342 

Ci2^u0,g 360 

i;0 ....1 18 

H2O2 34 

ZnO 81 

Zn CO.J, 125 

ZiiSOiJE^O 287 

ZnCh 136 



Table of the Neutralizing Proportions of some of the Acids 
and Alkaline Carbonates, omitting minute fractions. The 
best commercial preparations are intended. 






o o 
CO . . 


O . 






•^ OS 

i &^ 


J= o 







■S 5 

1 = 
























































































































1 90 























































































We have estimated the equivalent of carhoiiate of potash 
(Potassa3 carbonas of the London PharmacoiJCEia), and of 
carbonate of soda, at 84 each. Mr. Phillips makes the 
former 83"5; but '5 may be allowed for impurity and extra 
moisture : the (sesqui-) carbonate of soda he makes 83. but 
the composition of the best commercial specimens approaches 
nearer to the bicarbonate, which is 85. 




Table of the Eel at ion hetioeen the Princij^al Areometers for 
Liquids lighter than Water. 

[Tlie first five columns are from SoUBEiRAN.tlielast from Dr. Ciiristison 
and Mr. Redwood. Tlie degrees of Gay-Lussac's alcoliometer indi- 
cate tlae per-centage by measure of pure alcoliol ; but are not quite 
e.vact as here given, tlie fractions being neglected.] 







Under proof. 












































































Over proof. 




















































































































































Specific Gravities cor. 
Areometer/or Liq 
poeia Batava.] 


responding tvitJi the De(/r 
aids heavier than ivater 

Sp. SI'- 


'. 1000 

39 .. 


.. 1007 

40 .. 

.. 1014 

41 .. 

.. 1022 

42 .. 

.. 1029 

43 .. 

.. 1036 

44 .. 

.. 1044 

45 .. 

.. 1052 

46 .. 

.. 1060 

47 .. 

.. 1067 

48 ., 

.. 1075 

49 .. 

.. 1083 

50 .. 

.. 1091 

51 .. 

.. 1100 

52 .. 

.. 1108 

53 .. 

.. 1116 

54 .. 

.. 1125 

55 .. 

.. 1134 

56 .. 

.. 1143 

57 .. 

.. 1152 

58 .. 

.. 1161 

59 .. 

.. 1171 

60 .. 

.. 1180 

61 .. 

.. 1190 

62 .. 

.. 1199 

63 .. 

.. 1210 

64 .. 

.. 1221 

65 .. 

.. 1231 

66 .. 

.. 1242 

67 .. 

.. 1252 

68 .. 

. . 1261 

69 .. 

.. 1275 

70 .. 

.. 1286 

71 .. 

.. 1298 

72 .. 

.. 1309 

73 .. 

.. 1321 

74 .. 

.. 1334 

75 . 

.. 1346 ' 

76 ... 

.. 1359 


. — [I'hai'iuaco- 

Sp. £cr' 


Olserve : For Medicines for Horses, Cattle, S^"c., 
see the Veterinary Index at tie end. 


xVbkrnkthy's Pills 

. 164 

Abenictliy Biscuits 

. 289 

Arct -fe of alumina 

. 304 


. 305 


. 305 

of amylene 

. 351 


. 305 


. 305 




■ 3G3 


. 305 

Acid, acetic 

. 305 


. 365 

chloric . 



. 306 


. 306 


. 306 


. 307 


. 307 


. 307 


. . 307 


. 307 


. 307 


. 308 


. 308 


. 309 


. 308 

sulphuric, dry 

. oOS 

sulphurous . 

. 309 

tannic . 

. 309 


. 310 

Acids for f;alvanic battel 

ies . 309 

Acids and alkaline carh 


table of the neutralisi 

ng pro- 

portions of some 

. .481 


A.cidulated kali 


effervescing powders . 




lemonade powder 


syrup of raspberries 


syrup of strawberries 


.A.ctou'3 solution for baldness 




Aerated ebalylicafe 


. ginger-beer 


ginger-beer powders 




lemonade powders 




orangeade powder 


sherbet . 


sherbet powder 


waters . . 303- 


walers, chalybeate 


lithia water 


magnesia water 


saline waters 


Ague drops 


Aix-la-Chapelle water 


Albespeyres paper 


Albuminous size 




Alibert's cosmetic 




Alkaline lotion for the month 


Alkaline solution, Brandisli's 


Alloys, various 

. 311 

Almmniflavour . 

. 295 

paste . 

. 234 


. 835 




Almond lionev paste . . 235 

soap . . . 238 

bloom . . . 237 

Alum . . . . 312 

mordants . . 346 

Aluminium, fi'osted . . 313 

l)rou7,e . . . 313 

Amalgams . . 311—312 

for teeth . . 266 

Amalgamated ziuc . . 464 

Amadou . . . 313 

American shampoo . . 244 

tooth-powder . . 256 

Ammonia, carbonate . . 313 

sulphate . . 313 

Ammoniacal gas. . .365 

Ammoniated perfumes . 223 

Eau de Cologne . . 223 

Anatomical preparations, to pre 

Anchovies, essence 

Anderson's pills 
Angelica, spirit of 
Animal cliarcoal 
Animals, to preserve 
Anuotto, purified 

Anodyne necklaces 
Antibilious pill* 
Antiscorbutic elixir 
Antiseptic tooth-powder 
Antispasmodic drops, Grindrod's 
Aperient pills, various 
Apothecaries' measure 

weight . 
Apparatus, luting for 
Aqua cosmetica 

Aquarium, marine, salts for 
Arbor Pianfc 
Argentum musivum 
Armenian cement 
Aromatic pastils 
Aromatic tooth-powder 
Aromatic vinegar . 165, 

Arquebusade (acid) 

Arrow-root . 



Artificial manure 


sea- water 

. 315 

Asiatic tooth-powder 


Asses' milk, artificial 


Atkinson's infant preservative 


Atropine paper 


Aurum musivum 

. 316 

Australian moss 

. 282 

Avoirdupois weight 


table for converting into 


. 467 

Axle-grease . 


Azote, or nitrogen 


Azure blue . 


Bachek's pills . 


Baden water 

. 204 

Baking powder . 


Bailey's itch ointment 


Baillie's pills 


Balaruc water 


Baldwin's phosphorus 


Baldness, cures for . 241- 


BalmofGilead . 


of Kakasiri 

. 167 

Balls, ash 







. 235 

for copying . 



. 239 


. 317 





Balsam of honey 


of horehound 


Bancroft's solution of tin 



. 251 

Barclay's pills 


Barejies water . 


Bai-egian balls 


Barium, peroxide of 


Bark, essential salts of 


Barker's tooth-tincture 


Barley water 


Earth's green 


Baryta, chlorate of 


Baster's farina . 


Bate's eye-water 


anodyne balsam 


Batis' un'giiciilum cri«iscii-ai 


Bateman's dr«i«s 


itch ointment 




Bathing spirits 
Biith digestive pills 

Battley's senna powder 
Baume de vie 
Baynton's plaster 
Bean flower water 
Bear's grease 


Beavan's cholera remedy 
BccoMir's arsenical soap 
Beddoe's pills 
Bclloste's pills . 
Beef tea 
Beer, ginger 

spruce . 

Beetle wafers 



Bell metal . 
Bengal chitni 

Bestuchelf's nervous tincture 
Betton's British oil 
Bewley's chalybeate 
Biscuits, Abernethy 



sponge . 
Bismuth wliite . 
Bisulphide of carbon 
Bistre . 
Black, Brunswick 








reviver . 
Blacking ball 

liquid . 


for harness 
Blacking without polishing 

patent India rubber 


AGE ! 

168 I 

Blaine's distemper powder 
Blake's toothache remedy 
Bleaching of oils 

of wax 

liquid . 
Blights, remedies for 
Blistering paper 

Blue for linen 




smalts and azure . 

TurnbuU's . 

verditer, &c. 
Bochet's syrup . 
Boerhaave's odontalgic 
Boilers, to prevent incrustation 

Bones, sulphated 
Bookl)inders' stains . 
Boot powder 
Boot-top liquid 
Boots, to render waterproof 
Borax, glass of 
Borated tincture of myrrh 
Bories' odontalgic 
Bottle eenient 
Boudct's depilatory . 
Braden's farina . 
Brando's toothache tincture 

Brandish's alkaline solution 
Brass . 
Brazil paper 
Bread, ai?rated . 
Breakfast powder 
Bright's nutritious farina . 
Brighton green 
Brine for pork 
British herb tobacco 

Brodum's cordial 
Brocchieri's styptic 
Broma . 
Bronze (alloys) 
for tiguri'S . 
Bronzing liquids i 


. 265 
. 283 
. 404 
. 463 
. 321 
. 321 

. 169 
. 323 
. 383 
. 424 
. 431 
. 424 
. 431 
. 424 
. 170 
. 205 

'. 323 
. 323 
. 324 
. 324 
. 323 
. 458 
. 370 
. 263 
. 263 
. 331 
. 255 
. 385 
. 265 
. 381 
. 170 
. 311 
. 447 
. 287 
. 388 
. 290 
. 285 
. 385 
. 426 
. 250 
. 303 
. 170 
. 170 
. 170 
. 170 
. 284 
. 311 
. 324 
. 324 
. 324, 





Bronzing ball , 

. 325 

Cartwright's tooth-powder . 257 


. 325 

Case-liardening powders . 328 

Brosse de corail 

. 326 

Cassareep . 

. 299 

Browning for gun-barrels 

. 326 

Castillon's powders 

. . 171 

Brngnatelli's fulminating 

silver 360 

Castor-oil pomade 

. 247 

Brunswick black 

. 326 

Catsup, mushroom 

. 298 

green. . 

. 426 

walnut . 

. 298 

Bug poison 

. 326 

Cattle's hair dye 

. 953 

Bullock's semola 

. 285 

Caustic foi- corns 

. 176 

Burnett's (Sir W.) disinfecting 

Cayenne, soluble 

. 295 


. 170 


. 296 

Butter of antimony . 

. 327 

Celery, essence of 

. 296 

to preserve . 

. 327 

Cements, various 


Butyric ether 

. 327 


. 329 

Cabbage paper . 

. . 447 

for apparatus 

. 333 

Cacliou aromatis6 

. 229 

Cement, lottle . 

.. . 331 

Cadet's tooth-powder 

. 256 


. 331 

Cajeput liniment 

. 171 


. 331 

Calvert's disinfecting pow 

ler . 343 


. 330 


. 327 


. 329 

Camphor, artificial 

. 327 


. 331 

. 235 

for cracks in iron 

. 331 


. 193 

for India rubber 

. 332 


. 235 

for jewels 

. 329 


. . 171 

for leather and metals . 332 


. 241) 


. 330 

Camphorated chalk 

. . 257 

for marble 

. 330 


. 257 


. 333 


. 327 


. 331 

Candy, caraway 

. 191 

Maissiatt's . 

. 333 


. 191 

oxychloride of zinc . S31 

Cant haridin blister 

. 328 


. 331 

Canton's i)hosphorus 

. 328 


. 329 

Caoutchouc, solvents for 

. 441 


. 333 

Cap cement 

. 331 

for teeth, various 

266, 269 

Capillaire synip 

. 276 

for wood, porcc 

ain, and 

limoniated . 

. . 277 


. 330 

Capsule;, gelatinous . 

. 328 

for fixing labels to tin . 333 

Caraway candy . 

. 191 


. 330 

essence of 

. 296 


. 331 

Carbon, see Charcoal 

. 334 

Cephalic snuff 

. . 171 

writing ink 

. 385 

Ceylon moss jelly 

• 281 

bisulphide of 

. 318 

Chalybeate, I'almer's 

lerated . 194 

Carbonic acid gas 

. 365 

waters . 

. 208 


. 366 

Chamberlaine's pills 

. ,171 


. 257 

Chameleon mineral 

. 335 

Carburetted hydrogen 

. 366 

Chamomile pills 

. . 171 

Carlsbad water 

. 205 

drops . 

. 171 


. 422 

Chapman's wheat flour . . 2S5 

Carminative, Dalby's . 

. 177 

Charcoal, animal 

. 334 

Caralielli's toolli-powder 


alumiuized . 

. 334 

Carron oil . 

. 171 

from coal tar 

. 334 



vegetable , 

, 334 




Cliarcoal tooth-powder 




Chelsea pensioner 


Cheltenham salts 


Cheniic hlue 


Chemical elements, tahle of 


Cherry paste for teetli 


Chevallier's liair dye . 


Chilblains, remedies for . 171 


Chinese depilatory 


Clang's lozenges " 


Cliirayta pills 


Chitni, Bengal . 


Chloralum . 


Chlorate of baryta 


of potash 


Chloride of lime 






Chlorine gas 


fumigation . 








Chocolate and cocoa 


Cholera, remedies for 


Chromate of lead 

. 425 

of potash 


Chrome red, &c. 




Chromic acid 


Cinnamic acid 

. 306 

Cinnamon, essence of 


water . 


tincture of . 

. 296 

Circassian cream 



. 257 

Citrate of magnesia . 

. 174 

Clichoe moulds 


Clothes, powder to keep moths 


. 337 

Glutton's febrifuge 

. 174 

Coathupe's writing fluid 

. 385 

Cochineal colouring 

. 337 

lake . 

. 423 


. 396 

Cochrane's cough mixture 

. 174 

Cod-liver,Soyer's preparations o 

f 292 

with cod roe 

. 292 

and potatoes 

. 292 

and rice 

. 292 

and tapioca 

. 292 

preparations of . 

. 292 

Cod-liver oil sauce 
Colfee, dandelion 
Cold cream 

granulated . 
Collier's wine of quinine 


. 293 
. 177 
. 233 
. 234 
• 174 

CoUins's disinfecting powder . 34^2 

Collodion . . . 337 

elastic . . 337 

styptic . . . 174 

Colours for maps . . 340 

for confectioners . . 340 

for druggists' show bottles . 338 

liqueurs . . 340 

liquid . . . 340 

vehicles for . . 340 

Coloured fires ■. . . 353 

flames . . 354 

coloured flame papers . 354 

Colouring lor brandy, &c. . 340 

Comparison of thermometric 

scales . . . 472 

Composition for electro-moulds 350 

Condiments, various . 293 

Condy's fluid . . . 340 

Consuniptidii, remedies for . 175 

Copaiva, solution of . . 199 

Copper, black and red oxide . 340 

nitrate of . . . 341 

Coral dentifrice . . 257 

tooth-paste . . . 261 

Corns, caustic for . • 176 

plasters . . . 175 

plasters, mechanical . 175 

solvents for . . 175 

Cosmetics, hair . . 241 

skin . . . 231 

teeth . . . 256 

for cliappcd nipples . 189 

Cosinettqnes, in sticks for hair . 254 

Cottereau's toothache drops . 265 

Cotton, gun . . . 375 

Cough lozenges . . 191 

linctus . . . 175 

Court plaster . 176, 377 

Crayons, lithographic . 387 

"for writing on glass . . 341 

Cream, Circassian . . 247 

cold . . . 233 

lemon . . . 233 

wash-balls . . . 2t0 

Crystalline cream . . 247 

castor-oil pomnde . . 247 

Cucumber pomade . . 233 




Culinary essences 395, 296 

Currant jelly . . 378 

Curry powder . . 393, 291- 

Custard powder . . 291 

JJaity's elixir . . . 176 

Daguerreotype plates . 427 

Dalby's carminative . . 177 

Palilia test . . . 450 

Dandelion coffee . . I77 

Darby's oils . . . 88 

Darcet's lozenges . . I77 

Dawson's lozenges . . 177 
De Iliindel's toothache paste . 366 

Delamott's golden drops . 177 

Denham's food . . 285 

Dentifrices, various